Introduction Programming Part1

hello and welcome to the ETR a webinar on introduction to programming part 1 my name is Keith Clark and I am an ATR a technical adviser I’ll be a presenter for today today’s presentation is sponsored by seal aftermarket products we appreciate their support in helping us bring to you technical training through this webinar seal aftermarket products engineers and manufacturers Toledo Trans get the most trusted and complete kits in the industry for 25 years Toledo trance kit gives you more critical components more Oh 8 components like premium seals and gaskets more design enhancements patented components and all the little extras you won’t find elsewhere at seal aftermarket products we don’t just make kits we make kits better Toledo trance kit is the number one choice of installers because of all the intensive research and development that goes into each component in every kit like re-engineered valve body gaskets preventing EPC damage by eliminating the shredding you get from original equipment plus all of the extra essentials that are included like spring and screen filters that should be changed at overhaul Toledo trance kit even includes loose valve body gaskets that fit all 19 bonded separator plates when surfacing Honda and Acura transmissions shaft nuts are quite often damaged during removal Toledo trance kit provides all the main shaft secondary shaft and counter shaft nuts so you don’t have to try to reuse the originals or pay extra for them at the dealer Honda Acura ket’s also include valve body screen filters pressure tap washers and other important components like bolt locks roll pins and pistons what you get is a complete kit with great fit and no wasted time or worry about ordering extra parts if you want the best sealing transmission kit in the industry ask for Toledo trance kit by name ok again thanks to our sponsor any questions or comments please send emails to webinars at atra comm any questions that you may have during the webinar please feel free to enter them on the Box on the right side of your screen at any time we have several webinars scheduled throughout the year we’re introducing new units and covering several topics on diagnosing and rebuilding shown here is our current schedule if you missed the webinar no worries the information will be available for members on the atra website if you signed up for a webinar and you can attend you can still receive the handout material and watch the webinar at a later time at your convenience we are bringing you the future of training to your fingertips save-the-date atra s power training Expo for 2016 as being held at Paris Paris Hotel in Las Vegas Nevada October 27 through the 30th this is a four-day event that you don’t want to miss it features the industry’s best and brightest minds bringing you the latest cutting-edge information available you will not find an event that compares if you want to take your technical or management skills to the next level you owe it to yourself to be there call a tra today and reserve your spot now let’s be in today’s presentation introduction to programming part 1 today we are going to be going through a brief history on the g25 34 standard then we’ll introduce some terms to know and finally we will navigate the OEM websites first of all what is a J 2534 basically it’s a standard that was developed by the SAE society automotive engineers in 2004 it sets guidelines for vehicle programming data acquisition protocol and

communications basically it allows us as the aftermarket to access om programming and allows us to download it and actually upload it into vehicles without using the OEM tools but aftermarket compatible tools which significantly reduces the cost as far as if we want to tool up for it and actually perform programming on our own now this is the law of the land for all vehicles that are imported and sold in the United States of America however just because it’s the law doesn’t mean that everybody is in compliance so just to keep in mind not everybody is playing by the rules as a matter of fact most of the time most non-compliance issues exist on the programming level and the engineers are usually at fault as far as concerns on that level J 1962 this refers to the actual obd2 connector like we refer to it in the industry and this is the physical interface and the standard that applies to it and the ten designations are going to be standard on all obd2 connectors now one thing to make a notation of there are some what they call Class C and higher or heavier trucks be anything gross vehicle weight 20,000 pound or greater that will have a connector that looks like this but it’s not the automotive obd2 connector it’s going to be a commercial obd2 connector which will have a different designation and therefore thereby you cannot plug your scan tool in and get information in the same manner so just to keep that in mind so it’s not mistaken here we have a pin assignment where we can actually indicate what system we’re working on just by the active pins as we will see in the preceding slides note unassigned pins are left at the discretion of the OEM now when diagnosing these systems no matter what format is used pin 16 is always gonna be our power and 4 is always gonna be our ground when verifying the bus operation we always want to make sure that our ground is good we want to make sure that we do a voltage drop test on pin 4 with a key on engine off or key on engine running so we want to load that circuit and make sure there’s gonna be a solid ground and it’s going to be very important for programming now just I just want to review a voltage drop test on that so we take our voltmeter take our red lead and place it in pin 4 and then we’re gonna take our black lead and we’re gonna get a ground reference directly off of our battery to our black lead and we’re going to Sarah voltmeter 212 to voltage setting DC volts and we’re going to turn our key on engine off or have it running either way and we’re gonna look for one tenth of a volt or less this is very critical it’s a matter of fact this is one of the number one causes for programming failures so that it can be as bad as possibly breaking the computer if we don’t have a good power and a good ground now there’s gonna be five major languages or commute communication protocols that we will encounter in programming j18 50 pulse width modulated format which is going to be used by Ford J 1850 variable pulse width modulation used by General Motors the ISO 9 141 used by Chrysler and most foreign Asian manufacturers an ISO 1/4 230 a key word processing 2000 which is used by most European manufacturers like a BMW and MINI the ISO 1 5 7 6 5 otherwise known as can bus which is the latest and greatest which is used by the majority of the domestic as well as foreign OAM at this present date there are other other programming formats that are coming out which of course we’re not going to have access to immediately over later dates they will come into play in the whole scheme of things just to keep in mind this is a moving target and it’s advancing just like computer technology does and it’s important for us to keep in mind the protocol that we have that applies to our vehicle because our hardware selection will depend on that because we have to make sure that it can

communicate with the various languages that we’re expecting to work on no ISO stands for the international organization of standards it’s the largest international group of regulation for the rest of the world as a matter of fact ice ISO works closely with sae and keeping compliance issues to a minimum by creating these standards and actually interacting with each other for the requirements j 1850 this is a domestic standard primarily of GM and ford of course they use the standard there’s two speeds at which the j-team 58 format communicates at low and high speed as indicated below and we have the pulse width modulated as well as the variable pulse width modulation formats that um exist with that again this is going to be primarily for the majority of domestic applications that are local now when looking for proper communication on the data bus lines we might have to verify that our data bus lines are actually active and they’re actually functioning especially if we had a situation where there were you codes or we can’t have any communication with our tool or equipment we might have to actually go in and verify that there is activity by using a digital voltmeter or an oscilloscope we can do that and actually see the activity as a matter of fact in the preceding slides we’re gonna see what kind of activity we’re expecting on the different formats that are available the je 1850 pulse width modulated format is a two-wire standard and we have the pin designations as listed below our bus positive is going to be pinned to the bus negative is pin 10 now if we look at the graph on the right-hand side that’s going to denote what we’re going to see with a digital voltmeter or an oscilloscope if we actually look at these two signals and we should get something similar to this again it’s a five old reference that we’re going to be looking at and it should look similar to what we see here in the graph now je 1850 variable pulse width modulated it’s a one wire system where the bus positive signal is gonna come in at pin two now this is a seven volt system I’ll notice we don’t have a bus negative on this with the single wire systems ground becomes very critical as far as looking at the signal and the signal integrity itself so the actual bus signal can be compromised by a poor ground so just to keep that in mind as far as how important the ground side of things is on this iso 91 41 – – this also is a single wire system now as we notice on the graph and the lower-right it happens to be a 12 volt signal that we’re looking at and ISO being forward and they call their data line the K line and that’s gonna be indicated at pin number 7 and it’s gonna be a bi-directional type signal in other words we have send and receive at pin 7 all that data coming through there now we also have the addition of an L line on pin 15 now the L line is gonna be a unidirectional signal that’s given to the modules either ECU TCM basically is going to allow us to wake up and put to sleep modules for various bi-directional control purposes or programming and that will be available at the OEMs discretion as well ISO 14 230 key word processing 2000 this protocol is very similar to the 91 41 – – basically we still have the 12 volt signal that we’re gonna be looking at and it’s going to be coming in at 10 7 they call it a K line as well we also have the L line available at pin 15 for this format now the difference between the 90 141 and in the ISO 14 to 30 kW p2000 is that we have a higher bitrate in other words we got more information on the send/receive on that pin 7 so again we’re gonna make

sure that our ground is stable it’s going to be extremely important a single wire system really depends on a stable ground at all times and finally we have the ISO tene 765 otherwise known as CANbus this format is one of the latest protocols and most OEM both foreign and domestic are using this we have the can high at pen 6 and a can low at pin 14 notice on the right lower right hand side we have a lower voltage span on this and it’s very important to know that of course in this case ground and voltage are very critical especially with the short distance it is from on and off as far as a voltage difference it’s more critical that we have the accurate of voltage as well as ground now once we have established what kind of protocol our vehicle has then we can use this information to ensure that our pasture device is compatible for programming we will cover hardware requirements in part 2 of this webinar navigating the OEM sites the manufacturers simply comply with a J 2534 standard ok it’s the law so if they are important vehicles or if they have cars that are sold here in the United States of America this law applies to them so they have to provide the hardware and the software compatibility with their vehicle so with that in mind when we’re been a vyg a ting the websites here also we have to make sure that we have software available for download for our vehicle we don’t want to purchase a subscription before we actually verify that information now some manufacturers will require you to do this no matter what however we still have options we can go to all data Mitchell on demand shop key and also a website WWF acecomm is listed in the information and we can look up this information that can give us whether or not there is software and available to our application and there will be reference material and bulletins that will be available again we might have to ultimately purchase the subscription actually lay our hands on some of this information just based on om om s willingness to make it available now prior to downloading om software we have to look at our current level of software that’s in our computer either TCM or ECM now in order to do that we want to look at our information from our scan tool if we go into obd2 or EOB d generic and we enter mode 9 then that will give us not only the vehicle identification number that’s uh actually calibrated in the modules if it is if it’s available but also give us the calibration verification numbers which will be software related information as well as other program identifiers that will be necessary to match with OEM software to verify that we do have a need to update or reprogram chrysler dodge jeep plymouth eagle these are all under the wrw under WTO 30.com now by entering this in our web browser that’s going to take us to a main page for a tech authority now once we get to the main page on tech authority of course doesn’t give you a whole lot of information no bells and whistles but we’re looking for that a four letter F word free so we don’t see that anywhere around but if we go to the online subscriptions and where the yellow arrow is and we click on that selection that takes us to a page here that is going to prompt us to select some stuff to buy we still don’t want to buy anything we want to do some window shopping so if we select one of the product here I happen to use for an example ta user zero three day which is a three day Tech Authority subscription cost $35 but I don’t want to put anything out of my pocket I just want to pick it up and handle it a little bit and basically that’ll take us to a screen where it still wants money but we don’t want to give them money because we want to see

what they have to offer we go to this page and it enables us to get more information and we can scroll down and actually come to a section that gives us more information for free now finally hidden at the very bottom we see Flash availability we have two selections one for Chrysler and one for J 2534 pass through device which is what we’re going to be looking at here so we want to look at the J 2534 pass through device information if we click on that selection all of a sudden we see a goldmine this is where Chrysler hides all of their information their knowledge base they call it and if you look at the gray section on the left hand side there’s a lot of subsections everything is accessible at this point in time you don’t have to purchase you don’t have to put any money out of your pocket to get to this information and not only do they have support for the J 2534 tool but they have troubleshooting for problems you might run into if you’re not able to download the software there’s communication issues programming stops abnormal programming stops they give you everything that you just about everything that you need if you’re going to have a problem you can find and look it up here on the Chrysler knowledgebase which is wonderful so again it’s very nice that Chrysler does this and then finally if we scroll down a little bit further then we come to the information that we’re looking for for free which is is there programming available for the vehicle that I’m working on so if we click on this and notice some little link is a PDF file now that means you can print it and you know keep a copy but this is something that changes quite regularly and as a matter of fact at the time when I produce this um it it was updated to February 19th so this is a regularly updated file by Chrysler so you don’t want to just rely on that one PDF to keep you going through programming because that will change so if we click on that link then it takes us to actually about a hundred plus pages of updates and availability for applications for Chrysler now not only does it give you updated software but it gives you the vehicle that applies to as well as if it’s a TCM or ECM or PCM gives you part numbers of the module as well as the latest part number for that module and then any technical service bulletins or recalls that apply to the software that’s available which we can look up either by Google or we can look it up on the website now I chose the 2005 Dodge Charger with an Ag one transmission for an example and this application not only covers the charger but it also covers in Magnum and the 300 here we see it’s at ECM software update that’s available and it gives you the modules that will be compatible for programming now it’s very important to note this listing of modules is going to allow us to actually cross-reference especially if somebody happened to get in there and change the module out it’ll give us a cross-reference of modules that will work with this application be advised that you can have the wrong module in there and you’ll probably have codes that you can’t get rid of and you probably will be able to program this module but it won’t work because it’s not a number that this application recognizes so again these part numbers are all the part numbers are expected to match with the application again we have the latest part number available too and all the technical service bulletins that apply to this vehicle now as far as matching the parts numbers up our concern we can look and actually see what level of update we have with the hardware again we don’t have to update this to program the hardware is secondary unless there is a bulletin that states that there is a faulty part number in which case we might want to indicate that and look at the necessary bulletins to advise us accordingly of a situation like that but after we indicate what part number that we have and everything we can look at the

bulletins that are available and we see in this case of the purpose for the reflash which in this case we have a shift hesitation during wide open throttle that’s what this programming is supposed to actually correct so with that in mind we have all the information we need we have the software is available we have the part number reference and we have the bulletins we can go ahead and go to the website and purchase a subscription and download the programming now on some of the Chrysler applications specifically when the PCM is reprogrammed or replaced from 1998 miles 2007 so not all models but some of them they might you might need to initialize the PCM now this process is outlined in the technical service bulletins at the bottom of this page technical service bulletins number eight zero three zero zero six revision a and I’ll give you a complete listing of the vehicles where the supply – now this will require the use of a dr b3 scan tool now either you can take it to the dealership and have them do it or you can actually rent one – call 1-800 the 1-800 number that will give you the Chrysler OAM source for doing that or you can go to control technologies we have that telephone number listed as well and what they will give you is that will lease you or rent you the scan tool will be fully updated on the firmware side which is extremely important and you can perform your initialization process you can even actually control do some reprogramming with the dr b3 which is going to be something we’re going to cover in in brief and part two of programming so just to keep that in mind that is an option also for those of you who love to be frugal and go on ebay and find deals you can find the RB threes on ebay I located some however buyer beware not all dr b3 tools are updatable some of them are relics and their bricks and they can’t be updated so unless you want to do some extensive homework and see the requirements that are necessary on the hardware side to get a hold of a useful dr v3 at a good deal you don’t want to go in there blind and just buy the lowest price dr b3 as you might see on ebay okay this would be a good safe option here by just leasing it no problems no worries okay Ford Mercury Lincoln they’re all covered under the motor craft service comm website if you click on this link it will bring you to the motor craft site and on the motor craft site we’re going to go directly to the main page on the main page we’re going to select reprogramming and initialization now once we hit that selection it’s going to take us to the latest calibration information now on the latest calibration information we’re gonna again that’s a little bit odd down on the screen so we’re gonna travel a little bit down with our scroll bar and select that and that’s going to take us to lase calibration information link in the upper left hand corner here we’re going to hit search calibration by a vehicle model year and engine we click on that link and it’s going to take us to the lower right box here where we just enter our vehicle information moly air and engine size and with that in mind that’s going to take us to a similar page that we were at on the Chrysler site and we’re gonna have the part number of the hardware we’d have the module type in this case I just punched in a Lincoln LS model year 2004 with a 3.9 liter motor and it’s also gonna give you the catch free or the catch word like Ford likes to call it it’s gonna be like a 4 character code that they use so at a glance you can identify what module you’re dealing with and with that in mind and also you’re gonna have the software numbers that are going to be expected from your mode 9 information again from your OB if you use the OB 2 portion of your scan tool and get that

mode 9 information it’s going to give you the software that’s encoded in the PCM module in this case now with this information at hand you can start matching your numbers and making sure that you have proper modules again used modules has been more and more of an issue in programming than anything because all these junkyards have these modules and some people don’t match the numbers they just match the looks and these things will plug in and they’ll seem like they want to work but something won’t work right and you might be the victim of trying to program something like that so before you go too far and there’s problems and look like somebody swapped out a module on there you got the yellow paint look at the numbers see what you got before you get into any headaches now once we verify that we have software available we got the right hardware everything is in line then we can go in and actually hit purchase program we go back to the reprogram initialize initialization screen and we can actually purchase if we go to the lower right hand corner of that screen and that’ll take us through the prompts that we need to go through to actually retrieve the proper programming and actually purchase it and download it one thing I did want to mention um before I go into the general motor section 4 does offer extensive support much like Chrysler does through the IDS portion of the website again that’s going to be a free section on the Ford website again if it’s for it’s gonna be under Ford IDs and they will offer a lot of support for the after market scan tool for downloading Ford programs and programming with the programs General Motors we can go into General Motors a programming website several different ways as a matter of fact is to web is the main driving website for actual programs that’s as far as searching for program availability however I like going in through this website in particular through my research I found out that this is the most interactive way to get there and I like this because if you’re not used to programming this gives you the most options it’s the most user-friendly we go through this website listed it’s gonna take you to a main page that’s gonna give you a tool box that’ll give you a whole lot of information and they have newsletters and everything that are related to programming topics and it’s really a user friendly again now as far as on a programming side we we want to go directly to tis to web ok where the red or arrow is here if we click on that basically it’s going to take us to another website specific to programming now with this there’s some tutorials there’s a lot of information listed on this page so this is like a preview page to the actual like all the bland dry testa web find your information model tone okay this gives you a little bit more so you can actually look and see how this just a web website works and how to program they give you a whole lot of information here now moving forward what we would want to do is actually look up our vehicle calibration on the screen here and where the yellow arrow is if we click on this link again it says no charge there the only website that uh puts in the words no charge that they can’t say free you can’t say too dirty ff4 the four-letter F word so they put no charge and this takes you to the the bland test to web information page where we enter either our VIN number so we can get our calibration ID or we can enter our calibration verification number again that’s going to be information that we can get from our original module and we can enter it in here as well that’s going to be from our obd2 or EOB D generic mode 9 information so once we get that information entered and we submit it basically it’s going to give us a list of calibrations that are going to be applicable to our vehicle and we’re going to have to actually search and actually find as very much in the same manner as we did with Chrysler and Ford to verify that our programming is needed once we determine that our programming is necessary for this then

we’re gonna go to the website to actually purchase the subscription now you have to be very careful when purchasing a subscription from General Motors because they have many different options you can get service programming only you can get diagnosed diagnose Diagnostics only they have the GDS software emulator available which is for the later model 2010 and up vehicles so be careful you want to make sure you get service programming subscription that will allow you to download the software off the website okay so just be careful when you get to that point and then finally once program and information is located it can be downloaded onto your laptop a desktop computer or a compatible scan – we are going to go over the hardware necessities on part 2 of net of programming so just to keep in mind we are going to tell you the rest of this story on part 2 are there at this point in time are there any questions if there’s any questions we’d like for you to type them in to the but on a box on the right hand side of your screen as a matter of fact I do want to add one more piece of information actually two more pieces of information just for reference the J 2534 standard or a regulation applies to ECM PCM and TCM programming only okay that’s modules that actually have direct effect or direct control of drivetrain operation okay and that’s it so any body control modules EB CMS or any other modules the J 2534 standard does not apply to this now you might get an aftermarket tool that allows you to do some programming on B CMS or EB CMS or even transfer case control modules for that matter but basically it’s not a requirement so just to keep that part of mine and then finally if you want to copy down a website for reference because these are like the enforcers of the J 2534 standard it’s WWN AST f dot org again that’s w WN a st f org okay and they’re they’re going to be there like an aftermarket advocate site and they are going to have a lot of information available on that website direct to the OEM any problems that might be in process resolution any non-compliance issues or anything like that so just to keep that in mind to to know that um there is somebody out there fighting for us and a sidebar note while i’m giving you some time to get any questions together the nissan’s there’s been many questions about the re v ro v aids i’ve been following them very closely they are still on the non compliant list just to keep that in mind they have had issues with the programming being compatible with a J 2534 standard and you can download it but you can’t upload it on to the modules using aftermarket pass through you can only do it with a consult three plus which is the factory latest tool and if that’s the only way we can do those as of right now and I will update as I get information so again programming is a moving target but this information is meant to actually give you greater opportunity to retain more of your more control of your jobs and give you an option other than the OEM so that you can actually control you repair from start to finish and with that in mind we want to take that intimidation out and that’s the whole purpose behind these webinars this end part number two to get you in a mode where you can do this yourself and feel comfortable doing it does it’s going to be like it’s building a 350 after a

while or should I say be like building a 4l60e for more modern guys here I’m dating myself now when you receive the email invitation to the webinar there should be a place to click and download the Adobe PDF file of the presentation handout material also there is an icon that you can click on to be placed on an email list for future webinars an invitation will be emailed automatically when the future webinars are scheduled you can also invite a friend so again this is a information and training at your fingertips it doesn’t get any better than this and like I said I encourage you to attend the upcoming webinars here I see I have a question coming in here let’s see we got here alright the question is coming from Bob let’s see I have heard that there is some conflict with running multiple OAM drivers on one computer can you list which ones are okay to run on the same Drive and ones that are in conflict ok Bob that’s a very good point I’m going to answer that very candidly I recommend to keep them all separate there are a few that are ok that play together I would encourage you to contact me directly to discuss that a little bit because I’ll put it this way the ones that I know that don’t like to play with others are Ford and Toyota those two if you you invariably have to keep those separate if you’re going to be running the factory OEM system now as far as just downloading downloading information from Oh am I always recommend to do your download do your programming everything on that one vehicle and then once you’re finished just clear it off don’t don’t leave anything on memory after you finish with it just clear it that way you start fresh and you can actually you know go from you know a Toyota to Chrysler to a GM because basically as far as using different computers that mostly applies to the OEM om driven software applications where you have a dedicated a software that is downloaded from the OEM which again I’m gonna discuss more on the part 2 section and that way yeah those computers are not going to be those programs aren’t going to be compatible for the most part Toyota and Ford are the big ones okay I have another question here once the question from ernesto so will there be coverage for a euro reprogramming yes there’s going to be a limited coverage for a euro programming I’m trying to stay mostly on the mainstream for those beginners because euro programming is I will consider that advanced because when you get into vehicles like BMW then those are what you call live re programs where you’re actually direct directly connected through the internet through your pass through device or your computer and everything and you are downloading directly from the OEM site which is a timed connection and that’s something totally different than what we’re talking about here in this case with a basic J 2534 reprogramming we’re actually retrieving the program first independent of hooking up to the vehicle then once we get that information on our laptop or our scan tool then we’re connecting to the pass-through device in the vehicle and we’re loading from the laptop or the device that we’re using into the vehicle so that is a little bit more to advanced ernesto I would um if you have any specific questions you can email and actually uh if there’s something specific you can email and I will do everything I can to address your questions if you should have some more okay any other questions okay this is wonderful again it’s a moving target programming is a moving target but don’t be scared it’s more money in your pocket more control so you don’t have to bring your vehicles to the dealership and have your customer listen to the dealer tell you you got a bad transmission when you

know it’s not right so again thank you very much for attending today’s webinar and looking forward to you attending many more in the future thank you and have a good day

Baltimore, Maryland | Wikipedia audio article

Baltimore ( BAWL-tim-or) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the 30th most populous city in the United States, with a population of 602,495 in 2018 and also the largest such independent city in the country. Baltimore was established by the Constitution of Maryland as an independent city in 1729. As of 2017, the population of the Baltimore metropolitan area was estimated to be just under 2.802 million, making it the 21st largest metropolitan area in the country. Baltimore is located about 40 miles (64 km) northeast of Washington, D.C., making it a principal city in the Washington-Baltimore combined statistical area (CSA), the fourth-largest CSA in the nation, with a calculated 2018 population of 9,797,063.Baltimore is also the second-largest seaport in the Mid-Atlantic The city’s Inner Harbor was once the second leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States. In addition, Baltimore was a major manufacturing center. After a decline in major manufacturing, heavy industry, and restructuring of the rail industry, Baltimore has shifted to a service-oriented economy Johns Hopkins Hospital (founded 1889) and Johns Hopkins University (founded 1876) are the city’s top two employers.With hundreds of identified districts, Baltimore has been dubbed a “city of neighborhoods.” Famous residents have included writers Edgar Allan Poe, Edith Hamilton, Frederick Douglass, W.E.B. Du Bois, Ogden Nash, Gertrude Stein, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Dashiell Hammett, Upton Sinclair, Tom Clancy, Ta-Nehisi Coates, and H. L. Mencken; musicians James “Eubie” Blake, Billie Holiday, Cab Calloway, Tori Amos, Frank Zappa, Tupac Shakur, Robbie Basho, Bill Frisell, Philip Glass, and Ric Ocasek; actors and filmmakers John Waters, Barry Levinson, Divine, David Hasselhoff, Don Messick, John Kassir, Jada Pinkett Smith, and Mo’Nique; artist Jeff Koons; baseball player Babe Ruth; swimmer Michael Phelps; radio host Ira Glass; Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall; Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Nancy Pelosi; and United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Ben Carson. During the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key wrote “The Star-Spangled Banner” in Baltimore after the bombardment of Fort McHenry. His poem was set to music and popularized as a song; in 1931 it was designated as the American national anthem.Baltimore has more public statues and monuments per capita than any other city in the country, and is home to some of the earliest National Register Historic Districts in the nation, including Fell’s Point, Federal Hill, and Mount Vernon. These were added to the National Register between 1969 and 1971, soon after historic preservation legislation was passed Nearly one third of the city’s buildings (over 65,000) are designated as historic in the National Register, which is more than any other U.S. city. According to FBI data from 2017, Baltimore had a per capita murder rate of 55.8 per 100,000 population == History == The city has 66 National Register Historic Districts and 33 local historic districts Over 65,000 properties are designated as historic buildings and listed in the NRHP, more than any other U.S. city. The historical records of the government of Baltimore are located at the Baltimore City Archives === Etymology === The city is named after Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore of the Irish House of Lords and founding proprietor of the Province of Maryland. Baltimore Manor was the name of the estate in County Longford on which the Calvert family lived in Ireland. Baltimore is an anglicization of the Irish name Baile an Tí Mhóir, meaning “town of the big house.” === Before European settlement === The Baltimore area had been inhabited by Native Americans since at least the 10th millennium BC, when Paleo-Indians first settled in the region. One Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the Late Woodland period. During the Late Woodland period, the archaeological culture that is called the “Potomac Creek complex” resided in the area from Baltimore south to the Rappahannock River in present-day Virginia.In the early 1600s, the immediate Baltimore vicinity was sparsely populated, if at all, by Native Americans. The Baltimore County area northward was used as hunting grounds by the Susquehannock living in the lower Susquehanna River valley. This Iroquoian-speaking people “controlled all of the upper tributaries of the Chesapeake” but “refrained from much contact with Powhatan in the Potomac region”

and south into Virginia Pressured by the Susquehannock, the Piscataway tribe, an Algonquian-speaking people, stayed well south of the Baltimore area and inhabited primarily the north bank of the Potomac River in what are now Charles and southern Prince George’s counties in the coastal areas south of the Fall Line === Colonial period === European colonization of Maryland began with the arrival of an English ship at St. Clement’s Island in the Potomac River on March 25, 1634 Europeans began to settle the area further north, beginning to populate the area of Baltimore County. The original county seat, known today as “Old Baltimore”, was located on Bush River within the present-day Aberdeen Proving Ground The colonists engaged in sporadic warfare with the Susquehanna, whose numbers dwindled primarily from new infectious diseases, such as smallpox, endemic among the Europeans In 1661 David Jones claimed the area known today as Jonestown on the east bank of the Jones Falls stream.The colonial General Assembly of Maryland created the Port of Baltimore at old Whetstone Point (now Locust Point) in 1706 for the tobacco trade. The Town of Baltimore, on the west side of the Jones Falls, was founded and laid out on July 30, 1729 By 1752 the town had just 27 homes, including a church and two taverns. Jonestown and Fells Point had been settled to the east. The three settlements, covering 60 acres (24 ha), became a commercial hub, and in 1768 were designated as the county seat.Being a colony, the Baltimore street names were laid out to demonstrate loyalty to the mother country. For example, King George, King, Queen, and Caroline streets Baltimore grew swiftly in the 18th century, its plantations producing grain and tobacco for sugar-producing colonies in the Caribbean The profit from sugar encouraged the cultivation of cane in the Caribbean and the importation of food by planters there. As noted, Baltimore was as the county seat, and in 1768 a courthouse was built to serve both the city and county Its square was a center of community meetings and discussions Baltimore established its public market system in 1763. Lexington Market, founded in 1782, is known as one of the oldest continuously operating public markets in the United States today. Lexington Market was also a center of slave trading. Slaves were sold at numerous sites through the downtown area, with sales advertised in the Baltimore Sun. Both tobacco and sugar cane were labor-intensive crops Baltimore in 1774 established the first Post Office system in what became the United States, and the first water company chartered in the newly independent nation (Baltimore Water Company, 1792).Baltimore played a key part in events leading to and including the American Revolution. City leaders such as Jonathan Plowman Jr. led many residents in joining the resistance to British taxes, and merchants signed agreements to refuse to trade with Britain. The Second Continental Congress met in the Henry Fite House from December 1776 to February 1777, effectively making the city the capital of the United States during this period === Antebellum period === The Town of Baltimore, Jonestown, and Fells Point were incorporated as the City of Baltimore in 1796–1797. The city remained a part of surrounding Baltimore County and continued to serve as its county seat from 1768 to 1851, after which it became an independent city The Battle of Baltimore against the British in 1814 inspired the composition of the USA’s national anthem, “The Star-Spangled Banner,” and the construction of the Battle Monument which became the city’s official emblem. A distinctive local culture started to take shape, and a unique skyline peppered with churches and monuments developed. Baltimore acquired its moniker “The Monumental City” after an 1827 visit to Baltimore by President John Quincy Adams. At an evening function Adams gave the following toast: “Baltimore: the Monumental City—May the days of her safety be as prosperous and happy, as the days of her dangers have been trying and triumphant.” Baltimore pioneered the use of gas lighting in 1816, and its population grew rapidly in the following decades, with concomitant development of culture and infrastructure. The construction of the federally funded National Road (which later became part of U.S. Route 40) and the private Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B. & O.) made Baltimore a major shipping and manufacturing center by linking the city with major markets in the Midwest. By 1820 its population had reached 60,000, and its economy had shifted from its base in tobacco plantations to sawmilling, shipbuilding, and textile production. These industries benefited from war but successfully shifted into infrastructure development during peacetime.Baltimore suffered one of the worst riots of the antebellum South in 1835, when bad investments led to the Baltimore bank riot. Soon after the city created the world’s first dental college, the Baltimore College

of Dental Surgery, in 1840, and shared in the world’s first telegraph line, between Baltimore and Washington DC in 1844 === Civil war and after === Maryland, a slave state with abundant popular support for secession in some areas, remained part of the Union during the American Civil War, due in part to the Union’s strategic occupation of the city in 1861. Another factor was the fact that the Union’s capitol, Washington, was in the state of Maryland (geographically if not politically), and well situated to impede Baltimore and Maryland’s communication or commerce with the Confederacy. Baltimore saw the first casualties of the war on April 19, 1861, when Union Soldiers en route from the President Street Station to Camden Yards clashed with a secessionist mob in the Pratt Street riot In the midst of the Long Depression which followed the Panic of 1873, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad company attempted to lower its workers’ wages, leading to strikes and riots in the city and beyond. Strikers clashed with the National Guard, leaving 10 dead and 25 wounded === 20th century through 1968 === On February 7, 1904, the Great Baltimore Fire destroyed over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours, leaving more than 70 blocks of the downtown area burned to the ground. Damages were estimated at $150 million—in 1904 dollars. As the city rebuilt during the next two years, lessons learned from the fire led to improvements in firefighting equipment standards.Baltimore lawyer Milton Dashiell advocated for an ordinance to bar African-Americans from moving into the Eutaw Place neighborhood in northwest Baltimore. He proposed to recognize majority white residential blocks and majority black residential blocks, and to prevent people from moving into housing on such blocks where they would be a minority. The Baltimore Council passed the ordinance, and it became law on December 20, 1910, with Democratic Mayor J Barry Mahool’s signature. The Baltimore segregation ordinance was the first of its kind in the United States. Many other southern cities followed with their own segregation ordinances, though the US Supreme Court ruled against them in Buchanan v. Warley (1917).The city grew in area by annexing new suburbs from the surrounding counties through 1918, when the city acquired portions of Baltimore County and Anne Arundel County. A state constitutional amendment, approved in 1948, required a special vote of the citizens in any proposed annexation area, effectively preventing any future expansion of the city’s boundaries. Streetcars enabled the development of distant neighborhoods areas such as Edmonson Village whose residents could easily commute to work downtown.Driven by migration from the deep South and by white suburbanization, the relative size of the city’s black population grew from 23.8% in 1950 to 46.4% in 1970. Encouraged by real estate blockbusting techniques, recently settled white areas rapidly became all-black neighborhoods, in a rapid process which was nearly total by 1970 === 1968 and after === The Baltimore riot of 1968, coinciding with riots in other cities, followed the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. on April 4, 1968 Public order was not restored until April 12, 1968. The Baltimore riot cost the city an estimated $10 million (US$ 72 million in 2019). A total of 11,000 Maryland National Guard and federal troops were ordered into the city. The city experienced challenges again in 1974 when teachers, municipal workers, and police officers conducted strikes.Following the death of Freddie Gray in April 2015, the city experienced major protests and international media attention, as well as a clash between local youth and police which resulted in a state of emergency declaration and curfew.Baltimore has suffered from a high homicide rate for several decades, peaking in 1993, and again in 2015. These deaths have taken a severe toll, especially within the local black community ==== Development and promotion ==== By the beginning of the 1970s, Baltimore’s downtown area known as the Inner Harbor had been neglected and was occupied by a collection of abandoned warehouses. The nickname “Charm City” came from a 1975 meeting of advertisers seeking to improve the city’s reputation Efforts to redevelop the area started with the construction of the Maryland Science Center, which opened in 1976, the Baltimore World Trade Center (1977), and the Baltimore Convention Center (1979). Harborplace, an urban retail and restaurant complex, opened on the waterfront in 1980, followed by the National Aquarium, Maryland’s largest tourist destination, and the Baltimore Museum of Industry in 1981

In 1995, the city opened the American Visionary Art Museum on Federal Hill. During the epidemic of HIV/AIDS in the United States, Baltimore City Health Department official Robert Mehl persuaded the city’s mayor to form a committee to address food problems; the Baltimore-based charity Moveable Feast grew out of this initiative in 1990. By 2010, the organization’s region of service had expanded from merely Baltimore to include all of the Eastern Shore of Maryland In 1992, the Baltimore Orioles baseball team moved from Memorial Stadium to Oriole Park at Camden Yards, located downtown near the harbor. Pope John Paul II held an open-air mass at Camden Yards during his papal visit to the United States in October 1995. Three years later the Baltimore Ravens football team moved into M&T Bank Stadium next to Camden Yards.Baltimore has seen the reopening of the Hippodrome Theatre in 2004, the opening of the Reginald F. Lewis Museum of Maryland African American History & Culture in 2005, and the establishment of the National Slavic Museum in 2012. On April 12, 2012, Johns Hopkins held a dedication ceremony to mark the completion of one of the United States’ largest medical complexes – the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore – which features the Sheikh Zayed Cardiovascular and Critical Care Tower and The Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children’s Center The event, held at the entrance to the $1.1 billion 1.6 million-square-foot-facility, honored the many donors including Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, first president of the United Arab Emirates, and Michael Bloomberg.On September 19, 2016 the Baltimore City Council approved a $660 million bond deal for the $5.5 billion Port Covington redevelopment project championed by Under Armour founder Kevin Plank and his real estate company Sagamore Development. Port Covington surpassed the Harbor Point development as the largest tax-increment financing deal in Baltimore’s history and among the largest urban redevelopment projects in the country. The waterfront development that includes the new headquarters for Under Armour, as well as shops, housing, offices, and manufacturing spaces is projected to create 26,500 permanent jobs with a $4.3 billion annual economic impact. Goldman Sachs invested $233 million into the redevelopment project == Geography == Baltimore is in north-central Maryland on the Patapsco River close to where it empties into the Chesapeake Bay. The city is also located on the fall line between the Piedmont Plateau and the Atlantic coastal plain, which divides Baltimore into “lower city” and “upper city”. The city’s elevation ranges from sea level at the harbor to 480 feet (150 m) in the northwest corner near Pimlico.According to the 2010 Census, the city has a total area of 92.1 square miles (239 km2), of which 80.9 sq mi (210 km2) is land and 11.1 sq mi (29 km2) is water. The total area is 12.1 percent water Baltimore is almost completely surrounded by Baltimore County, but is politically independent of it. It is bordered by Anne Arundel County to the south === Cityscape === ==== Architecture ==== Baltimore exhibits examples from each period of architecture over more than two centuries, and work from architects such as Benjamin Latrobe, George A. Frederick, John Russell Pope, Mies van der Rohe and I. M. Pei The city is rich in architecturally significant buildings in a variety of styles. The Baltimore Basilica (1806–1821) is a neoclassical design by Benjamin Latrobe, and also the oldest Catholic cathedral in the United States. In 1813 Robert Cary Long, Sr., built for Rembrandt Peale the first substantial structure in the United States designed expressly as a museum. Restored, it is now the Municipal Museum of Baltimore, or popularly the Peale Museum The McKim Free School was founded and endowed by John McKim, although the building was erected by his son Isaac in 1822 after a design by William Howard and William Small. It reflects the popular interest in Greece when the nation was securing its independence, as well as a scholarly interest in recently published drawings of Athenian antiquities The Phoenix Shot Tower (1828), at 234.25 feet (71.40 m) tall, was the tallest building in the United States until the time of the Civil War, and is one of few remaining structures of its kind. It was constructed without the use of exterior scaffolding. The Sun Iron Building, designed by R.C. Hatfield in 1851, was the city’s first iron-front building and

was a model for a whole generation of downtown buildings. Brown Memorial Presbyterian Church, built in 1870 in memory of financier George Brown, has stained glass windows by Louis Comfort Tiffany and has been called “one of the most significant buildings in this city, a treasure of art and architecture” by Baltimore Magazine.The 1845 Greek Revival-style Lloyd Street Synagogue is one of the oldest synagogues in the United States. The Johns Hopkins Hospital, designed by Lt. Col. John S. Billings in 1876, was a considerable achievement for its day in functional arrangement and fireproofing I.M. Pei’s World Trade Center (1977) is the tallest equilateral pentagonal building in the world at 405 feet (123 m) tall The Harbor East area has seen the addition of two new towers which have completed construction: a 24-floor tower that is the new world headquarters of Legg Mason, and a 21-floor Four Seasons Hotel complex The streets of Baltimore are organized in a grid pattern, lined with tens of thousands of brick and formstone-faced rowhouses. In The Baltimore Rowhouse, Mary Ellen Hayward and Charles Belfoure considered the rowhouse as the architectural form defining Baltimore as “perhaps no other American city.” In the mid-1790s, developers began building entire neighborhoods of the British-style rowhouses, which became the dominant house type of the city early in the 19th century.Formstone facings, now a common feature on Baltimore rowhouses, were an addition patented in 1937 by Albert Knight. John Waters characterized formstone as “the polyester of brick” in a 30-minute documentary film, Little Castles: A Formstone Phenomenon.Oriole Park at Camden Yards is a Major League Baseball park, opened in 1992, which was built as a retro style baseball park. Camden Yards, along with the National Aquarium, have helped revive the Inner Harbor from what once was an industrial district full of dilapidated warehouses into a bustling commercial district full of bars, restaurants and retail establishments. Today, the Inner Harbor has some of the most desirable real estate in the Mid-Atlantic.After an international competition, the University of Baltimore School of Law awarded the German firm Behnisch Architekten 1st prize for its design, which was selected for the school’s new home. After the building’s opening in 2013, the design won additional honors including an ENR National “Best of the Best” Award.Baltimore’s newly rehabilitated Everyman Theatre was honored by the Baltimore Heritage at the 2013 Preservation Awards Celebration in 2013. Everyman Theatre will receive an Adaptive Reuse and Compatible Design Award as part of Baltimore Heritage’s 2013 historic preservation awards ceremony. Baltimore Heritage is Baltimore’s nonprofit historic and architectural preservation organization, which works to preserve and promote Baltimore’s historic buildings and neighborhoods ==== Tallest buildings ==== ==== Neighborhoods ==== Baltimore is officially divided into nine geographical regions: North, Northeast, East, Southeast, South, Southwest, West, Northwest, and Central, with each district patrolled by a respective Baltimore Police Department Interstate 83 and Charles Street down to Hanover Street and Ritchie Highway serve as the east-west dividing line and Eastern Avenue to Route 40 as the north-south dividing line. However, Baltimore Street is north-south dividing line for the U.S. Postal Service. It is not uncommon for locals to divide the city simply by East or West Baltimore, using Charles Street or I-83 as a dividing line or into North and South using Baltimore Street as a dividing line ===== Central Baltimore ===== Central Baltimore, originally called the Middle District, stretches north of the Inner Harbor up to the edge of Druid Hill Park. Downtown Baltimore has mainly served as a commercial district with limited residential opportunities However, between 2000 and 2010, the downtown population grew 130 percent as old commercial properties have been replaced by residential property. Still the city’s main commercial area and business district, it includes Baltimore’s sports complexes: Oriole Park at Camden Yards, M&T Bank Stadium, and the Royal Farms Arena; and the shops and attractions in the Inner Harbor: Harborplace, the Baltimore Convention Center, the National Aquarium, Maryland Science Center, Pier Six Pavilion, and Power Plant Live.The University of Maryland, Baltimore, the University of Maryland Medical Center, and Lexington Market are also in the central district, as well as the Hippodrome and many nightclubs, bars, restaurants, shopping centers and various other attractions. The northern portion of Central Baltimore, between downtown and the Druid Hill Park, is home to many of the city’s cultural opportunities. Maryland Institute College of Art, the Peabody Institute (music conservatory), George Peabody Library, Enoch Pratt Free Library – Central Library, the Lyric Opera House, the Joseph Meyerhoff

Symphony Hall, the Walters Art Museum, the Maryland Historical Society and its Enoch Pratt Mansion, and several galleries are located in this region ===== North Baltimore ===== North Baltimore lies directly north of Central Baltimore and is bounded on the east by The Alameda and on the west by Pimlico Road. Loyola University Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Homewood Campus, St. Mary’s Seminary and University and Notre Dame of Maryland University are located in this district. Baltimore Polytechnic Institute high school for mathematics, science and engineering, and adjacent Western High School, the oldest remaining public girls secondary school in America, share a joint campus at West Cold Spring Lane and Falls Road.Several historic and notable neighborhoods are in this district: Govans (1755), Roland Park (1891), Guilford (1913), Homeland (1924), Hampden, Woodberry, Old Goucher (the original campus of Goucher College), and Jones Falls Along the York Road corridor going north are the large neighborhoods of Charles Village, Waverly, and Mount Washington. The Station North Arts and Entertainment District is also located in North Baltimore ===== South Baltimore ===== South Baltimore, a mixed industrial and residential area, consists of the “Old South Baltimore” peninsula below the Inner Harbor and east of the old B&O Railroad’s Camden line tracks and Russell Street downtown. It is a culturally, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse waterfront area with neighborhoods such as Locust Point and Riverside around a large park of the same name. Just south of the Inner Harbor, the historic Federal Hill neighborhood, is home to many working professionals, pubs and restaurants. At the end of the peninsula is historic Fort McHenry, a National Park since the end of World War I, when the old U.S. Army Hospital surrounding the 1798 star-shaped battlements was torn down.The area south of the Vietnam Veterans (Hanover Street) Bridge and the Patapsco River was annexed to the city in 1919 from being independent towns in Anne Arundel County. Across the Hanover Street Bridge are residential areas such as Cherry Hill, Brooklyn, and Curtis Bay, with Fort Armistead bordering the city’s south side from Anne Arundel County ===== Northeast Baltimore ===== Northeast is primarily a residential neighborhood, home to Morgan State University, bounded by the city line of 1919 on its northern and eastern boundaries, Sinclair Lane, Erdman Avenue, and Pulaski Highway to the south and The Alameda on to the west. Also in this wedge of the city on 33rd Street is Baltimore City College high school, third oldest active public secondary school in the United States, founded downtown in 1839. Across Loch Raven Boulevard is the former site of the old Memorial Stadium home of the Baltimore Colts, Baltimore Orioles, and Baltimore Ravens, now replaced by a YMCA athletic and housing complex. Lake Montebello is in Northeast Baltimore ===== East Baltimore ===== Located below Sinclair Lane and Erdman Avenue, above Orleans Street, East Baltimore is mainly made up of residential neighborhoods. This section of East Baltimore is home to Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine on Broadway. Notable neighborhoods include: Armistead Gardens, Broadway East, Barclay, Ellwood Park, Greenmount, and McElderry Park.This area was the on-site film location for Homicide: Life on the Street, The Corner and The Wire ===== Southeast Baltimore ===== Southeast Baltimore, located below Fayette Street, bordering the Inner Harbor and the Northwest Branch of the Patapsco River to the west, the city line of 1919 on its eastern boundaries and the Patapsco River to the south, is a mixed industrial and residential area Patterson Park, the “Best Backyard in Baltimore,” as well as the Highlandtown Arts District, and Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center are located in Southeast Baltimore. The Shops at Canton Crossing opened in 2013. The Canton neighborhood, is located along Baltimore’s prime waterfront. Other historic neighborhoods include: Fells Point, Patterson Park, Butchers Hill, Highlandtown, Greektown, Harbor East, Little Italy, and Upper Fell’s Point ===== Northwest Baltimore ===== Northwestern is bounded by the county line to the north and west, Gwynns Falls Parkway on the south and Pimlico Road on the east, is home to Pimlico Race Course, Sinai Hospital, and the headquarters of the NAACP. Its neighborhoods are mostly residential and are dissected by Northern Parkway. The area has been the center of Baltimore’s Jewish community since after World War II. Notable neighborhoods include:

Pimlico, Mount Washington, and Cheswolde, and Park Heights ===== West Baltimore ===== West Baltimore is west of downtown and the Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard and is bounded by Gwynns Falls Parkway, Fremont Avenue, and West Baltimore Street. The Old West Baltimore Historic District includes the neighborhoods of Harlem Park, Sandtown-Winchester, Druid Heights, Madison Park, and Upton. Originally a predominantly German neighborhood, by the last half of the 1800s, Old West Baltimore was home to a substantial section of the city’s African American population. It became the largest neighborhood for the city’s black community and its cultural, political, and economic center. Coppin State University, Mondawmin Mall, and Edmondson Village are located in this district. The area’s crime problems have provided subject material for television series, such as The Wire. Local organizations, such as the Sandtown Habitat for Humanity and the Upton Planning Committee, have been steadily transforming parts of formerly blighted areas of West Baltimore into clean, safe communities ===== Southwest Baltimore ===== Southwest Baltimore is bound by the Baltimore County line to the west, West Baltimore Street to the north, and Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard and Russell Street/Baltimore-Washington Parkway (Maryland Route 295) to the east. Notable neighborhoods in Southwest Baltimore include: Pigtown, Carrolton Ridge, Ridgely’s Delight, Leakin Park, Violetville, Lakeland, and Morrell Park.St. Agnes Hospital on Wilkens and Caton avenues is located in this district with the neighboring Cardinal Gibbons High School, which is the former site of Babe Ruth’s alma mater, St. Mary’s Industrial School. Also through this segment of Baltimore ran the beginnings of the historic National Road, which was constructed beginning in 1806 along Old Frederick Road and continuing into the county on Frederick Road into Ellicott City, Maryland. Other sides in this district are: Carroll Park, one of the city’s largest parks, the colonial Mount Clare Mansion, and Washington Boulevard, which dates to pre-Revolutionary War days as the prime route out of the city to Alexandria, Virginia, and Georgetown on the Potomac River === Adjacent communities === The City of Baltimore is bordered by the following communities, all unincorporated census-designated places === Climate === The city has a humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen: Cfa). Its Trewartha climate classification is defined as an oceanic climate (Do), like the other major cities in the region (NYC, Philadelphia) with blizzards but without having a continental climate by technical definition Baltimore is part of USDA plant hardiness zones 7b and 8a. Winters are chilly to mild but variable, with sporadic snowfall: January has a daily average of 35.8 °F (2.1 °C), though temperatures reach 50 °F (10 °C) rather often and drop below 20 °F (−7 °C) when Arctic air masses affect the area.The average seasonal snowfall is 20.1 inches (51 cm), but it varies greatly depending on the winter, with some seasons seeing minimal snow while others see several major Nor’easters Due to lessened urban heat island (UHI) as compared to the city proper and distance from the moderating Chesapeake Bay, the outlying and inland parts of the Baltimore metro area are usually cooler, especially at night, than the city proper and the coastal towns. Thus, in the northern and western suburbs, winter snowfall is more significant, and some areas average more than 30 in (76 cm) of snow per winter. It is by no means uncommon for the rain-snow line to set up in the metro area Freezing rain and sleet occurs a few times each winter in the area, as warm air overrides cold air at the low to mid-levels of the atmosphere When the wind blows from the east, the cold air gets dammed against the mountains to the west and the result is freezing rain or sleet Spring and autumn are warm, with spring being the wettest season in terms of the number of precipitation days. Summers are hot and humid with a daily average in July of 80.7 °F (27.1 °C), and the combination of heat and humidity leads to rather frequent thunderstorms A southeasterly bay breeze off the Chesapeake often occurs on summer afternoons when hot air rises over inland areas; prevailing winds from the southwest interacting with this breeze as well as the city proper’s UHI can seriously exacerbate air quality. In late summer and early autumn the track of hurricanes or their remnants may cause flooding in downtown Baltimore, despite the city being far removed from the typical coastal storm surge areas Extreme temperatures range from −7 °F (−22 °C) on February 9, 1934, and February 10,

1899, up to 108 °F (42 °C) on July 22, 2011 On average, 100 °F (38 °C)+ temperatures occur on 0.9 days annually, 90 °F (32 °C)+ on 37 days, and there are 10 days where the high fails to reach the freezing mark == Demographics == === Population === According to the 2010 Census, there were 620,961 people living in Baltimore City in 242,268 households. The population decreased by 4.6% since the 2000 Census. Among school-age children between 5–17 years old, there was a 23% decline. Baltimore’s population has declined at each census since its peak in 1950.In 2011, then-Mayor Stephanie Rawlings-Blake said her main goal was to increase the city’s population by improving city services to reduce the number of people leaving the city and by passing legislation protecting immigrants’ rights to stimulate growth. For the first time in decades, in July 2012, the U.S. Census Bureau’s census estimate showed the population grew by 1,100 residents, a 0.2% increase from the previous year. Baltimore is sometimes identified as a sanctuary city. Mayor Jack Young said in 2019 that Baltimore will not assist ICE agents with immigration raids.Gentrification has increased since the 2000 census, primarily in East Baltimore, downtown, and Central Baltimore Downtown Baltimore and its surrounding neighborhoods are seeing a resurgence of young professionals and immigrants, mirroring major cities across the country.After New York City, Baltimore was the second city in the United States to reach a population of 100,000. From the 1830 through 1850 U.S. censuses, Baltimore was the second most-populous city, before being surpassed by Philadelphia in 1860. It was among the top 10 cities in population in the United States in every census up to the 1980 census, and after World War II had a population of nearly 1 million === Characteristics === According to the 2010 Census, Baltimore’s population is 63.7% Black, 29.6% White, 2.3% Asian, and 0.4%, American Indian and Alaska Native. Across races, 4.2% of the population are of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin Females made up 53.4% of the population. The median age was 35 years old, with 22.4% under 18 years old, 65.8% from 18 to 64 years old, and 11.8% 65 or older.In 2005, approximately 30,778 people (6.5%) identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. In 2012, same-sex marriage in Maryland was legalized, going into effect January 1, 2013 === Income and housing === In 2009, the median household income was $42,241 and the median income per capita was $25,707, compared to the national median income of $53,889 per household and $28,930 per capita In Baltimore, 23.7% of the population lived below the poverty line, compared to 13.5% nationwide.Housing in Baltimore is relatively inexpensive for large, coastal cities of its size. The median sale price for homes in Baltimore in 2012 was $95,000. Despite the housing collapse, and along with the national trends, Baltimore residents still face slowly increasing rent (up 3% in the summer of 2010).The homeless population in Baltimore is steadily increasing; it exceeded 4,000 people in 2011. The increase in the number of young homeless people was particularly severe === Life expectancy === As of 2015, life expectancy in Baltimore was 74 to 75 years, compared to the U.S. average of 78 to 80. Fourteen neighborhoods had lower life expectancies than North Korea. The life expectancy in Downtown/Seton Hill was comparable to that of Yemen

=== Religion === A little under half (47%) of people in Baltimore report affiliating with a religion. Catholicism is the largest religious affiliation, comprising 12% percent of the population, followed by the Baptist Church (7%), then Judaism (4.3%) Around 11.4% identify with other Christian denominations === Languages === As of 2010, 91% (526,705) of Baltimore residents five years old and older spoke only English at home. Close to 4% (21,661) spoke Spanish Other languages, such as African languages, French, and Chinese are spoken by less than 1% of the population == Crime == Crime in Baltimore, generally concentrated in areas high in poverty, has been far above the national average for many years. Overall reported crime has dropped by 60% from the mid 1990s to the mid 2010s, but homicide rates remain high and exceed the national average The worst years for crime in Baltimore overall were from 1993 to 1996; with 96,243 crimes reported in 1995. Baltimore’s 344 homicides in 2015 represented the highest homicide rate in the city’s recorded history—52.5 per 100,000 people, surpassing the record set in 1993—and the second-highest for U.S cities behind St. Louis and ahead of Detroit To put that in perspective, New York City, a city with a 2015 population of 8,491,079, recorded a total of 339 homicides in 2015 Baltimore had a 2015 population of 621,849; which means that in 2015 Baltimore had a homicide rate 14 times higher than New York City’s Of Baltimore’s 344 homicides in 2015, 321 (93.3%) of the victims were African-American Chicago, which saw 762 homicides in 2016 compared to Baltimore’s 318, still had a homicide rate (27.2) that was half of Baltimore’s because Chicago has a population 4 times greater than Baltimore’s. As of 2018, the murder rate in Baltimore was higher than that of El Salvador, Guatemala, or Honduras. Drug use and deaths by drug use (particularly drugs used intravenously, such as heroin) are a related problem which has crippled Baltimore for decades. Among cities greater than 400,000, Baltimore ranked 2nd in its opiate drug death rate in the United States behind Dayton, Ohio. The DEA reported that 10% of Baltimore’s population – about 64,000 people – are addicted to heroin.In 2011, Baltimore police reported 196 homicides, the lowest number in the city since a count of 197 homicides in 1978 and far lower than the peak homicide count of 353 slayings in 1993. City leaders at the time credited a sustained focus on repeat violent offenders and increased community engagement for the continued drop, reflecting a nationwide decline in crime.On August 8, 2014, Baltimore’s new youth curfew law went into effect. It prohibits unaccompanied children under age 14 from being on the streets after 9 p.m. and those aged 14–16 from being out after 10 p.m. during the week and 11 p.m. on weekends and during the summer. The goal is to keep children out of dangerous places and reduce crime.Crime in Baltimore reached another peak in 2015 when the year’s tally of 344 homicides was second only to the record 353 in 1993, when Baltimore had about 100,000 more residents The killings in 2015 were on pace with recent years in the early months of 2015 but skyrocketed after the unrest and rioting of late April In five of the next eight months, killings topped 30–40 per month. Nearly 90 percent of 2015’s homicides were the result of shootings, renewing calls for new gun laws. In 2016, according to annual crime statistics released by the Baltimore Police Department, there were 318 murders in the city. This total marked a 7.56 percent decline in homicides from 2015 In an interview in The Guardian, on November 2, 2017, David Simon, himself a former police reporter for The Baltimore Sun, ascribed the most recent surge in murders to the high-profile decision by Baltimore state’s attorney, Marilyn Mosby, to charge six city police officers following the death of Freddie Gray after he fell into a coma while in police custody in April 2015. “What Mosby basically did was send a message to the Baltimore police department:

‘I’m going to put you in jail for making a bad arrest.’ So officers figured it out: ‘I can go to jail for making the wrong arrest, so I’m not getting out of my car to clear a corner,’ and that’s exactly what happened post-Freddie Gray.” In Baltimore arrest numbers have plummeted from more than 40,000 in 2014, the year before Freddie Gray’s death and the subsequent charges against the officers, to about 18,000 in 2017 (primo November). This happened even as homicides soared from 211 in 2014 to 344 in 2015 – an increase of 63% == Economy == Once a predominantly industrial town, with an economic base focused on steel processing, shipping, auto manufacturing (General Motors Baltimore Assembly), and transportation, the city experienced deindustrialization which cost residents tens of thousands of low-skill, high-wage jobs. The city now relies on a low-wage service economy, which accounts for 31% of jobs in the city Around the turn of the 20th century, Baltimore was the leading US manufacturer of rye whiskey and straw hats. It also led in refining of crude oil, brought to the city by pipeline from Pennsylvania.As of March 2018 the U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics calculates Baltimore’s unemployment rate at 5.8% while one quarter of Baltimore residents (and 37% of Baltimore children) live in poverty. The 2012 closure of a major steel plant at Sparrows Point is expected to have a further impact on employment and the local economy. The Census Bureau reported in 2013 that 207,000 workers commute into Baltimore city each day. Downtown Baltimore is the primary economic asset within Baltimore City and the region with 29.1 million square feet of office space. The tech sector is rapidly growing as the Baltimore metro ranks 8th in the CBRE Tech Talent Report among 50 U.S metro areas for high growth rate and number of tech professionals. Forbes ranked Baltimore fourth among America’s “new tech hot spots” The city is home to the Johns Hopkins Hospital Other large companies in Baltimore include Under Armour, BRT Laboratories, Cordish Company, Legg Mason, McCormick & Company, T. Rowe Price, and Royal Farms. A sugar refinery owned by American Sugar Refining is one of Baltimore’s cultural icons. Nonprofits based in Baltimore include Lutheran Services in America and Catholic Relief Services Almost a quarter of the jobs in the Baltimore region were in science, technology, engineering and math as of mid 2013, in part attributed to the city’s extensive undergraduate and graduate schools; maintenance and repair experts were included in this count === Port === The center of international commerce for the region is the World Trade Center Baltimore It houses the Maryland Port Administration and U.S. headquarters for major shipping lines Baltimore is ranked 9th for total dollar value of cargo and 13th for cargo tonnage for all U.S. ports. In 2014, total cargo moving through the port totaled 29.5 million tons, down from 30.3 million tons in 2013. The value of cargo traveling through the port in 2014 came to $52.5 billion, down from $52.6 billion in 2013. The Port of Baltimore generates $3 billion in annual wages and salary, as well as supporting 14,630 direct jobs and 108,000 jobs connected to port work. In 2014, the port also generated more than $300 million in taxes. It serves over 50 ocean carriers making nearly 1,800 annual visits. Among all U.S. ports, Baltimore is first in handling automobiles, light trucks, farm and construction machinery; and imported forest products, aluminum, and sugar. The port is second in coal exports. The Port of Baltimore’s cruise industry, which offers year-round trips on several lines supports over 500 jobs and brings in over $90 million to Maryland’s economy annually. Growth at the port continues with the Maryland Port Administration plans to turn the southern tip of the former steel mill into a marine terminal, primarily for car and truck shipments, but also for anticipated new business coming to Baltimore after the completion of the Panama Canal expansion project === Tourism === Baltimore’s history and attractions have allowed the city to become a strong tourist destination on the East Coast. In 2014, the city hosted 24.5 million visitors, who spent $5.2 billion The Baltimore Visitor Center, which is operated by Visit Baltimore, is located on Light Street in the Inner Harbor. Much of the city’s tourism centers around the Inner Harbor, with the National Aquarium being Maryland’s top tourist destination. Baltimore Harbor’s restoration has made it “a city of boats,” with several historic ships and other attractions on display and open for the public to visit. The USS

Constellation, the last Civil War-era vessel afloat, is docked at the head of the Inner Harbor; the USS Torsk, a submarine that holds the Navy’s record for dives (more than 10,000); and the Coast Guard cutter Taney, the last surviving U.S. warship that was in Pearl Harbor during the Japanese attack on December 7, 1941, and which engaged Japanese Zero aircraft during the battle.Also docked is the lightship Chesapeake, which for decades marked the entrance to Chesapeake Bay; and the Seven Foot Knoll Lighthouse, the oldest surviving screw-pile lighthouse on Chesapeake Bay, which once marked the mouth of the Patapsco River and the entrance to Baltimore. All of these attractions are owned and maintained by the Historic Ships in Baltimore organization. The Inner Harbor is also the home port of Pride of Baltimore II, the state of Maryland’s “goodwill ambassador” ship, a reconstruction of a famous Baltimore Clipper ship.Other tourist destinations include sporting venues such as Oriole Park at Camden Yards, M&T Bank Stadium, and Pimlico Race Course, Fort McHenry, the Mount Vernon, Federal Hill, and Fells Point neighborhoods, Lexington Market, Horseshoe Casino, and museums such as the Walters Art Museum, the Baltimore Museum of Industry, the Babe Ruth Birthplace and Museum, the Maryland Science Center, and the B&O Railroad Museum The Baltimore Convention Center is home to BronyCon, the world’s largest convention for fans of My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic The convention had over 6,300 attendees in 2017, and 10,011 attendees during its peak in 2015 == Culture == Historically a working-class port town, Baltimore has sometimes been dubbed a “city of neighborhoods”, with 72 designated historic districts traditionally occupied by distinct ethnic groups. Most notable today are three downtown areas along the port: the Inner Harbor, frequented by tourists due to its hotels, shops, and museums; Fells Point, once a favorite entertainment spot for sailors but now refurbished and gentrified (and featured in the movie Sleepless in Seattle); and Little Italy, located between the other two, where Baltimore’s Italian-American community is based – and where U.S. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi grew up. Further inland, Mount Vernon is the traditional center of cultural and artistic life of the city; it is home to a distinctive Washington Monument, set atop a hill in a 19th-century urban square, that predates the more well-known monument in Washington, D.C. by several decades. Baltimore also has a significant German American population, and was the second largest port of immigration to the United States, behind Ellis Island in New York and New Jersey. Between 1820 and 1989, almost 2 million who were German, Polish, English, Irish, Russian, Lithuanian, French, Ukrainian, Czech, Greek and Italian came to Baltimore, most between the years 1861 to 1930. By 1913, when Baltimore was averaging forty thousand immigrants per year, World War I closed off the flow of immigrants. By 1970, Baltimore’s heyday as an immigration center was a distant memory. There also was a Chinatown dating back to at least the 1880s which consisted of no more than 400 Chinese residents. A local Chinese-American association remains based there, but only one Chinese restaurant as of 2009 Baltimore has quite a history when it comes to making beer, an art that thrived in Baltimore from the 1800s to the 1950s with over 100 old breweries in the city’s past. The best remaining example of that history is the old American Brewery Building on North Gay Street and the National Brewing Company building in the Brewer’s Hill neighborhood. In the 1940s the National Brewing Company introduced the nation’s first six-pack. National’s two most prominent brands, were National Bohemian Beer colloquially “Natty Boh” and Colt 45 Listed on the Pabst website as a “Fun Fact”, Colt 45 was named after running back #45 Jerry Hill of the 1963 Baltimore Colts and not the 45 caliber handgun ammunition round. Both brands are still made today, albeit outside of Maryland, and served all around the Baltimore area at bars, as well as Orioles and Ravens games. The Natty Boh logo appears on all cans, bottles, and packaging; and merchandise featuring him can still easily be found in shops in Maryland, including several in Fells Point Each year the Artscape takes place in the city in the Bolton Hill neighborhood, due to its proximity to Maryland Institute College of Art. Artscape styles itself as the “largest free arts festival in America”. Each May, the Maryland Film Festival takes place in Baltimore, using all five screens of the historic Charles Theatre as its anchor venue. Many movies and television shows have been filmed in Baltimore. The Wire was set and filmed in Baltimore. House of Cards and Veep are set in Washington, D.C. but filmed in Baltimore.Baltimore has cultural museums in many areas of study The Baltimore Museum of Art, and the Walters Art Museum are internationally renowned for its collection of art. The Baltimore Museum of Art has the largest holding of works by

Henri Matisse in the world. The National Great Blacks In Wax Museum is the first African American wax museum in the country, featuring more than 150 life-size and lifelike wax figures === Cuisine === Baltimore is known for its Maryland blue crabs, crab cake, Old Bay Seasoning, pit beef, and the “chicken box.” The city has many restaurants in or around the Inner Harbor. The most known and acclaimed are the Charleston, Woodberry Kitchen, and the Charm City Cakes bakery featured on the Food Network’s Ace of Cakes. The Little Italy neighborhood’s biggest draw is the food Fells Point also is a foodie neighborhood for tourists and locals and is where the oldest continuously running tavern in the country, “The Horse You Came in on Saloon,” is located Many of the city’s upscale restaurants can be found in Harbor East. Five public markets are located across the city. The Baltimore Public Market System is the oldest continuously operating public market system in the United States. Lexington Market is one of the longest-running markets in the world and longest running in the country, having been around since 1782 The market continues to stand at its original site. Baltimore is the last place in America where one can still find arabbers, vendors who sell fresh fruits and vegetables from a horse-drawn cart that goes up and down neighborhood streets. Food- and drink-rating site Zagat ranked Baltimore second in a list of the 17 best food cities in the country in 2015 === Local dialect === Baltimore city, along with its surrounding regions, is home to a unique local dialect It is part of Mid-Atlantic American English and is noted to be very similar to the Philadelphia accent, albeit with more southern influences.The so-called “Bawlmerese” accent is known for its characteristic pronunciation of its long “o” vowel, in which an “eh” sound is added before the long “o” sound. It also adopts Philadelphia’s pattern of the short “a” sound, such that the tensed vowel in words like “bath” or “ask” does not match the more relaxed one in “sad” or “act”.Baltimore native John Waters parodies the city and its dialect extensively in his films. Most of them are filmed and/or set in Baltimore, including the 1972 cult classic Pink Flamingos, as well as Hairspray and its Broadway musical remake === Performing arts === Baltimore has three state-designated arts and entertainment (A & E) districts. The Station North Arts and Entertainment District, Highlandtown Arts District, and the Bromo Arts & Entertainment District. The Baltimore Office of Promotion & The Arts, a non-profit organization, produces events and arts programs as well as manages several facilities. It is the official Baltimore City Arts Council. BOPA coordinates Baltimore’s major events including New Year’s Eve and July 4 celebrations at the Inner Harbor, Artscape which is America’s largest free arts festival, Baltimore Book Festival, Baltimore Farmers’ Market & Bazaar, School 33 Art Center’s Open Studio Tour and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Parade.The Baltimore Symphony Orchestra is an internationally renowned orchestra, founded in 1916 as a publicly funded municipal organization. The current Music Director is Marin Alsop, a protégé of Leonard Bernstein Centerstage is the premier theater company in the city and a regionally well-respected group. The Lyric Opera House is the home of Lyric Opera Baltimore, which operates there as part of the Patricia and Arthur Modell Performing Arts Center. The Baltimore Consort has been a leading early music ensemble for over twenty-five years. The France-Merrick Performing Arts Center, home of the restored Thomas W. Lamb-designed Hippodrome Theatre, has afforded Baltimore the opportunity to become a major regional player in the area of touring Broadway and other performing arts presentations. Renovating Baltimore’s historic theatres have become widespread throughout the city such as the Everyman, Centre, Senator and most recent Parkway theatre. Other buildings have been reused such as the former Mercantile Deposit and Trust Company bank building. It is now the Chesapeake Shakespeare Company Theater Baltimore also boasts a wide array of professional (non-touring) and community theater groups Aside from Center Stage, resident troupes in the city include The Vagabond Players, the oldest continuously operating community theater group in the country, Everyman Theatre, Single Carrot Theatre, and Baltimore Theatre Festival. Community theaters in the city include Fells Point Community Theatre and the Arena Players Inc., which is the nation’s oldest continuously operating African American community theater. In 2009, the Baltimore Rock Opera Society, an all-volunteer theatrical company, launched its first production.Baltimore is home to the Pride of Baltimore Chorus, a three-time international silver medalist women’s chorus, affiliated with Sweet Adelines International The Maryland State Boychoir is located in the northeastern Baltimore neighborhood of

Mayfield Baltimore is the home of non-profit chamber music organization Vivre Musicale. VM won a 2011–2012 award for Adventurous Programming from the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers and Chamber Music America.The Peabody Institute, located in the Mount Vernon neighborhood, is the oldest conservatory of music in the United States. Established in 1857, it is one of the most prestigious in the world, along with Juilliard, Eastman, and the Curtis Institute. The Morgan State University Choir is also one of the nation’s most prestigious university choral ensembles The city is home to the Baltimore School for the Arts, a public high school in the Mount Vernon neighborhood of Baltimore. The institution is nationally recognized for its success in preparation for students entering music (vocal/instrumental), theatre (acting/theater production), dance, and visual arts == Sports == === Baseball === Baltimore has a long and storied baseball history, including its distinction as the birthplace of Babe Ruth in 1895. The original 19th century Baltimore Orioles were one of the most successful early franchises, featuring numerous hall of famers during its years from 1882 to 1899 As one of the eight inaugural American League franchises, the Baltimore Orioles played in the AL during the 1901 and 1902 seasons. The team moved to New York City before the 1903 season and was renamed the New York Highlanders, which later became the New York Yankees Ruth played for the minor league Baltimore Orioles team, which was active from 1903 to 1914. After playing one season in 1915 as the Richmond Climbers, the team returned the following year to Baltimore, where it played as the Orioles until 1953.The team currently known as the Baltimore Orioles has represented Major League Baseball locally since 1954 when the St. Louis Browns moved to the city of Baltimore. The Orioles advanced to the World Series in 1966, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1979 and 1983, winning three times (1966, 1970 and 1983), while making the playoffs all but one year (1972) from 1969 through 1974 In 1995, local player (and later Hall of Famer) Cal Ripken, Jr. broke Lou Gehrig’s streak of 2,130 consecutive games played, for which Ripken was named Sportsman of the Year by Sports Illustrated magazine. Six former Orioles players, including Ripken (2007), and two of the team’s managers have been inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame Since 1992, the Orioles’ home ballpark has been Oriole Park at Camden Yards, which has been hailed as one of the league’s best since it opened === Football === Prior to an NFL team moving to Baltimore, there had been several attempts at a professional football team prior to the 1950s. Most were minor league or semi-professional teams. The first major league to base a team in Baltimore was the All-America Football Conference (AAFC), which had a team named the Baltimore Colts The AAFC Colts played for three seasons in the AAFC (1947, 1948, and 1949), and when the AAFC folded following the 1949 season, moved to the NFL for a single year (1950) before going bankrupt. Three years later, the NFL’s Dallas Texans would itself fold, and its assets and player contracts purchased by an ownership team headed by Baltimore businessman Carroll Rosenbloom, who moved the team to Baltimore, establishing a new team also named the Baltimore Colts. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Colts were one of the NFLs more successful franchises, led by Pro Football Hall of Fame quarterback Johnny Unitas who set a then-record of 47 consecutive games with a touchdown pass. The Colts advanced to the NFL Championship twice (1958 & 1959) and Super Bowl twice (1969 & 1971), winning all except Super Bowl III in 1969. After the 1983 season, the team left Baltimore for Indianapolis in 1984, where they became the Indianapolis Colts The NFL returned to Baltimore when the former Cleveland Browns moved to Baltimore to become the Baltimore Ravens in 1996. Since then, the Ravens won a Super Bowl championship in 2000 and 2012, five AFC North division championships (2003, 2006, 2011, 2012 and 2018), and appeared in four AFC Championship Games (2000, 2008, 2011 and 2012) === Other teams and events === The first professional sports organization

in the United States, The Maryland Jockey Club, was formed in Baltimore in 1743. Preakness Stakes, the second race in the United States Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing, has been held every May at Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore since 1873 College lacrosse is a common sport in the spring, as the Johns Hopkins Blue Jays men’s lacrosse team has won 44 national championships, the most of any program in history. In addition, Loyola University won its first men’s NCAA lacrosse championship in 2012 The Baltimore Blast are a professional arena soccer team that play in the Major Arena Soccer League at the SECU Arena on the campus of Towson University. The Blast have won nine championships in various leagues, including the MASL. A previous entity of the Blast played in the Major Indoor Soccer League from 1980 to 1992, winning one championship The FC Baltimore 1729 is a semi-professional soccer club playing for NPSL league, with the goal of bringing a community-oriented competitive soccer experience to the city of Baltimore. Their inaugural season started on May 11, 2018, and they play home games at CCBC Essex Field The Baltimore Blues are a semi-professional rugby league club which began competition in the USA Rugby League in 2012. The Baltimore Bohemians are an American soccer club. They compete in the USL Premier Development League, the fourth tier of the American Soccer Pyramid Their inaugural season started in the spring of 2012 The Baltimore Grand Prix debuted along the streets of the Inner Harbor section of the city’s downtown on September 2–4, 2011 The event played host to the American Le Mans Series on Saturday and the IndyCar Series on Sunday. Support races from smaller series were also held, including Indy Lights. After three consecutive years, on September 13, 2013, it was announced that the event would not be held in 2014 or 2015 due to scheduling conflicts.The athletic equipment company, Under Armour is also based out of Baltimore Founded in 1996 by Kevin Plank, a University of Maryland alumnus, the company’s headquarters are located in Tide Point, adjacent to Fort McHenry and the Domino Sugar factory. The Baltimore Marathon is the flagship race of several races. The marathon begins at the Camden Yards sports complex and travels through many diverse neighborhoods of Baltimore, including the scenic Inner Harbor waterfront area, historic Federal Hill, Fells Point, and Canton, Baltimore The race then proceeds to other important focal points of the city such as Patterson Park, Clifton Park, Lake Montebello, the Charles Village neighborhood and the western edge of downtown. After winding through 42.195 kilometres (26.219 mi) of Baltimore, the race ends at virtually the same point at which it starts The Baltimore Brigade is an Arena Football League team based in Baltimore that began in 2017, playing at Royal Farms Arena along the Inner City near the Edward A. Garmatz Courthouse == Parks and recreation == The City of Baltimore boasts over 4,900 acres (1,983 ha) of parkland. The Baltimore City Department of Recreation and Parks manages the majority of parks and recreational facilities in the city including Patterson Park, Federal Hill Park, and Druid Hill Park. The city is also home to Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine, a coastal star-shaped fort best known for its role in the War of 1812. As of 2015, The Trust for Public Land, a national land conservation organization, ranks Baltimore 40th among the 75 largest U.S. cities == Government == Baltimore is an independent city, and not part of any county. For most governmental purposes under Maryland law, Baltimore City is treated as a county-level entity. The United States Census Bureau uses counties as the basic unit for presentation of statistical information in the United States, and treats Baltimore as a county equivalent for those purposes Baltimore has been a Democratic stronghold for over 150 years, with Democrats dominating every level of government. In virtually all elections, the Democratic primary is the real contest. No Republican has won election to the city council since 1939, and no Republican has won the mayor’s race since 1963 The city hosted the first six Democratic National Conventions, from 1832 through 1852, and hosted the DNC again in 1860, 1872, and 1912 === City government === ==== Mayor ====

Jack Young is the current mayor of Baltimore He took office on May 2, 2019 upon the resignation of Catherine Pugh. Prior to Pugh’s official resignation, Young was the president of the Baltimore City Council and had been the acting mayor since April 2.Catherine Pugh became the Democratic nominee for mayor in 2016 and won the mayoral election in 2016 with 57.1% of the vote; Pugh took office as mayor on December 6, 2016. Pugh took a leave of absence in April 2019 due to health concerns, then officially resigned from office on May 2 The resignation coincided with a scandal over a “self-dealing” book-sales arrangement.Stephanie Rawlings-Blake assumed the office of Mayor on February 4, 2010, when predecessor Dixon’s resignation became effective. Rawlings-Blake had been serving as City Council President at the time. She was elected to a full term in 2011, defeating Pugh in the primary election and receiving 84% of the vote.Sheila Dixon became the first female mayor of Baltimore on January 17, 2007. As the former City Council President, she assumed the office of Mayor when former Mayor Martin O’Malley took office as Governor of Maryland. On November 6, 2007, Dixon won the Baltimore mayoral election Mayor Dixon’s administration ended less than three years after her election, the result of a criminal investigation that began in 2006 while she was still City Council President She was convicted on a single misdemeanor charge of embezzlement on December 1, 2009 A month later, Dixon made an Alford plea to a perjury charge and agreed to resign from office; Maryland, like most states, does not allow convicted felons to hold office ==== Baltimore City Council ==== Grassroots pressure for reform, voiced as Question P, restructured the city council in November 2002, against the will of the mayor, the council president, and the majority of the council. A coalition of union and community groups, organized by the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN), backed the effort.The Baltimore City Council is now made up of 14 single-member districts and one elected at-large council president. Bernard C. “Jack” Young has been the council president since February 2010, when he was unanimously elected by the other council members to replace Stephanie Rawlings-Blake, who had become mayor Edward Reisinger, the 10th district representative, is the council’s current vice president ==== Law enforcement ==== The Baltimore City Police Department, founded 1784 as a “Night City Watch” and day Constables system and later reorganized as a City Department in 1853, with a following reorganization under State of Maryland supervision in 1859, with appointments made by the Governor of Maryland after a disturbing period of civic and elections violence with riots in the later part of the decade, is the current primary law enforcement agency serving the citizens of the City of Baltimore. Campus and building security for the city’s public schools is provided by the Baltimore City Public Schools Police, established in the 1970s In the period of 2011–2015, 120 lawsuits were brought against Baltimore police for alleged brutality and misconduct. The Freddie Gray settlement of $6.4 million exceeds the combined total settlements of the 120 lawsuits, as state law caps such payments.The Maryland Transportation Authority Police under the Maryland Department of Transportation, (originally established as the “Baltimore Harbor Tunnel Police” when opened in 1957) is the primary law enforcement agency on the Fort McHenry Tunnel Thruway (Interstate 95), the Baltimore Harbor Tunnel Thruway (Interstate 895), which go under the Northwest Branch of the Patapsco River, and Interstate 395, which has three ramp bridges crossing the Middle Branch of the Patapsco River which are under MdTA jurisdiction, the Baltimore-Washington International Airport, (BWI) and have limited concurrent jurisdiction with the Baltimore City Police Department under a “memorandum of understanding” Law enforcement on the fleet of transit buses and transit rail systems serving Baltimore is the responsibility of the Maryland Transit Administration Police, which is part of the Maryland Transit Administration of the state Department of Transportation. The MTA Police also share jurisdiction authority with the Baltimore City Police, governed by a memorandum of understanding.As the enforcement arm of the Baltimore circuit and district court system, the Baltimore City Sheriff’s Office, created by state constitutional amendment in 1844, is responsible for the security of city courthouses and property, service of court-ordered writs, protective and peace orders, warrants, tax levies, prisoner transportation and traffic enforcement. Deputy Sheriffs are sworn law enforcement officials, with full arrest authority granted by the constitution of Maryland, the Maryland Police and Correctional Training Commission and the Sheriff of the City of Baltimore.The United States Coast Guard, operating

out of their shipyard and facility (since 1899) at Arundel Cove on Curtis Creek, (off Pennington Avenue extending to Hawkins Point Road/Fort Smallwood Road) in the Curtis Bay section of southern Baltimore City and adjacent northern Anne Arundel County. The U.S.C.G also operates and maintains a presence on Baltimore and Maryland waterways in the Patapsco River and Chesapeake Bay. “Sector Baltimore” is responsible for commanding law enforcement and search & rescue units as well as aids to navigation ==== Baltimore City Fire Department ==== The city of Baltimore is protected by the over 1,800 professional firefighters of the Baltimore City Fire Department (BCFD), which was founded in December 1858 and began operating the following year. Replacing several warring independent volunteer companies since the 1770s and the confusion resulting from a riot involving the “Know-Nothing” political party two years before, the establishment of a unified professional fire fighting force was a major advance in urban governance. The BCFD operates out of 37 fire stations located throughout the city and has a long history and sets of traditions in its various houses and divisions === State government === Since the legislative redistricting in 2002, Baltimore has had six legislative districts located entirely within its boundaries, giving the city six seats in the 47-member Maryland Senate and 18 in the 141-member Maryland House of Delegates. During the previous 10-year period, Baltimore had four legislative districts within the city limits, but four others overlapped the Baltimore County line. As of January 2011, all of Baltimore’s state senators and delegates were Democrats. Approval of the next redistricting plan is expected to become effective in time for Maryland’s 2012 congressional primary election on February 14, 2012 ==== State agencies ==== === Federal government === Three of the state’s eight congressional districts include portions of Baltimore: the 2nd, represented by Dutch Ruppersberger; the 3rd, represented by John Sarbanes; and the 7th, represented by Elijah Cummings. All three are Democrats; a Republican has not represented a significant portion of Baltimore in Congress since John Boynton Philip Clayton Hill represented the 3rd District in 1927, and has not represented any of Baltimore since the Eastern Shore-based 1st District lost its share of Baltimore after the 2000 census; it was represented by Republican Wayne Gilchrest at the time Maryland’s senior United States Senator, Ben Cardin, is from Baltimore. He is one of three people in the last four decades to have represented the 3rd District before being elected to the United States Senate. Paul Sarbanes represented the 3rd from 1971 until 1977, when he was elected to the first of five terms in the Senate. Sarbanes was succeeded by Barbara Mikulski, who represented the 3rd from 1977 to 1987. Mikulski was succeeded by Cardin, who held the seat until handing it to John Sarbanes upon his election to the Senate in 2007 The Postal Service’s Baltimore Main Post Office is located at 900 East Fayette Street in the Jonestown area.The national headquarters for the United States Social Security Administration is located in Woodlawn, just outside of Baltimore == Education == === Colleges and universities === Baltimore is the home of numerous places of higher learning, both public and private 100,000 college students from around the country attend Baltimore City’s 12 accredited two-year or four-year colleges and universities. Among them are: ==== Private ==== The Johns Hopkins University Baltimore International College Loyola University Maryland Maryland Institute College of Art St. Mary’s Seminary and University Notre Dame of Maryland University The Peabody Institute of Johns Hopkins University Stratford University (Baltimore campus) ==== Public ==== Baltimore City Community College Coppin State University Morgan State University

University of Baltimore University of Maryland, Baltimore === Primary and secondary schools === The city’s public schools are managed by Baltimore City Public Schools and include schools that have been well known in the area: Carver Vocational-Technical High School, the first African American vocational high school and center that was established in the state of Maryland; Digital Harbor High School, one of the secondary schools that emphasizes information technology; Lake Clifton Eastern High School, which is the largest school campus in Baltimore City of physical size; the historic Frederick Douglass High School, which is the second oldest African American high school in the United States; Baltimore City College, the third oldest public high school in the country; and Western High School, the oldest public all-girls school in the nation. Baltimore City College (also known as “City”) and Baltimore Polytechnic Institute (also known as “Poly”) share the nation’s second-oldest high school football rivalry == Transportation == The city of Baltimore has a higher-than-average percentage of households without a car. In 2015, 30.7 percent of Baltimore households lacked a car, which decreased slightly to 28.9 percent in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Baltimore averaged 1.65 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8 === Roads and highways === Baltimore’s highway growth has done much to influence the development of the city and its suburbs. The first limited-access highway serving Baltimore was the Baltimore–Washington Parkway, which opened in stages between 1950 and 1954. Maintenance of it is split: the half closest to Baltimore is maintained by the state of Maryland, and the half closest to Washington by the National Park Service Trucks are only permitted to use the northern part of the parkway. Trucks (tractor-trailers) continued to use U.S. Route 1 (US 1) until Interstate 95 (I-95) between Baltimore and Washington opened in 1971 The Interstate highways serving Baltimore are I-70, I-83 (the Jones Falls Expressway), I-95, I-395, I-695 (the Baltimore Beltway), I-795 (the Northwest Expressway), I-895 (the Harbor Tunnel Thruway), and I-97. The city’s mainline Interstate highways—I-95, I-83, and I-70—do not directly connect to each other, and in the case of I-70 end at a park and ride lot just inside the city limits, because of freeway revolts in Baltimore. These revolts were led primarily by Barbara Mikulski, a former United States senator for Maryland, which resulted in the abandonment of the original plan. There are two tunnels traversing Baltimore Harbor within the city limits: the four-bore Fort McHenry Tunnel (opened in 1985 and serving I-95) and the two-bore Harbor Tunnel (opened in 1957 and serving I-895). The Baltimore Beltway crosses south of Baltimore Harbor over the Francis Scott Key Bridge The first interstate highway built in Baltimore was I-83, called the Jones Falls Expressway (first portion built in the early 1960s) Running from the downtown toward the northwest (NNW), it was built through a natural corridor, which meant that no residents or housing were directly affected. A planned section from what is now its southern terminus to I-95 was abandoned. Its route through parkland received criticism Planning for the Baltimore Beltway antedates the creation of the Interstate Highway System The first portion completed was a small strip connecting the two sections of I-83, the Baltimore-Harrisburg Expressway and the Jones Falls Expressway The only U.S. Highways in the city are US 1, which bypasses downtown, and US 40, which crosses downtown from east to west. Both run along major surface streets; however, US 40 utilizes a small section of a freeway cancelled in the 1970s in the west side of the city originally intended for Interstate 170. State routes in the city also travel along surface streets, with the exception of Maryland Route 295, which carries the Baltimore–Washington Parkway The Baltimore City Department of Transportation (BCDOT) is responsible for several functions of the road transportation system in Baltimore, including repairing roads, sidewalks, and alleys; road signs; street lights; and managing the flow of transportation systems. In addition, the agency is in charge of vehicle towing and traffic cameras. BCDOT maintains all streets within the city of Baltimore. These include all streets that are marked as state and U.S highways as well as the portions of I-83 and

I-70 within the city limits. The only highways within the city that are not maintained by BCDOT are I-95, I-395, I-695, and I-895; those four highways are maintained by the Maryland Transportation Authority === Transit systems === ==== Public transit ==== Public transit in Baltimore is mostly provided by the Maryland Transit Administration (abbreviated “MTA Maryland”) and Charm City Circulator MTA Maryland operates a comprehensive bus network, including many local, express, and commuter buses, a light rail network connecting Hunt Valley in the north to BWI Airport and Cromwell (Glen Burnie) in the south, and a subway line between Owings Mills and Johns Hopkins Hospital. A proposed rail line, known as the Red Line, which would link the Social Security Administration to Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center and perhaps the Canton and Dundalk communities, was cancelled as of June 2015 by Governor Larry Hogan; a proposal to extend Baltimore’s existing subway line to Morgan State University, known as the Green Line, is in the planning stages.The Charm City Circulator (CCC), a shuttle bus service operated by Veolia Transportation for the Baltimore Department of Transportation, began operating in the downtown area in January 2010. Funded partly by a 16 percent increase in the city’s parking fees, the circulator provides free bus service seven days a week, picking up passengers every 15 minutes at designated stops during service hours.The CCC’s first bus line, the Orange route, travels between Hollins Market and Harbor East. Its Purple route, launched June 7, 2010, operates between Fort Avenue and 33rd St. The Green route runs between Johns Hopkins and City Hall. The Charm City Circulator operates a fleet of diesel and hybrid vehicles built by DesignLine, Orion, and Van Hool.Baltimore also has a water taxi service, operated by Baltimore Water Taxi. The water taxi’s six routes provide service throughout the city’s harbor, and was purchased by Under Armour CEO Kevin Plank’s Sagamore Ventures in 2016.In June 2017, The BaltimoreLink started operating; it is the redesign of the region’s initial bus system. The BaltimoreLink runs through downtown Baltimore every 10 minutes via color-coded, high-frequency CityLink routes ==== Intercity rail ==== Baltimore is a top destination for Amtrak along the Northeast Corridor. Baltimore’s Penn Station is one of the busiest in the country. In FY 2014, Penn Station was ranked the seventh-busiest rail station in the United States by number of passengers served each year. The building sits on a raised “island” of sorts between two open trenches, one for the Jones Falls Expressway and the other for the tracks of the Northeast Corridor (NEC) The NEC approaches from the south through the two-track, 7,660 feet (2,330 m) Baltimore and Potomac Tunnel, which opened in 1873 and whose 30 mph (50 km/h) limit, sharp curves, and steep grades make it one of the NEC’s worst bottlenecks. The NEC’s northern approach is the 1873 Union Tunnel, which has one single-track bore and one double-track bore Just outside the city, Baltimore/Washington International (BWI) Thurgood Marshall Airport Rail Station is another stop. Amtrak’s Acela Express, Palmetto, Carolinian, Silver Star, Silver Meteor, Vermonter, Crescent, and Northeast Regional trains are the scheduled passenger train services that stop in the city. Additionally, MARC commuter rail service connects the city’s two main intercity rail stations, Camden Station and Penn Station, with Washington, D.C.’s Union Station as well as stops in between The MARC consists of 3 lines; the Brunswick, Camden and Penn. On December 7, 2013 the Penn Line began weekend service === Airports === Baltimore is served by two airports, both operated by the Maryland Aviation Administration, which is part of the Maryland Department of Transportation. Baltimore–Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, generally known as “BWI,” lies about 10 miles (16 km) to the south of Baltimore in neighboring Anne Arundel County. The airport is named after Thurgood Marshall, a Baltimore native who was the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States. In terms of passenger traffic, BWI is the 22nd busiest airport in the United States. As of calendar year 2014, BWI is the largest, by passenger count, of three major airports serving the Baltimore–Washington Metropolitan Area. It is accessible by I-95 and the Baltimore–Washington Parkway via Interstate 195, the Baltimore Light Rail,

and Amtrak and MARC Train at BWI Rail Station Baltimore is also served by Martin State Airport, a general aviation facility, to the northeast in Baltimore County. Martin State Airport is linked to downtown Baltimore by Maryland Route 150 (Eastern Avenue) and by MARC Train at its own station === Pedestrians and bicycles === Baltimore has a comprehensive system of bicycle routes in the city. These routes are not numbered, but are typically denoted with green signs displaying a silhouette of a bicycle upon an outline of the city’s border, and denote the distance to destinations, much like bicycle routes in the rest of the state. The roads carrying bicycle routes are also labelled with either bike lanes, sharrows, or Share the Road signs. Many of these routes pass through the downtown area. The network of bicycle lanes in the city continues to expand, with over 140 miles (230 km) added between 2006 and 2014. Alongside bike lanes, Baltimore has also built bike boulevards, starting with Guilford Avenue in 2012 Baltimore currently has three major trail systems within the city. The Gwynns Falls Trail runs from the Inner Harbor to the I-70 Park and Ride, passing through Gwynns Falls Park and possessing numerous branches. There are also many pedestrian hiking trails traversing the park. The Jones Falls Trail currently runs from the Inner Harbor to the Cylburn Arboretum; however, it is currently undergoing expansion. Long term plans call for it to extend to the Mount Washington Light Rail Stop, and possibly as far north as the Falls Road stop to connect to the Robert E. Lee boardwalk north of the city. It will also incorporate a spur alongside Western Run The two aforementioned trails carry sections of the East Coast Greenway through the city There is also the Herring Run Trail, which runs from Harford Road east to its end beyond Sinclair Lane, utilizing Herring Run Park; long term plans also call for its extension to Morgan State University and north to points beyond. Other major bicycle projects include a protected cycle track installed on both Maryland Avenue and Mount Royal Avenue, expected to become the backbone of a downtown bicycle network. Installation for the cycletracks is expected in 2014 and 2016, respectively In addition to the bicycle trails and cycletracks, Baltimore has the Stony Run Trail, a walking path that will eventually connect from the Jones Falls north to Northern Parkway, utilizing much of the old Ma and Pa Railroad corridor inside the city. In 2011, the city undertook a campaign to reconstruct many sidewalk ramps in the city, coinciding with mass resurfacing of the city’s streets. A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Baltimore the 14th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities === Port of Baltimore === The port was founded in 1706, preceding the founding of Baltimore. The Maryland colonial legislature made the area near Locust Point as the port of entry for the tobacco trade with England. Fells Point, the deepest point in the natural harbor, soon became the colony’s main ship building center, later on becoming leader in the construction of clipper ships.After Baltimore’s founding, mills were built behind the wharves. The California Gold Rush led to many orders for fast vessels; many overland pioneers also relied upon canned goods from Baltimore. After the Civil War, a coffee ship was designed here for trade with Brazil. At the end of the nineteenth century, European ship lines had terminals for immigrants. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad made the port a major transshipment point. Currently the port has major roll-on/roll-off facilities, as well as bulk facilities, especially steel handling.Water taxis also operate in the Inner Harbor. Governor Ehrlich participated in naming the port after Helen Delich Bentley during the 300th anniversary of the port.In 2007, Duke Realty Corporation began a new development near the Port of Baltimore, named the Chesapeake Commerce Center. This new industrial park is located on the site of a former General Motors plant. The total project comprises 184 acres (0.74 km2) in eastern Baltimore City, and the site will yield 2,800,000 square feet (260,000 m2) of warehouse/distribution and office space. Chesapeake Commerce Center has direct access to two major Interstate highways (I-95 and I-895) and is located adjacent to two of the major Port of Baltimore terminals The Port of Baltimore is one of two seaports on the U.S. East Coast with a 50-foot (15 m) dredge to accommodate the largest shipping vessels.Along with cargo terminals, the port also has a passenger cruise terminal, which offers year-round trips on several lines, including Royal Caribbean’s Grandeur of the Seas and Carnival’s Pride. Overall five cruise lines have operated out of the port to the Bahamas and the Caribbean, while some ships

traveled to New England and Canada. The terminal has become an embarkation point where passengers have the opportunity to park and board next to the ship visible from Interstate 95. Passengers from Pennsylvania, New York and New Jersey make up a third of the volume, with travelers from Maryland, Virginia, the District and even Ohio and the Carolinas making up the rest == Environment == Baltimore’s Inner Harbor, known for its skyline waterscape and its tourist-friendly areas, was horribly polluted. The waterway was often filled with garbage after heavy rainstorms, failing its 2014 water quality report card The Waterfront Partnership of Baltimore took steps to remediate the waterways, in hopes that the harbor would be fishable and swimmable once again === Trash interceptors === Installed in May 2014, the water wheel trash interceptor known as Mr. Trash Wheel sits at the mouth of the Jones Falls River in Baltimore’s Inner Harbor. A February 2015 agreement with a local waste-to-energy plant is believed to make Baltimore the first city to use reclaimed waterway debris to generate electricity.Mr Trash Wheel is a permanent water wheel trash interceptor to clean up the city’s polluted Inner Harbor. The Jones Falls river watershed drains 58 square miles (150 km2) of land outside of Baltimore and is a significant source of trash that enters the harbor. Garbage collected by Mr. Trash Wheel could come from anywhere in the Jones Falls Watershed area. The wheel moves continuously, removing garbage and dumping it into an attached dumpster using only hydro and solar renewable power to keep its wheel turning. It has the capability to collect 50,000 pounds (22,700 kg) of trash per day, and has removed more than 350 tons of litter from Baltimore’s landmark and tourist attraction in its first 18 months, estimated as consisting of approximately 200,000 bottles, 173,000 potato chip bags and 6.7 million cigarette butts. The Water Wheel has been very successful at trash removal, visibly decreasing the amount of garbage that collects in the harbor, especially after a rainfall After the success of Mr. Trash Wheel, the Waterfront Partnership raised money to build a second Water Wheel at the end of Harris Creek, an entirely piped stream that flows beneath Baltimore’s Canton neighborhood and empties into the Baltimore Harbor. Harris Creek is known to carry tons of trash every year. The planned new Water Wheel was inaugurated in December 2016, and dubbed “Professor Trash Wheel”. Professor Trash Wheel prevents waste from exiting the Harbor and accessing the Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean. A number of additional projects are going on in Baltimore City and County that should result in better water quality scores. These projects include the Blue Alleys project, expanded street sweeping, and stream restoration === Other water pollution control === In August 2010, the National Aquarium assembled, planted, and launched a floating wetland island designed by Biohabitats in Baltimore’s Inner Harbor. Hundreds of years ago Baltimore’s harbor shoreline would have been lined with tidal wetlands. Floating wetlands provide many environmental benefits to water quality and habitat enhancement, which is why the Waterfront Partnership of Baltimore has included them in their Healthy Harbor Initiative pilot projects. Biohabitats also developed a concept to transform a dilapidated wharf into a living pier that cleans Harbor water, provides habitat and is an aesthetic attraction. Currently under design, the top of the pier will become a constructed tidal wetland == Media == Baltimore’s main newspaper is The Baltimore Sun. It was sold by its Baltimore owners in 1986 to the Times Mirror Company, which was bought by the Tribune Company in 2000. The Baltimore News-American, another long-running paper that competed with the Sun, ceased publication in 1986.The city is home to the Baltimore Afro-American, an influential African American newspaper founded in 1892.In 2006, The Baltimore Examiner was launched to compete with The Sun. It was part of a national chain that includes The San Francisco Examiner and The Washington Examiner. In contrast to the paid subscription Sun, The Examiner was a free newspaper funded solely by advertisements Unable to turn a profit and facing a deep recession, The Baltimore Examiner ceased publication on February 15, 2009.Despite being located 40 miles northeast of Washington, D.C., Baltimore is a major media market in its own right, with all major English language television networks represented in the city. WJZ-TV 13

is a CBS owned and operated station, and WBFF 45 is the flagship of Sinclair Broadcast Group, the largest station owner in the country Other major television stations in Baltimore include WMAR-TV 2 (ABC), WBAL-TV 11 (NBC), WUTB 24 (MyNetworkTV), WNUV 54 (CW), and WMPB 67 (PBS) Nielsen ranked Baltimore as the 26th-largest television market for the 2008–2009 viewing season and the 27th-largest for 2009–2010 Arbitron’s Fall 2010 rankings identified Baltimore as the 22nd largest radio market == Notable people == == Sister cities == Baltimore has ten sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International: Baltimore’s own Sister City Committees recognize eight of these sister cities, indicated above with a “B” notation == See also == Baltimore portal Baltimore Development Corporation Baltimore in fiction Bluegrass in Baltimore: The Hard Drivin’ Sound and its Legacy (Book on the history of the Appalachian migrants’ move into the city in the 20th Century) Cemeteries in Baltimore, Maryland History of the Germans in Baltimore, Maryland == Notes

V8 engine | Wikipedia audio article

A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets (or banks) of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft. Most banks are set at a right angle (90°) to each other, some at a narrower angle, with 45°, 60°, and 72° most common In its simplest form, the V8 is basically two parallel inline-four engines sharing a common crankshaft. However, this simple configuration, with a flat- or single-plane crankshaft, has the same secondary dynamic imbalance problems as two straight-4s, resulting in vibrations in large engine displacements. Since the 1920s, most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations. This results in an engine that is smoother than a V6, while being considerably less expensive than a V12 Many racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs == History == In 1902, Léon Levavasseur took out a patent on a light but quite powerful gasoline injected V8 engine. He called it the ‘Antoinette’ after the young daughter of his financial backer From 1904 he installed this engine in a number of competition speedboats and early aircraft The aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont saw one of these boats in Côte d’Azur and decided to try it on his pusher configuration, canard-design 14-bis aircraft. Its early 24 hp (18 kW) at 1400 rpm version with only 55 kg (121 lb) of weight was interesting, but proved to be underpowered. Santos-Dumont ordered a larger and more powerful version from Levavasseur He changed its dimensions from the original 80 mm stroke and 80 mm bore to 105 mm stroke and 110 mm bore, obtaining 50 hp (37 kW) with 86 kg (190 lb) of weight, including cooling water. This power-to-weight ratio was not surpassed for 25 years. Levavasseur eventually produced his own line of V8-equipped aircraft, named Antoinette I to VIII. Hubert Latham piloted the V8-powered Antoinette IV (trailing-edge ailerons) and Antoinette VII (wing warping) in July 1909 on two failed attempts to cross the English Channel (both times ending in ditching). However, in 1910, Latham used the VII with the same engine to become the first in the world to reach an altitude of 3600 feet. Voisin constructed pusher biplanes with Antoinette engines, also, notably the one first flown successfully by Henry Farman in 1908 The V8 engine configuration was used in France by 1904, in race car and aircraft engines introduced by Renault, and Buchet among others Some of these engines found their way into automobiles in small quantities. In 1905, Darracq built a special car to beat the world speed record. They came up with two racing car engines built on a common crankcase and camshaft. The result was an engine with a displacement of 1,551 cu in (25,416 cc), and 200 bhp (150 kW). Victor Hemery achieved the record on 30 December 1905 with a speed of 109.65 mph (176.46 km/h). This car still exists Rolls-Royce built a 3,535 cc (216 cu in) V8 car from 1905 to 1906, but only three copies were made and Rolls-Royce reverted to a inline-6 design In 1907, the Hewitt Motor Company built a large five-passenger Touring Car. It was equipped with a V8 engine that developed 50/60 horsepower and had a bore of 4 in (102 mm) and a stroke of 4.5 in (114 mm). The Hewitt was the first American automobile to be equipped with a V8 engine.De Dion-Bouton introduced a 7,773 cc (474 cu in) automobile V8 in 1910 and displayed it in New York in 1912. It was produced only in small quantities, but inspired a number of manufacturers to follow suit.The limiting factor in mass production and sales of V8s was the difficulty in starting large engines using a hand crank. Not only does increasing the size of the engine make this harder, the number of pistons is a factor, because with a 4 cylinder engine, a piston comes into compression every half turn of the crank, and overcoming this with the crank is not difficult. With eight cylinders, there is only 1/4 of a turn

of the crank before another cylinder comes into compression. To overcome this problem, electric starters were developed. The first marque to equip its cars with electric starter motors was Cadillac, in 1912, and Cadillac consequently was the first production automobile with V8s, introduced 2 years later. It sold 13,000 of the 5.4 L (330 cu in) L-head engines in its first year of production, 1914. Cadillac has been primarily a V8 company ever since Oldsmobile, another division of General Motors, introduced its own 4 L (244 cu in) V8 engine in 1916. Chevrolet introduced a 4.7 L (288 cu in) V8 engine in 1917 and installed in the Chevrolet Series D In February 1915, Swiss automotive engineer Marc Birkigt designed the first example of the famous Hispano-Suiza V8 single overhead cam aviation engines, with various displacements, using dual ignition systems and in power levels from 150 horsepower to around 300 horsepower, in both direct-drive and geared output shaft versions. Almost 50,000 of these engines were built in Spain, France, the United Kingdom, Italy. Wright Aeronautical built them in the United States during World War I, with the French-produced versions getting almost-exclusive use to power the SPAD S.VII (about 6,000 produced) and SPAD S.XIII (nearly 8,500 produced) fighter aircraft; as well as both French and British versions (as with the Wolseley Viper version of the HS.8A) for the Royal Air Force’s Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5 fighters (some 5,200 built) and Sopwith Dolphin (nearly 2,100 built) fighters. The H.S. 8-series overhead cam valvetrain V8 aviation engines are said to have powered roughly half of all Allied aircraft of the WW I era By 1932, Henry Ford introduced one of his last great personal engineering triumphs: his “en block”, or one piece, V8 engine. Its simple design made possible the greatest production V8 to the masses. Offered as an option to an improved 4-cylinder Model “B” engine in a low priced car, this compact V8 power plant, with its downdraft carburettor, enabled 1932 Ford to outperform all other popular competitors and was conceived years ahead of its time The Ford flathead V8 is still heralded today as one of the first pioneers in ‘hot rod’ engines == Design == === V angles === The most prevalent V angle for a V8 is 90° This configuration features a wide, low engine with optimal firing and vibration characteristics Many V6 and V10 engine configurations are derived from production V8 designs, so they often use the 90° angle; however, balance shafts are incorporated to reduce vibration and/or more complex cranks to even the firing cycle. One example is the Ford/Yamaha V8 used in the Ford Taurus SHO. It was based on Ford’s Duratec V6 and shares that engine’s 60° V angle. A similar Yamaha-built engine was used by Volvo Cars between 2005 and 2010. These engines were designed for transverse front-wheel-drive installation and are narrower than usual for efficient use of space. Because they are not at the ideal 90° angle for a V8, they require a counter-rotating balance shaft and offset split crankpins for complete smoothness. Additionally, 72° V8 engines have been used in modern racing.The Rolls-Royce Meteorite V8 engine was derived from the Meteor tank engine (itself derived from the Merlin aero engine, so it shared the Merlin’s 60° V angle. In years past, Electro-Motive produced an 8-cylinder version of their model 567 diesel locomotive engine, with a 45° cylinder angle. The 1932 Miller four-wheel drive race cars also featured a 45° V8.An extremely narrow-angle V8 was introduced by Lancia in 1922, which had an angle between cylinder banks of only 14°. This created an engine that was shorter than a straight-6, but much narrower than a conventional V8 It was based on a Lancia V4 engine design that was almost completely “square” in the length and width of its layout. Because of their compact design and overhead camshafts, these engines were lighter and more powerful than comparable engines of the time. Although Lancia stopped making the V8 design around World War II, the basic concept is used today in the Volkswagen VR6 engine

=== Crankshaft === The 90 degree V8 is made with two different type of crankshaft, the flat-plane and cross-plane: The flat-plane or single-plane crankshaft is the original V8 design, which has its crank pins at 180°. As they always move two pistons together, the secondary vibration is twice as strong (and half as frequent) as cross-plane, unless balance shafts are used, with a counter rotating pair flanking the crankshaft transverse to the crankshaft centreline. As it has nearly perfect plane balance, it does not normally require counterweights. The crankshaft with less mass and thus inertia allows quicker revving up and down, in addition to the firing being LRLRLRLR or RLRLRLRL with regular overall and per-bank pulse spacings for uniform combustion without requiring a complicated exhaust system The design was popularized in modern racing by the Coventry Climax FWMV 1.5 L (92 cu in) V8 that evolved from a cross-plane to a flat-plane configuration (with longer conrods). Flat-plane V8s on road cars come from Ferrari (every V8 model they have ever made, from the 1973 308 GT4, to the new 488), Lotus (the Esprit V8), TVR (the Speed Eight), Porsche 918 Spyder, McLaren (the MP4-12C), as well as Ford (the Mustang Shelby GT350). This design is popular in racing engines, the most famous example being the Cosworth DFV The cross-plane or two-plane crankshaft is the configuration used in most V8 road cars The first and last of the four crank pins are at 180° with respect to each other as are the second and third, with each pair at 90° to the other, so that viewed from the end the crankshaft forms a cross. The cross-plane have half as strong (and twice as frequent) secondary vibration than flat-plane, but requires heavy counterweights on the crankshaft to counter Rocking Vibration caused by plane imbalances (See Engine balance for details) With the Secondary Vibration advantage, the cross-plane V8 can be scaled up to large displacements without causing destructive vibration. However, the use of heavy counterweights makes the cross-plane V8 a slow-revving engine that cannot speed up or slow down quickly compared to flat-plane because of the greater rotating mass. While the firing of the cross-plane V8 is evenly spaced overall, the firings on the ‘L’eft and ‘R’ight banks are LRLLRLRR or RLRRLRLL, resulting in uneven intake and exhaust pulse spacing for each bank. In stock cars with exhaust manifolds merging four exhaust ports into one exit, this results in uneven filling/scavenging of intake/exhaust gas in the cylinders (that prevents uniform combustion across cylinders) causing the typical V8 burble sound that many people have come to associate with American V8s. In all-out racing cars it leads to the need to connect exhaust pipes between the two banks to design an optimal exhaust system, resulting in the long exhaust pipes that resemble a bundle of snakes as in the Ford GT40. This complex and encumbering exhaust system has been a major problem for single-seater racing car designers, so they tended to use stub exhaust pipes in the 1950s, or place exhaust ports on the inside of the V angle as on the 4.2 L (256 cu in) Ford Indy engine in Lotus 38.The cross-plane approach was neither obvious nor simple to design For this reason, most early V8 engines, including those from De Dion-Bouton, Peerless, and Cadillac, were flat-plane. The advance to a cross-plane was proposed at an automotive engineering conference in the United States in 1915, but it took another eight years to bring to production Cadillac and Peerless (who had hired an ex-Cadillac mathematician for the job) applied for a patent on the cross-plane simultaneously, and the two agreed to share the idea. Cadillac introduced their “Compensated Crankshaft” V8 in 1923, with the “Equipoised Eight” from Peerless appearing in November 1924 == Application == The V8 with a crossplane crankshaft (see below) is a common configuration for large automobile engines. V8 engines are rarely less than 3.0 L (183 cu in) in displacement and in automobile use have exceeded 8.2 L (500 cu in) in production vehicles, such as the early 1970s Cadillac Eldorado. In some applications, e.g. industrial and marine V8 engines, displacement can be even larger In automobiles V8 engines are used in a wide variety of cars and trucks, mostly in more powerful segments and types of vehicles such as American muscle cars, sports cars, luxury cars, pickup trucks, and sport utility vehicles

Many car manufacturers offer a V8 as an option in vehicles which have a V6 or straight-6 as standard engine, often casting it as a symbol of exclusivity and prestige. In some cases, V6 engines are derived from V8 designs by removing two cylinders while maintaining the same V-angle so they can be built on the same assembly lines as the V8s and installed in the same engine compartments with few modifications Some of these employ offset crankpins driving connecting rod pairs, enabling a regular firing sequence The traditional 90° big-bore V8 engine, as found on many American makes, is generally both too wide and long to fit in vehicles with a transverse engine front-wheel drive layout, so its applications are limited to rear-wheel drive sports cars, muscle cars, pony cars, luxury cars and light trucks. The shorter and occasionally narrower V6 engine is easier to fit in small engine compartments, but a few compact V8 engines are used in transverse FWD and transverse AWD engine configurations in larger cars, such as Cadillacs and Volvos These engines often have tighter cylinder bore spacings, narrower cylinder bank angles, and other modifications to reduce their space requirements.In motorsports, V8s are common and have been a popular engine choice in purpose-designed engines for race-cars in many different types and classes of automotive racing, with use for example in the Formula-1 or the American NASCAR-racing league. They usually have flat-plane crankshafts, since a crossplane crankshaft results in uneven firing into the exhaust manifolds which interferes with engine tuning, and the crossplane’s heavy crankshaft counterweights can prevent the engine from accelerating rapidly However, due to the inherent vibration that’s found in flat plane V8s, most large displacement V8s, even in motorsports, are cross-plane, including those found in NASCAR and Top Fuel Medium-weight trucks tend to use the straight-6 configuration since it is simpler and easier to maintain, and because the straight-6 is an inherently balanced layout which can be scaled up to any size necessary. Large V8s are found in the larger truck and industrial equipment lines Although it was the early choice for aircraft engines, the V8 engine is seldom used in modern aircraft engine as the typically heavy crankshaft counterweights are a liability. Modern light planes commonly use the flat-8 configuration instead as it is lighter and easier to air cool. In addition it can be manufactured in modular designs sharing components with flat-4 and flat-6 engines. One of the few V8 engines used for aircraft propulsion in the World War II years was the German inverted V8 configuration, air-cooled Argus As 10 powerplant === Automobile === ==== American ==== Cadillac produced the first American V8 engine in a production vehicle, the 1914 L-Head It was a sophisticated unit with cast iron paired closed-head cylinders bolted to an aluminium crankcase, and it used a flat-plane crankshaft. Peerless followed the next year, introducing a V8 licensed from amusement park manufacturer, Herschell-Spillman. By 1917 Chevrolet had also designed a V8 engine which it began mass-producing. Advanced in its design the engine had a central camshaft operating vertical overhead valves in each cylinder bank. The engine design used a counterweighted crankshaft, and detachable crossflow cylinder head, displacing 288 cu in (4.7 L) and producing, for the period, an impressive 55 hp (41 kW; 56 PS). It was primarily used in the Chevrolet Series D Cadillac and Peerless were one year apart again (1923 and 1924, respectively) with the introduction of the cross-plane crankshaft Lincoln also had V8 cars in those years, as did Ferro, Northway (supplier to Cadillac), Cole (Indianapolis, and Jackson, Mississippi), Perkins (Detroit), Murray, Vernon, and Yale Oakland, a division of GM, introduced an 85 hp (63 kW) 250 cu in (4.1 L) V8 with a 180° crankshaft in 1930–1931. In 1932, the Oakland marque was discontinued and the V8 was used in its companion marque, Pontiac, for one year. Pontiac dropped the V8 engine in 1933 and replaced it with its smoother running Silver-Streak straight eight Ford was the first company in the world to use V8s en masse, meaning producing them in very large quantities for use in mass-produced vehicles. Instead of going to an inline six like its competitors when something larger than an inline four was needed, Ford designed a simple V8, the Flathead of 1932. This flat

head engine powered almost all larger Ford cars through the 1953 production year, and was produced until around 1970 by Ford licensees around the world, with the valve-in-block engine powering mostly commercial vehicles The gasoline-fueled Ford GAA armored fighting vehicle engine produced from 1940 to 1950 with a capacity of 1,100 cu in (18.0 L) is the largest displacement V8 production engine to date, and was used as a power option for the U.S. Army’s M4 Sherman tank in World War II After World War II, the strong demand for larger status-symbol cars made the common straight-6 less marketable. Straight-8 engines have problems with crankshaft whip and require a longer engine bay. In the new wider body styles, a V8 would fit in the same space as a straight-6. Manufacturers could simplify production and offer the bigger engines as optional upgrades to base models In 1949, General Motors (GM) responded to Ford’s V8 success by introducing the Oldsmobile Rocket and Cadillac OHV. Studebaker introduced its 232 cu in (3.8 L) OHV V8 in January 1951 for 1951 model-year Commanders and Commander Land Cruisers. The first production versions were installed in 1950 model-year Commanders in late December 1950. Chrysler introduced their FirePower 331 cu in (5.4 L) hemi-head V8 in 1951. That year . Buick followed in 1953, while Packard and GM’s Chevrolet and Pontiac introduced V8s of their own in 1955 American Motors (AMC) initially purchased V8 engines from Packard, but developed its own lower-weight, 600 lb (272 kg), design in 1956 A full history of each American manufacturer’s engines is outside of the scope in this article, but engine sizes on full-size cars grew throughout the 1950s, 1960s, and into the early-to-mid-1970s The increasing size of full-size cars meant smaller models of car were introduced and became more popular, with the result, by the 1960s, Chrysler, Buick, Ford, and Chevrolet had two V8 model ranges – Ford was the only car maker to try to emulate the Chrysler Hemi V8s in any manner in the 1960s, first with its hemispherical-head Ford FE engine-derived, 427 SOHC-valvetrain design, then with the part-hemispherical head design used for the Boss 429 Mustang’s engine The larger engines, known as big-block V8s, were used in the full-size cars and muscle cars. Big-blocks generally had displacements in excess of 360 cu in (5.9 L). Big-block displacement reached its zenith with the 1970 Cadillac Eldorado’s 500 cu in (8.2 L) 500 During the 1970s, due to the oil crises and the gradual tightening of emission-standards, big-block V8s were affected and as a result their use in passenger cars decreased as manufacturers began to phase them out over more efficient designs. However, in trucks and other larger vehicles, primarily in the North American market, big-block V8s continue to be used until today, though some manufacturers, such as for example the Ford Motor Company took a different approach and developed V10s for use in their heavy duty commercial vehicles, such as Trucks and Vans, and/or used small-block derived designs in both diesel, e.g. Powerstroke, as well as petrol applications for improved power and efficiency. To this day Big-block V8s are commonly used in a wide variety of automotive racing mostly across North America, and such engines are available from many small and independent engine builders. The trend of ever decreasing downsized engines across many international markets, primarily across E.U. countries in Europe as well as Asian markets, has been largely ignored by American manufacturers and the automotive industry for demands in their domestic market. In the first quarter of 2019 Ford introduced a brand new 7.3 liter gasoline V8 internally named “Godzilla”. It uses an approach of classic American engine architecture featuring a push-rod valvetrain for compactness (relative to the engine capacity and power) and mechanical solidity along with modern engineering features such as variable direct injection and advanced materials and technology. This engine will see use in various vehicles and come in a variety of evolutions and configurations with the ability to also be utilized in one of the manufacturers most famous and best selling performance vehicles, the Ford Mustang.Chevrolet has introduced an all new 6.6 liter gasoline V8 (not to be confused with the similarly sized Chevrolet Duramax Diesel V8) debuting in its Silverado truck line for the 2020 model year with another even larger gasoline unit reported to be in development, said to have a capacity of well over 500 cubic inches i.e 8 liters.Smaller engines, known as small-block V8s, were fitted in the mid-size car ranges

and generally displaced between 270 cu in (4.4 L) and 360 cu in (5.9 L), though some grew as large as Ford’s 402 cu in (6.6 L) 400. There is overlap between big-block and small-block ranges, the classification refers to the engines external dimensions and its compactness relative to larger big block architectures and is not necessarily indicative of the actual engine displacement capacity. A small-block engine can support displacements equal to that of a block-block or may even have larger displacements as a big-block architecture, and a factory engine between 6.0 and 6.6 L (366 and 403 cu in) could belong to either class. Displacements upwards of 9.8 L (600 cu in) have been achieved and produced by speciality custom engine builders Engines of this general design architecture and category are still in mass production to date primarily by American automakers and continue to be a mainstay for their domestic market. They have been produced for many decades and have much evolved and advanced since their inception in the first half of the 20th century During the 1950s, 1960s, and, 1970s, every GM division had their own unique engines, whose merits and architectures varied. This enabled each division to have its own unique engine character, but made for much duplication of effort. Most, like the comparatively small Buick 215 and familiar Chevrolet 350, were shared across many divisions. Ford and Chrysler had fewer divisions, and favoured brand-specific shared designs. Eventually GM also began to phase-out several division-specific engines in the late 1970s, but has never gone to a single V8 architecture design GM Chevrolet’s modern big block engine family named vortec included the 7400 and 8100. With a 488 cubic inch engine internally named LFI for truck applications engineered with flex fuel capabilities to use CNG or LPG fuels In 2011 GM built its 100-millionth unit of the Chevrolet small-block V8, making that general engine layout (notwithstanding the various evolutions and derivatives it has seen throughout the decades that it has been built) the most produced V8 engine in the world, as well as one of the most commercially successful engines ever.Chrysler and GM have designed larger displacement V8s based on modern small-block V8 archtictures such as Chrysler’s 6.1 L (372.2 cu in) and 6.4 L (390.6 cu in) Eagle and Apache Hemis, and the LS7 7.0 L (427.2 cu in) version of GM’s LS and latest new LT engines Today, professional racing V8s are still common with American cars. Track cars commonly use engines around 4–7 L (240–430 cu in) in size. Pro-stock and Superstock drag racing engines usually use big-block (400–600 cu in (6.6–9.8 L)) Chevrolet or Ford Boss engines, some upwards of 800 cu in (13.1 L), and one 1,005 cu in (16.5 L) big block Chevrolet engine engineered by Sonny Leonard Racing which can rev to 8000 rpm and produces over 2,000 hp (1,491 kW; 2,028 PS) and 1,500 lb⋅ft (2,034 N⋅m) of torque naturally aspirated on regular pump petrol. Competitive drag racing’s nitromethane-fueled Top Fuel dragsters and funny car professional racing classes generally use the aluminum-conversion Chrysler Gen II Hemi. Superchargers for the engines are based on “blowers” used to boost intake gas pressure in large 2-stroke diesel engines, such as the Detroit Diesel. There is also a Ford 500 cu in (8.2 L) Boss Top Fuel/Funny car engine ==== Australian ==== The Australian V8 is typically an American-manufactured unit from either Ford, Chrysler or General Motors The Holden small-block V8 was an all Australian designed and manufactured cast-iron 90° pushrod OHV engine, manufactured in the capacities of 4.2 L (253 CID), 5.0 L (308 CID, later destroked to 304 CID), and 5.7 L (355 CID — Produced by Holden Special Vehicles, never actually built as a ‘production’ motor). First introduced in 1969, ceasing production in 1999, it powered a variety of Holden vehicles including the Kingswood, Monaro, Torana and Commodore, and proved to be a popular and successful powerplant in Australian motorsport (especially Touring cars). Repco also developed and built the Repco-Holden Formula 5000 engine

for Formula 5000 racing. Repco used the block and head castings of the Holden 308 V8 engine as its basis,[9] but it featured many modifications including Lucas fuel injection and dual coil Bosch ignition and more than 150 special components designed by Repco The British Leyland small block V8 was also a pushrod OHV engine, however it was an all alloy block like the American Buick/British Rover V8 it was based on. The stroke was increased to give it a capacity of 4.4 L (270 cu in) The motor was originally designed and fitted to the Leyland P76 sedan As of 2014, the only V8 produced in Australia is the 5.0L V8 built by Ford Performance Vehicles to power its FPV GT & GS models. This motor is a combination of American-sourced and partially locally manufactured parts. The V8 used in current Holdens is sourced complete from GM in Canada, modified versions of the GM LS-series engine When the production of Ford’s Cleveland V8 range for the American market ceased in the early 1970s, the tooling was moved to Australia where Ford’s Australian arm continued to produce a local version of the 351 along with a 302 Cleveland. The Australian-built motors were also sold to De Tomaso to be used in the Pantera and Longchamps. Australian production ceased in 1982, with the last Cleveland-powered Falcon being the XE range (1400-odd 302s and 409 351s) ==== British ==== The Rolls-Royce V-8 was the first British V8. It is a 3.5 L (214 cu in) square engine with side valves and a 90° angle. To compete with electric cars, the engineering priorities of this engine were quietness and refinement over outright power and the design was deliberately shallow to emulate the look of the town brougham A later Rolls-Royce V8 was the Meteorite, an armoured vehicle and marine engine derived from the V12 Rolls-Royce Meteor tank engine by using two-thirds of the Meteor’s cylinders, the Meteor itself being developed from the Merlin aero engine As of 2017, Aston Martin, Bentley, Jaguar, Land Rover, McLaren, and Radical continue to manufacture V8 engines Aston MartinThe V8s used in Aston Martins from 1969 to 2000 were based on an internal design by Tadek Marek and were used in a variety of models, starting with the 1969 DBS V8, followed by the Vantage, Virage, Volante convertible versions among others. After the Vantage was discontinued in 2000, there were no V8 models until the introduction in 2005 of a hand-built dry-sump version of Jaguar’s AJ-V8 with 4.3 L (262 cu in). The block, heads, crankshaft, connecting rods, pistons, camshafts, inlet and exhaust manifolds, lubrication system and engine management are all unique to the Aston Martin. It was used in the V8 Vantage In 2008, capacity was increased to 4.7 L (287 cu in) by using pressed cylinder liners instead of cast-in liners Aston Martin has previously sourced its engines, both V8s as well as V12s, from American manufacturer Ford. Currently, Aston Martin sources its downsized V8 (used in the new Vantage, DB11 V8, and DBS Superleggera) from Mercedes-Benz AutoviaA subsidiary of Riley, Autovia was launched in 1936 with a 2.9 L (177 cu in) 90° V8 to take on the likes of Rolls-Royce and Bentley. The triple camshaft engine was developed from a pair of 1½-litre Riley engine blocks Bentley See Rolls-Royce DaimlerEdward Turner designed the lightweight 2.5 L (153 cu in) and high-performance 4.5 L (275 cu in) hemi-head Daimler V8 engines, announced in 1959. The 2.5 saw service in the Daimler SP250 (1959–1964), and, after the Jaguar takeover, in the “Daimler 2.5 L V8″/”Daimler 250” (1962–1969) versions of the Mk2 Jaguar bodyshell. The 4.5 L was used in the Daimler Majestic Major, (1959–1968) JaguarJaguar introduced its first V8 engine, the AJ-V8, in 1996. It has been developed and updated in a variety of capacities from 3.3 L (201 cu in) (marketed as a 3.2 L) to

5.0 L (305 cu in). It is fitted with variable valve timing and, more recently, direct injection The 4.0 L (244 cu in), 4.2 L (256 cu in), and 5.0 L (305 cu in) engines are available with the option of supercharging for top specification models The AJ-V8 featured on Ward’s 10 Best Engines list in 2000. It has been used Jaguar’s recent executive, luxury and sports cars where it replaced both the AJ6 and V12 units. The AJ-V8 can also be found some upmarket Ford and Lincoln models as well as in David Brown Automotive’s Speedback GT and Land Rovers, including a unique to Land Rover 4.4 L (269 cu in) capacity Land RoverIn 2006 Land Rover added the TDV8 to its list of engines. This diesel powered, twin turbocharged, 90° V8 is made with a compacted graphite iron block and aluminium head which offer good strength but lower weight Initial capacity was 3.6 L (220 cu in) which produced 472 ft⋅lbf (640 N⋅m) at 2000 rpm. In 2010, capacity was increased to 4.4 L (269 cu in) increasing torque to 546 ft⋅lbf (740 N⋅m) at 1,500 rpm. It is currently being used in the Range Rover and Range Rover Sport LotusProject 918 was a V8 engine introduced by Lotus for the S4 Esprit in 1996. The engine was a 3.5 L (214 cu in) unit designed in-house by Oliver Winterbottom, with twin turbochargers and an all-aluminium construction McLarenIn 2010 McLaren Automotive, together with Ricardo, developed the 3.8 L (232 cu in) M838T twin-turbocharged engine, for use in the 12C and later 650S supercars. Evolutions of the M838T have since been used in the 720S, 570S, and Senna (Including its higher performance derivatives), as well as in the P1 accompanied by an electric powertrain RadicalRadical Sportscars offer a V8 powered car, the SR8, whose Powertec RPA engine is based upon two Suzuki Hayabusa engines joined to a common crank, utilising the original heads with a purpose designed block RileyThe Riley 8/90 engine was launched at the 1935 Motorshow. It was two OHV Riley 9 engines combined at 90 degrees Rolls-RoyceRolls-Royce’s first V8 debuted in 1905 but was short-lived. The company is better known for the L Series V8 which started development in 1952 and entered production in 1959, a joint-effort between Rolls-Royce and Bentley led by engineer Jack Phillips Following contemporary design practice, it featured overhead valves (OHV), a central camshaft and wedge-shaped combustion chambers Some of its features were inspired by the Rolls-Royce Merlin aircraft engine, including the aluminium block with wet liners, gear-driven camshaft, (initially) outboard spark-plugs and porting First used in the Rolls Royce Silver Cloud and Bentley S2 while still available in modern Bentleys. Early versions were of 6.25 L (381 cu in) displacement that was increased to 6.75 L (412 cu in) in the 1970s. Turbocharging in various Bentley models beginning in the 1980s with power outputs increased in several steps. It currently produces 530 bhp (400 kW) and 1,100 N⋅m (810 ft⋅lb) in the Bentley Mulsanne Speed, while meeting Euro 6 and LEV II emissions standards. It wasn’t until 2007 that the final components which could be traced back to the 1959 engine were replaced RoverRover’s first foray into V8 engine manufacture came with the Rover Meteorite petrol or diesel engine, which was derived from the 60° V12 Rolls-Royce Meteor engine used in British tanks from 1943. Meteorite was used in trucks and transporters as well as for marine and stationary use Rover needed of a more powerful engine by the mid-1960s for passenger vehicles. The managing director of Rover, on a trip to America where he saw an example of the Buick ‘Small Block’ 215 engine in the Mercury Marine experimental department and was impressed with its light weight and small size relative to its power output and potential. The 3.5 L (214 cu in) V8 was only 12 pounds (5.4 kg) heavier and less than 1 inch (2.5 cm) longer than the 2.0 L (122 cu in) Rover straight-4. He sent

the aluminium engine back to the U.K. for evaluation. It worked well in the large Rovers, being considerably shorter, lighter, and more powerful than the Rover straight 6, and Rover acquired manufacturing rights to it. The engine was introduced in Rover saloons in the late 1960s The engine was marketed to small car manufacturers such as Morgan, TVR, Triumph, Marcos, and MG. Land Rover also used the V8 from 1970, first in the Range Rover starting at 3.5 L (214 cu in) in the earlier models, in the utility defender from 1980 onwards, and then in the Discovery models, where it was increased to 3.9 L (238 cu in) and to 4.6 L (281 cu in) in the 1994–2002 models The original Rover V8 had ended production, but MG Rover decided to re-engineer the Rover 75 in 2002 to fit a 4.6 L (281 cu in) Ford Modular V8 StandardIn October 1936, the Standard Motor Company introduced the ‘Flying V-Eight’ model featuring a 2.7 L (165 cu in) flathead V8 developing 20 RAC horsepower. Used in the flagship model of the company’s ‘Flying Standard’ range, but customers preferred the larger, roomier straight-6 ‘Flying Twenty’ model, which cost less than the Flying V-Eight. Only 250 engines were made and production ended by the summer of 1937. Standard still had some for sale in 1938 at a reduced price TriumphThe 1971 Triumph V8 used the Slant 4 engine as its starting point. Initially it was to be fitted with fuel injection, but due to lack of funds at parent company Leyland Motors, the system was never perfected and twin carburettors were used instead. Low quality manufacturing garnered the engine a poor reputation and the 3.0 L (183 cu in) V8 was used only in the Triumph Stag TVRThe specialist sports car firm TVR also produced their own V8 engine in 4.2 L (256 cu in) 350 bhp (261 kW) and 4.5 L (275 cu in) 440 bhp (328 kW) forms for the TVR Cerbera and Tuscan racer. Designed by Al Melling, the APJ8 engine is known as the Speed Eight and features a flat-plane crank and unusual 75° V. The engine is lightweight, weighing just 121 kg dry ==== Chinese ==== First Automobile Works introduced the first V8 engine in Asia in 1959, used in Hongqi luxury automobiles ==== Czech ==== Tatra used their air-cooled V8 engines from 1934, when introduced Tatra 77 (first serial-produced aerodynamically designed car). These culminated in the 2.5 L unit used in the Tatra T603 range of cars. The most powerful of these was fitted to the racing variant — known as the B-5 This was a higher compression version of the standard engine which replaced a standard single 2BBL carburettor with two 4BBL downdraft units on a new induction manifold. Tatra later produced another air-cooled engine, used in Tatra 613 and later, in Tatra 700. These engines were well known for their reliability, good fuel consumption, and specific sound In the Tatra 603, two engine driven fans help pull cooling air into the engine bay — when the vehicle is in motion the air enters through intakes in the rear wing panels and is exhausted through cut-outs below the bumper and alongside the engine itself. In the Tatra 613, one large ventilator pushes fresh cold air into the engine bay Tatra has used V8 air-cooled engines in their heavy duty trucks until the present day in their Tatra 815 and other models ==== French ==== While France developed the very first V8 engines, they used it for pioneer era airplanes before 1910. The French De Dion-Bouton motorcar firm did produce a V8 engine for sale in a car in 1910. During the collectible, Art Deco age of French automobiles in the 1920-30s, makes like Delage, Delahaye, Talbot-Lago, Bugatti and Hotchkiss et Cie used Inline-6 and Inline-8 cylinder engines In 1934, Citroën developed a Traction Avant

V8 (The 22CV), but possibly due to the bankruptcy of the firm that year, this engine was never finalized for production Ford Société Anonyme Française built V8 powered cars (to a U.S. design) through its Matford subsidiary in Strasbourg, France from 1935 to 1954. After WW2, the vehicles badged Ford. Simca purchased Ford SAF in 1954, including the rights to continue building the V8, in the Simca Vedette. Facel, a bodywork subcontractor to Ford SAF,also built V8 cars, using Chrysler engines, from 1954 to 1964.After WW2, France imposed very steep Tax horsepower charges – the owners of cars with engines above 2 litres were financially penalized, so France had a very small domestic market for larger engined cars, such as the V8.Both the Citroën SM and the “PRV” (Peugeot, Renault, Volvo) V6 were effectively 90 degree V8 motors, with two cylinders removed An SM V8 was created as a test bed for the 1975 Maserati Quattroporte that never saw full-scale production, due to the 1974 bankruptcy of Citroën. This car was fully developed and suitable for road use. The 1973 oil crisis made a French car with a V8 engine even more difficult to rationalize In the 1970s. Gordini also developed a 3 L V8 for the Alpine A310, but a Renault 4-cylinder block was mounted instead because of cost issues France does not currently build any V8 powered cars for road use ==== German ==== German companies that have manufactured V8 engines include Argus Motoren, who produced among other models the Argus As 10 inverted V8 air-cooled aircraft engine from 1928 to 1945. Horch introduced the 830 Series V8 in 1933 as a smaller alternative to their inline-8 models In the early 1960s, Mercedes-Benz introduced the first post-WWII V8 engine by a German/European manufacturer with their M100 engine, which was first used in the 600 Pullman Limousine and later in their high-end sedans such as the 300 SEL 6.3. The successors to the M100, the M116 and M117, were available in the SL and SLC roadster and coupe as well as the S-Class four-door sedans Other firms making V8 engines include the Volkswagen Group (Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, MAN, Porsche, and Volkswagen), BMW, and Stoewer ==== Italian ==== Alfa Romeo The Alfa Romeo Montreal was powered by a dry sump 2,593 cc (158.2 cu in) 90° quad-cam 16-valve V8 (type 00564) derived from the Tipo 33 race car. Because of the limited space available for the cross-plane crankshaft, the physically small but heavy crank counterweights were made of a sintered tungsten alloy called turconit. The Montreal V8 was rated at 230 hp (170 kW) at the flywheel and weighed 162 kg (357 lb). There were also eighteen 33 Stradale cars built with a detuned 1,995 cc 260 hp (190 kW) Tipo 33/2 flat-crank engine. The Montreal cross-crank engine was also used in a very limited production run of 22 Alfetta GTV2.6i. The Alfa Romeo 8C Competizione sports car has a Ferrari-built 4,691 cc (286.3 cu in) 450 PS (330 kW; 440 hp) cross-crank V8 Ferrari Arguably, Ferrari had their first contact with V8 power with the “inherited” Lancia D50s in 1955. Ferrari adopted the V8 configuration for themselves for racing in 1962 with the 268 SP. The first V8-powered Ferrari road car was 1974’s 308 GT4, with the familiar 308 GTB following closely behind. The company continued to use this Dino V8 engine ever since with the 328, 348, and successors. Ferrari’s smallest V8 (and indeed, the smallest ever) was the 2.0 L (1990 cc) unit found in the 1975 208 GT4. The company produced a slightly

larger 2.0 L V8 in the 208 GTB and the 2.9 L Ferrari F40 of the 1980s. This was a turbocharged engine to reduce the road tax of the car in Italy. Automobiles with engines displacing more than 2.0 Litre were subject to a much higher tax rate. Five-valve-per-cylinder versions of Ferrari’s 3.5 L and 3.6 L V8s were found in the Ferrari F355 and Ferrari 360. The old Dino V8 was retired for 2004 with the introduction of a 4.3 L V8, based on the originally Ferrari designed Maserati 4.2 V8, in the F430 and the California. And F430’s successor, 458 Italia, with 4.5 V8 Fiat The only Fiat to have a V8 was the Fiat 8V The engine was a very compact OHV 1996 cc (122 CID) V8 with a 70° V angle and 2 valves per cylinder. The Fiat 8V was designed to participate in the Italian two-litre racing class. Fiat also built a V8 Diesel introduced in 1975 Des-8280 naturally aspirated producing 350 hp (261 kW) for their heavy trucks and later superseded by turbocharged units in the mid eighths IVECO The only Italian diesel V8 engine is built by IVECO since 1984, named IVECO-aifo. The engine is used for instance in specific IVECO heavy duty trucks Turbotech, Turbostar (360, 380, 420 and 480 PS), Eurostar (480 and 520 PS), Orlandi Poker built coaches, Astra HD7 (8×4 or 8×6, 520 PS), power generation and marine applications LamborghiniLamborghini built V8 engines for several of their car lines, including the Urraco, Silhouette, and Jalpa. Lamborghini is also set to build a V8 engine for the Urus Lancia During a brief period Lancia used V8 engines in their top of the range luxury cars in the interwar period. The first V8 engine in a Lancia vehicle was available in 1922 in the Trikappa with a 4595 cc (280 CID) making 98 bhp (73 kW). In 1928 they introduced the Dilambda with a 3956 cc (242 CID) V8 developing 100 bhp (75 kW). Later in 1931 the Astura was unveiled with two smaller versions of the existing V8, 2604 cc (159 CID) and 2973 cc (181 CID) with 72 bhp (54 kW) and 82 bhp (61 kW) respectively. All of those engines featured Lancia’s trademark narrow angle V (less than 25°). In late 1987 Lancia introduced their top of the range luxury sedan the Lancia Thema 8.32 (Y9) which was powered by a V8 out of corporate sibling brand’s Ferrari 308. It was a 3-litre (2927cc) unit, the 8 indicated the cylinders while the 32 indicated the number of valves. The model was of very low production numbers and was produced until May 1992 Maserati Maserati have used V8s for many of their models, including the Maserati Bora and the Maserati Khamsin. This engine was initially designed as a racing engine for the Maserati 450S The company’s latest 4.2 L V8, found in the Maserati Quattroporte and Maserati Coupé & Spyder was originally designed by Ferrari, and is related to the 4.3 L V8 in the F430 ==== Japanese ==== Japanese manufacturers are traditionally not known for V8 engines in their roadcars. However, they have built a few V8 engines to meet the needs of consumers, as well as for their own racing programs. In Japan, V8 engines are regarded as an expensive luxury item, due to Japanese Government engine displacement regulations that impose a yearly annual tax for engines that exceed 2000cc. Most Japanese manufacturers have introduced and installed 2.0L V6 engines in large Japanese vehicles that are adequately powerful, making a 2.0 L V8 impractical HondaHonda has never built its own V8 for passenger vehicles. However, it did rebadge

a Land Rover Discovery Series I with a Rover V8 as the Honda Crossroad for the Japanese market. In the late 1990s, the company resisted considerable pressure from its American dealers for a V8 engine with American Honda reportedly sending one dealer a shipment of V8 beverages to silence them.Honda has built V8s for racing, most notably for Formula One. Honda was the sole engine builder for Indy Racing from 2006 through 2011. The Honda Indy V8 has a 10,300 rpm redline. Also, their affiliate Mugen Motorsports (now known as M-Tec) has built racing V8s that eventually found their way into limited production road cars as well as concept cars Their MF408S engine, which powers cars in the ALMS, is also found in prototype racers such as the Mooncraft Shiden. It is the engine in the Honda Legend based Honda Max concept Mitsubishi In 1999, Mitsubishi Motors developed an alloy-headed 4.5 L V8, dubbed the 8A8, with double overhead camshafts and gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology for use in its Proudia and Dignity models. Financial pressures forced the company to discontinue sales of both these vehicles after only fifteen months NissanNissan built its first V8, the Y40, in 1965 for its President limousine. The Y engine has been succeeded by two families of V8, the VH series during the 1980s and 1990s and the new VK series, which is also used in select Infiniti models ToyotaToyota’s first V8 engine family was the V series used in the Toyota Crown Eight luxury car introduced in April 1964. This engine remained in use in the Toyota Century limousine from 1967 onward until it was replaced by a V12 in 1997. Other Toyota V8 families are the UZ engines and its replacement, the new UR series, both of which have been used as powerplants for Toyota trucks and SUVs as well as trucks, SUVs, and larger cars of Toyota’s luxury brand, Lexus. Toyota had also built V8 Formula One engines under the RVX series for Toyota Racing, Williams F1, Midland F1, and Jordan Grand Prix teams Yamaha While better known as a manufacturer of motorcycles, Yamaha also makes engines under contract from auto-manufacturers. They currently produce a V8 engine in conjunction with Volvo Cars the Volvo XC90 and previously the Volvo S80 They also had a contract with Ford in the 1990s to produce a V8 (3.4 L) for the Ford Taurus SHO ==== Korean ==== Hyundai produce a number of V8 engines including the D8 diesel, the 4.5 L (275 cu in) Omega – originally a Mitsubishi design (see above) – and the 4.6 L (281 cu in) Tau ==== Swedish ==== The most well-known Swedish V8 engine producer, is probably Scania AB, with the 14 L (854 cu in) diesel, which was released in 1969 for use in the 140 model heavy trucks. At this point, the 350 hp (261 kW) turbo-charged engine was among the most powerful diesel engines offered in Europe. Scania continues using a V8 as its largest displacement engine at 16 L (976 cu in) producing maximum 730 hp (544 kW), for the R-series and S-series (in buses and coaches he uses I6). Emission norms range between Euro 3-Euro 6 depending on which market the vehicle is sold to.Volvo’s 1950s concept car Philip also had a gasoline V8 engine. The car never went into production, but the engine evolved into a 120 hp 3.6 L V8 (in many aspects a “double B18” engine) for use in the light trucks Volvo Snabbe and Volvo Trygge from the late 1950s on Small scale Supercar manufacturer Koenigsegg has developed a 5.0 L (305 cu in) twin-turbocharged V8 producing 1140 bhp for use in their Agera models. This engine is unique in that it is a flexible fuel engine and produces more power while running on biofuel than on regular unleaded Previously Koenigsegg utilized a Ford Powerplant, namely the Ford Modular 4.7L V8 ==== Soviet ==== ZIS, ZIL For the ZIL-111 (1959), an all-new aluminium

6 L OHV V8 was developed, initially it produced 200 hp (149 kW) at 4200 rpm ZIL-114 (1967) was powered by a 6,960 cc (425 cu in) V8 giving 300 hp (224 kW) at 4400 rpm Its more modern derivative model, the ZIL-41047, is powered by a ZIL-4104 engine, a 7680 cc carburetted V8 giving 315 hp (235 kW) at 4600 rpm The ZIL trucks used (and still use) a modification of this engine (cast-iron block, aluminum heads, 6L, 150 hp (112 kW) at 3200 rpm, 6.5:1 compression rate, one 2-bbl carburetor) GAZ (ZMZ) Several cars produced under the Volga brand name: the GAZ-23 (1962–1970), GAZ-24-24 V8 (1974–1992), and GAZ-31013 V8 (1982–1996) In addition, both generations of the GAZ Chaika limousines (1959–1982 and 1976–1988) were powered by an all-aluminum OHV 5.5L V8. These engines were designated ZMZ-13 (GAZ-13), one 4-bbl carburetor), ZMZ-14 (GAZ-14), two 4-bbl carburetors), ZMZ-2424 (Volga GAZ-24-24), ZMZ-505 (two 4-bbl carburetors) and -503 (one 4-bbl carburetor) (GAZ-24-34, GAZ-31013) Power output varied from 195–220 hp (145–164 kW). A modification of the same engine was also used in the BRDM-2 military armored vehicle, designated ZMZ-41 The GAZ-53 was powered by a 4,254 cc (259.6 cu in) ZMZ-53 engine, which substantially was a modification of the Chaika’s engine with one 2-bbl carburetor and decreased displacement and compression ratio. More modern version of the GAZ engine for intermediate trucks is designated ZMZ-511 ==== Spanish ==== Spanish truck and sportscar company Pegaso made around 100 cars in the 1950s and 1960s There were two types of engines; the Z-102 and the Z-103/4 engines The Z-102 first introduced in 1951 engine was an advanced design sporting quadruple camshafts (two per bank) and had 2 valves per cylinder. It was available with 1, 2 or 4 twin Weber carburettors and either normally aspirated or with one or two superchargers It had three different capacities, 2472 cc (151 CID), 2816 cc (172 CID) and 3178 cc (194 CID) and made between 165 bhp (123 kW) and 360 bhp (270 kW) The Z-103/4 developed in the mid/late 1950s (the first prototype was made in 1954) was a much simpler design destined to power a new series of luxury and sportscars. It had a single central camshaft and 2 valves per cylinder actuated by pushrods. It had hemispherical combustion chambers (like the Z-102 engine) and twin spark plugs. It was available with three different cubic capacities as well, 3900 cc (238 CID), 4500 cc (275 CID) and 4700 cc (287 CID). The 3.9 L engine had a twin Weber carburettor and the 4.5 and 4.7 L engines 2 quadruple Weber carbs, which gave the later a power output in excess of 300 bhp (220 kW) The very few engines of this type produced were installed in Z-102 cars === Other === ==== Aviation ====

In aviation, V8 engines have been used by a variety of applications such as the pre-World War One Renault 8G which powered numerous pioneer aircraft, the World War One Hispano-Suiza 8 which powered many fighters including the SPAD XIII and the American Curtiss OX-5 which powered the Curtiss Jenny trainer, and many other aircraft in the early post war period During World War II the Argus As 10 inverted, air-cooled German V8 was used in trainers and small utility aircraft ==== Marine ==== There are numerous marine diesel engines of V8 configuration including the Brons V8 two-stroke diesel engine, and engines by Scania and Yanmar However, the configuration is not common in large marine engines. In June 2015, Wärtsilä published a new engine type (Wärtsilä 31) which is also available in V8 configuration The 8V31 weighs 56 metric tons and is rated at 4,880 kilowatts (6,540 hp) ==== Motorcycle ==== Moto Guzzi of Italy built a 148 kg (326 lb) 82 bhp (61 kW) water-cooled DOHC V8 4-stroke motorcycle for Grand Prix racing between 1955 and 1957, referred to as the Moto Guzzi Grand Prix 500 cc V8. It was known as the Otto Cilindri, and had a very high power output but was not developed to its full potential. Each cylinder had its own carburetter Around 1964, Finnish TT motorcyclist technician area lecturer Tauno Nurmi built a 350 cc DOHC V8-powered 4-stroke motorcycle engine by the name V8 PREMIER. V angle is 90° and it is air-cooled. Each cylinder has its own carburettor It is his own design and construction.Morbidelli produced an 848 cc V8 in 1994. Earlier, Galbusera had produced a two-stroke V8 in 1938 Honda released the NR750 in 1992. The bike had a 750 cc V4 with oval pistons, utilising 8 valves per cylinder and 2 conrods per piston; the design allowed the engine to meet FIM racing regulations limiting the number of cylinders to 4, while providing the valve area (and therefore increased efficiency) of a V8 ==== Motorsport ==== For the 2.5 L Formula One era of 1954–1960, two British racing V8s were built in Coventry One was the Coventry Climax FPE named the Godiva, and the other was the little-known Brooke Weston Because of Coventry Climax’s decision not to release the engine to Kieft, HWM and Connaught at the time, the Godiva did not debut until 1966 when it raced under the 3 Litre formula on Shannon F1 at the British GP with an enlarged 3 Litre displacement Brooke Weston DOHC V8 was scheduled to be installed on an ERA, but this did not materialise due to Leslie Johnson’s declining health prompted the sale of ERA, which pulled out of the project Lancia raced Vittorio Jano designed V8 DS50 engine on Lancia D50 in 1954. When Lancia withdrew from racing in 1955, Ferrari bought the Lancia team and continued to develop it Juan Manuel Fangio won the 1956 World Drivers’ Championship in the DS50-powered Ferrari-Lancia D50 The 1.5 L Formula One era of 1961–1965 included V8 engines from Ferrari, Coventry Climax, BRM, and ATS. Ferrari, BRM and ATS used their engines in their cars, while Coventry Climax and BRM sold engines to constructors. Apart from Phil Hill’s 1961 World Drivers’ Championship, which he won in a V6-powered Ferrari, all the other World Drivers’ Champions (Graham Hill in 1962, Jim Clark in 1963, John Surtees in 1964, and Clark again in 1965) drove V8-powered cars to their victories. Also, from 1962 to 1965, the top three manufacturers in each season’s Manufacturer’s Championship all predominantly used V8 engines in their cars The first two seasons of the 3.0 L normally aspirated/1.5 L supercharged Formula One era of 1966–1986 were won by Brabham cars with Repco V8 engines. From 1968 to 1981, F1 was

largely dominated by teams using the Cosworth DFV engine. During this time, the Manufacturers’ Championship was won by Cosworth DFV powered cars every season except 1975, 1976, 1977, and 1979, which were won by 12-cylinder Ferraris Graham Hill, Jochen Rindt, James Hunt, Mario Andretti, Alan Jones, Nelson Piquet, and Keke Rosberg each won a World Drivers’ Championship in a Cosworth DFV powered car, while Emerson Fittipaldi won two and Jackie Stewart won three Throughout the 1970s the Cosworth V8 faced stiff competition from the V12/Flat 12 engines of Matra, Ferrari and Alfa Romeo. However, because of the 90 degree V8 design of the Cosworth, it was much lighter, simpler, more fuel efficient and more compact than its 12-cylinder rivals. What kept the Cosworth V8 competitive was because it was a compact, narrow engine it had less frontal area than a V12/flat 12, giving the teams who used it better aero balance resulting in better downforce and straightline speed. In the late-1970s, Lotus used “ground effect” venturi tunnels with “sliding skirts” to enhance roadholding and the Lotus 79 powered by the FV V8 dominated the 1978 season, ending Ferrari’s three year dominance of the constructors championship. The Ligier and Brabham also switched from bulky heavy V12s to the DFV during the 1979/1980 seasons. The 15-year-old Cosworth DFVV was narrow and fit the ground effects better than the Ferrari flat 12. The British kit car teams used the old engine to exploit ground effect to win the drivers championship in 1978, 1980, 1981, and 1982 Between the years 1995 and 2005, all Formula One cars used engines with a 3-litre displacement, by 2005 these were all V10s. Later regulations and safety concerns by the FIA considered speeds were getting too high to be safe, after the complete banning of turbochargers in 1989, the permitted engine size was further reduced to 2.4 L V8. This reduced average power output of the engines from 900–950 bhp (670–710 kW), in the 2005 season, to a 2006 season average of approx. 750–800 bhp (560–600 kW) — equivalent to power outputs that were being achieved on 3 L around the 1999/2000 seasons. This also had the effect of reducing overall costs for the teams, an aim pursued by FIA.From 2006 to 2013, Formula One ran with 2.4 litre (146.4 cu in) naturally-aspirated V8 engines. These were replaced the following year by 1.6 litre (97.6 cu in) turbocharged V6 engines In 2005, the newly-formed GP2 Series (now the FIA Formula 2 Championship) used 4.0 litre (244 cu in) naturally-aspirated V8 engines supplied by Mecachrome until the end of the championship’s final season in 2016, which was also originally proposed to be the last season for these engines before a new engine package along with a new chassis was introduced for the 2017 season. However, the series decided to continue to use this engine for a further season due to another cost-cutting. When the series was renamed the FIA Formula 2 Championship in 2017, this was the final season these engines were used and they were replaced the following season by 3.4 litre (207 cu in) turbocharged V6 engines supplied by Mecachrome In the American ‘Top Fuel’ class of Drag Racing, V8 engines displacing 500 cu in (8 L) today produce outputs of over 10,000 hp (7,457 kW; 10,139 PS), (1000+hp per cylinder) and 7,400 foot-pounds of torque Based on the Chrysler Hemi and running on highly explosive Nitro-Methane fuel, these immensely powerful engines propel the cars from 0–100 km/h (0–62 mph) in 0.2 seconds, from 0–161 km/h (0–100 mph) in 0.8 seconds or less, and from 0–523 km/h (0–325 mph) in under 4.5 seconds.American premier stock car racing NASCAR series has been dominated by American V8 engines since the introduction of the Oldsmobile Rocket 88 engine The world’s fastest non-jet-powered, i.e piston engine powered, wheeled land vehicle, the Speed Demon, which achieved a speed of 462.345 mph, is powered by an American V8

engine The vehicle utilizes highly modified V8 engines based on the Chevy small-block architecture, ranging in size from 299 to 388 cubic inches, with power outputs from 1980 hp for the smallest unit i.e. the 288 cui, to 2670 hp and 1310 lb. -ft. of torque for the 388 cui unit.British BriSCA F1 Stock Cars (and their counterparts from the Netherlands) use American V8 engines for racing; typically Chevrolet small blocks for tarmac tracks and big blocks, displacing as much as 590 cu in (10 L), for racing on shale ovals. V8 Hotstox, which often run at the same fixtures as BriSCA F1 stock cars, tend to use Rover V8 engines of approximately 3.5 litre capacity, which in turn originally were based on the American 215 Buick V8 engine == See also == W8 engine == Notes

LBJ Library Civil Rights Summit – Day 2 – Afternoon Panels (12:30-4:00 pm CDT)

TEST TEST TEST TEST TEST TEST

TEST TEST TEST >> >> >> >>> >> >>> >>> >> >>> >> >>> APRIL 9, 2014, CIVIL RIGHTS SUMMIT >> WELCOME TO THE CIVIL RIGHTS SUMMIT

THANK YOU TO THE GUITAR QUARTET FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS

BUTLER SCHOOL OF MUSIC THIS SESSION IS BEING RECORDED PLEASE SILENCE YOUR MOBILE DEVICES AND RESPECT OTHER GUEST S BY NOT USING FLASH PHOTOGRAPHY DISRUPTIONS WILL RESULT IN IMMEDIATE REMOVAL IF YOU MUST LEAVE THE AUDITORIUM DURING SESSIONS, PLEASE DO SO QUIETLY AND RESPECTFULLY LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, FOLLOWING THIS AFTERNOON’S SESSION, MR TAYLOR BRANCH, CONGRESSMAN JOHN LEWIS WILL BE SIGNING COPIES OF THEIR BOOKS FOR SALE IN THE LOBBY OF THE LBJ PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY >> PLEASE WELCOME THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN, MR. BILL POWERS [APPLAUSE] >> WELL, THANK YOU SO MUCH AND GOOD AFTERNOON IT IS A TRULY GREAT PLEASURE AND HONOR TO WELCOME ALL OF YOU TO THIS AFTERNOON’S SESSION OF THIS ALLERGIC EVENT THIS SUMMIT AS YOU KNOW CELEBRATES THE 50th ANNIVERSARY OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT I’M SO GRATIFIED THAT WE ARE HOLDING IT HERE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AND IN THE LBJ LIBRARY AS MOST OF YOU KNOW, THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS HAS BEEN AN ACTOR IN THE CIVIL RIGHTS STRUGGLE AND NOT ALWAYS ON THE RIGHT SIDE IN 1950 WE WERE THE DEFENDANT IN THE SUPREME COURT CASE OF SWEATT V PAINTER HAPPILY WE LOST THAT CASE [LAUGHTER] THE DECISION SPELLED THE DEATH OF SEPARATE BUT EQUAL, AT LEAST AS A LEGAL MATTER, AND THEREFORE PAVED THE WAY FOR BROWN VERSUS THE BOARD OF EDUCATION ONLY TWO DAYS AFTER THAT HISTORIC DECISION, WE INTEGRATED OUR GRADUATE SCHOOL AND WE BECAME ONE OF THE FIRST FLAGSHIP UNIVERSITIES IN THE SOUTH TO ENROLL AFRICAN-AMERICAN STUDENTS IN THE YEARS THAT FOLLOWED, PROGRESS WAS SLOW AND AT TIMES HALTING WE STILL HAVE CHALLENGES TO OVERCOME YET HERE WE ARE JUST MORE THAN A HALF CENTURY LATER AND WE’RE IN A VERY DIFFERENT WORLD AND THAT’S DUE TO THE LEGACY OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT AND TO THE LEGACY OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT AND TO THE LEGACY OF PRESIDENT JOHNSON [APPLAUSE] AND WE’RE NOT THROUGH, OF COURSE THE PROGRESS MUST CONTINUE IN 2012 U.T. AUSTIN RETURNED TO THE SUPREME COURT TO DEFEND OUR ADMISSIONS POLICY THAT INCLUDES RACE AS ONE OF MANY FACTORS AND TO ARGUE FOR THE CRITICAL EDUCATIONAL IMPORTANCE AND EDUCATIONAL VALUE OF A DIVERSE STUDENT BODY THE SUPREME COURT REMANDED FISH ER TO THE FIFTH CIRCUIT, AND THAT DECISION MAY COME DOWN AT ANY TIME WE STAND READY TO DEFEND DIVERSITY [APPLAUSE] THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS TAKES GREAT PRIDE IN HOSTING THIS

NATIONAL CONVERSATION ON CIVIL RIGHTS AND WE TAKE GREAT PRIDE IN THE SON OF TEXAS, PRESIDENT JOHNSON, WHO WITH THE HELP AND SACRIFICE OF MANY THOUSANDS OF OTHERS FINALLY ENSHRINEED CIVIL RIGHTS INTO OUR LAWS THIS CAMPUS HAS BEEN TIED TO THE JOHNSON FAMILY AND THE JOHNSON ADMINISTRATION FOR A LONG TIME AND AT A VERY DEEP LEVEL THE STRONGEST TIE, OF COURSE COURSE, WAS ALSO ITS EARLIEST WHEN MRS. JOHNSON EARNED NOT ONE, BUT TWO DEGREES HERE IN THE 1930’S HER INVOLVEMENT WITH HER ALMA MATER NEVER WANED AND STILL LIVES ON THROUGH HER DAUGHTERS LYNDA AND LUCI AND THEIR FAMILIES, AND OF COURSE THROUGH THE LBJ FOUNDATION, THE LBJ SCHOOL OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS, THE LBJ LIBRARY AND THE LADY BIRD JOHNSON WILDLIFE CENTER AND AS LBJ BEGAN TO DRAW TALENT FROM TEXAS, OTHER U.T. ALUMNI REPORTED TO THE WHITE HOUSE, LIKE LARRY TEMPLE AND GEORGE CHRISTIAN AND BILL MOYERS AND IN LATER YEARS VETERANS OF THE JOHNSON ADMINISTRATION OFTEN FOUND THEIR HOME ON OUR CAMPUS AND IN 1971 U.T. BECAME THE FIRST UNIVERSITY IN AMERICA TO BE THE HOME OF A PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY I DARE SAY THAT EXPERIMENT HAS BEEN SUCCESSFUL [APPLAUSE] AND THAT SUCCESS HAS NEVER BEEN MORE EVIDENT THAN ON THIS DAY WHEN THE PRESIDENT’S LEGACY AND A UNIVERSITY’S MISSION HAVE COME TOGETHER TO CELEBRATE A HIGH ACHIEVEMENT OF OUR CIVILIZATION AND TO HELP ENSURE ITS FUTURE SO TO MARK UPDEGROVE AND EVERYONE AT THE LBJ LIBRARY, TO THE JOHNSON FAMILY I SAY CONGRATULATIONS, AND TO ALL OF YOU I SAY WELCOME AND THANK YOU FOR HELPING US WITH THIS IMPORTANT AND HISTORIC EVENT THANK YOU VERY MUCH [APPLAUSE] >> LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, THE FOLLOWING IS A CONVERSATION BETWEEN PRESIDENT LYNDON JOHNSON AND MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. THAT TOOK PLACE ON NOVEMBER 25TH, 1963: THREE DAYS AFTER THE ASSASSINATION OF JOHN F KENNEDY >> I WANT TO TELL YOU HOW GRATEFUL I AM AND HOW WORTHY I’M GOING TO TRY TO BE ‘ALL YOUR HOPES >> WELL, THANK YOU VERY MUCH MUCH I’M SO HAPPY TO HEAR THAT AND I KNEW THAT YOU HAD THAT GREAT SPIRIT AND YOU KNOW YOU HAVE OUR SUPPORT AND BACKING BECAUSE WE KNOW WHAT A DIFFICULT PERIOD THIS IS >> WELL, IT’S JUST AN IMPOSSIBLE PERIOD >> IT’S SO IMPERATIVE I THINK ONE OF THE GREAT TRIBUTES THAT WE CAN PAY IN MEMORY OF PRESIDENT KENNEDY IS TO TRY TO ENACT SOME OF THE GREAT PROGRESSIVE POLICIES THAT HE SOUGHT TO INITIATE >> WELL, I’M GOING TO SUPPORT THEM ALL AND YOU CAN COUNT ON THAT AND I’M GOING TO DO MY BEST TO GET OTHER MEN TO DO LIKEWISE I WILL HAVE TO HAVE Y’ALL’S HELP I NEVER NEED IT HAD MORE THAN I DO NOW >> YOU KNOW YOU HAVE IT FEEL FREE TO CALL ON US FOR ANYTHING >> PLEASE WELCOME MR. TOM JOHNSON [APPLAUSE] >> GOOD AFTERNOON I HAD THE GREAT HONOR OF CHAIR ING THE LYNDON B JOHNSON FOUNDATION FOR 30 YEARS AMONG THE FINEST ACHIEVEMENTS THAT CURRENT CHAIRMAN LARRY TEMPLE AND I CLAIM IS THAT WE RECRUITED MARK UPDEGROVE AS THE DIRECTOR OF THIS LBJ LIBRARY AND THIS THREE-DAY PROGRAM IS A TERRIFIC TRIBUTE TO MARK AND HIS WONDERFUL STAFF STAFF MARK, STAND, PLEASE [APPLAUSE] >> FROM 1965 UNTIL THE END OF HIS TERM I SERVED AS AN AIDE TO PRESIDENT JOHNSON ON APRIL 4, 1968, I HAD THE SAD DUTY OF TAKING A FLASH ASSOCIATED PRESS MESSAGE INTO THE OVAL OFFICE AND HANDED IT TO PRESIDENT JOHNSON THAT READ DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING HAS BEEN SHOT IN MEMPHIS OUR WORLD CHANGED THAT TRAGIC DAY PRESIDENT JOHNSON HAD ENORMOUS RESPECT FOR DR. KING

THEY WORKED CLOSELY TOGETHER TO PASS THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT ACT, THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT, WHAT WE ARE CELEBRATING THIS WEEK, 50 YEARS LATER OUR PANELISTS TO DISCUSS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THESE TWO MEN IS ABOUT AS GOOD AS IT GETS FIRST, DORIS CONCERNS GOOD GOODWIN, A PULITZER PRIZE WINNING AUTHOR, A FORMER MEMBER OF THE LBJ WHITE HOUSE STAFF AND ONE OF THE FIRST MEMBERS OF THE WHITE HOUSE FELLOWS PROGRAM THAT WAS CREATED BY PRESIDENT JOHNSON AND BY JOHN GARDENER GARDENER JOE CALIFANO, WHO SERVED AS DOMESTIC AFFAIRS ADVISOR, BETTER PUT, DOMESTIC AFFAIRS CZAR FOR PREJUDICE FROM 1965 TO 1969 AMBASSADOR ANDREW YOUNG, ONE OF DR. KING’S VERY CLOSEST AIDES, THE FIRST AFRICAN-AMERICAN UNITED STATES CONGRESSMAN ELECTED FROM THE DEEP SOUTH SINCE RECONSTRUCTION APPOINTED BY PRESIDENT CARTER AS UNITED STATES AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED NATIONS AND MAYOR OF MY CITY OF ATLANTA FROM 1982 UNTIL 1990 1990 TAYLOR BRANCH, PAUL LIT PULITZER PRIZE WINNING AUTHOR BEST KNOWN FOR HIS WRITINGS ON CIVIL RIGHTS, HIS BOOK, PARTING THE WATERS, AMERICA IN THE KING YEARS, WON THE PULL PULITZER IN 1989 OUR MODERATOR TODAY IS TODD PURDUM, A CONTRIBUTING EDITOR AT VANITY FAIR, A SENIOR EDITOR AT POLITICO HE RECENTLY PUBLISHED A BOOK BOOK, AN IDEA WHOSE TIME HAS COME, TWO PRESIDENTS, TWO PARTIES AND THE BATTLE FOR THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 1964 LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, PLEASE WELCOME TODD PURDUM, DORIS KEARNS GOOD WIN, TAYLOR BRANCH, JOSEPH CALIFANO ANDREW YOUNG AND [APPLAUSE] AND >> THANK YOU VERY MUCH TOM AND MARK AND THE ENTIRE STAFF OF THESON LIBRARY AND JOHNSON FOUNDATION IT’S WONDERFUL TO BE HERE I I WANT TO THIS BE A WONDERFUL CONVERSATION AND I HAVE ONLY ONE THING TO SAY TO MY FELLOW PANELISTS, NO FILLIBUSTERS WITH THAT SAID I THINK IT’S FAIR TO SAY THAT LYNDON BAINES JOHNSON AND MARTIN LUTHER KING WERE TWO OF THE MOST COLOSSAL FIGURES OF THE 20TH CENTURY BILL MOYERS, JOHNSON’S LONG TIME AIDE SAID THAT THE PRESIDENT WAS 13 OF THE MOST COMPLEX AND INTERESTING AND DIFFICULT MEN HE HAD EVER MET [LAUGHTER] STAN 11 SON, DR. KING’S CLOSE AIDE, SAID HE WAS ANYTHING BUT THE PLASTER SAINT THAT WHITE AMERICA SO WANTED HIM TO BE SO I THOUGHT THAT WE MIGHT BEGIN OUR DISCUSSION TODAY NOT AT THE BEGINNING OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS BILL, BUT AT THE END ON JULY FOURTH, 1964 1964, BECAUSE I THINK THIS EXCHANGE OFFERS A LITTLE BIT OF A WINDOW INTO THE COMPLEXITY OF THEIR PERSONALITIES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP IT WAS THE FOURTH OF JULY, PRESIDENT JOHNSON HAD COME HOME TO TEXAS AFTER SIGNING THE BILL TWO DAYS BEFORE, AND HE SEIZED ON A QUOTE FROM HIS PRESS SECRETARY THAT HE HAD BEEN IN CONTINUAL TOUCH WITH DR. KING WHY DO YOU SAY THAT, JOHNSON SAID? THAT’S THE LAST THING THE PRESIDENT HAS BEEN IN CONTINUAL TOUCH WITH DR. KING READY SAID HE SAID I’VE SEEN FROM TIME TO TIME DR. KING, WHY DO YOU SAY THAT, JOHNSON DEMANDED WELL, HE SAID, YOU SAW HIM AT THE CEREMONY I SAY, WHY DO YOU SAY IT? BECAUSE I WAS ASKED, BECAUSE THEY HAD SEEN YOU THERE I’M SORRY HE WAS THERE, JOHNSON SAID IT WAS VERY UNFORTUNATE HE WAS THERE AND DON’T YOU GET HUNG IN ON IT SO I WAS STRUCK BY LISTENING TO THAT TAPE AND READING THOSE WORDS THAT ON THE MOMENT OF THE PRESIDENT’S GREATEST TRIUMPH HE WOULD HAVE SUCH COMPLEX FEELINGS ABOUT DR. KING, ALL OF YOU HAVE EXPLORED THAT QUESTION CAN I START WITH YOU, AMBASSADOR YOUNG, WHAT WAS THE NATURE OF PRESIDENT JOHNSON’S INTENSE AND LET’S SAY BRIEF PARTNERSHIP WITH DR. KING? >> WELL, I DON’T THINK IT WAS THAT BRIEF, BUT IT WAS VERY INTENSE AND I THINK HE WAS VERY WARM AND PERSONAL WHENEVER I WENT WITH THEM THERE WAS NEVER AN ARGUMENT, NO TENSION THERE WAS GENTLEMEN’S DISAGREEMENT DR. KING SAW HIMSELF AS HAVING TO KEEP THE PRESSURE ON AND LET ME JUST END WITH THE STORY THAT WHEN WE LEFT BEFORE THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT ACT — RIGHT AFTER THE NOBEL PRIZE, PRESIDENT JOHNSON TALKED FOR AN HOUR ABOUT WHY HE DIDN’T HAVE

THE POWER TO INTRODUCE VOTING RIGHTS LEGISLATION IN 1965 AND GAVE VERY GOOD REASONS, BUT HE KEPT SAYING I JUST DON’T HAVE THE POWER I WISH I DID WHEN WE LEFT, I ASKED DR. DR KING, WELL, WHAT DID YOU THINK? HE SAID I THINK WE HAVE TO FIGURE OUT A WAY TO GET THIS PRESIDENT SOME POWER [LAUGHTER] AND I THOUGHT AT THE TIME THAT IT WAS AWFUL ARROGANT OF HIM TO SAY THAT EXCEPT THAT WE HAD NOT BEEN BACK IN ATLANTA FOR THREE DAYS BEFORE AMELIA BOYNTON CAME OVER FROM SELMA WITH A REPORT ON THE VOTING ATROCITYIES IN SELMA AND PLEADING WITH DR. KING, YOU’VE GOT TO COME HELP US IN SELMA AND THIS WAS NOT ANYTHING WE WERE AWARE OF OR PLANNED IT WAS THRUST UPON US AND WE WENT TO SELMA ON THE SECOND OF JANUARY AND BY THE END OF MARCH THE PRESIDENT HAD ALL THE POWER HE NEEDED TO GET THAT VOTING RIGHTS ACT INTRODUCED >> I WANT TO GET TO SELMA IN A MINUTE I KNOW JOE HAS SOMETHING TO SAY ABOUT THAT BUT IF I COULD JUST START BY ASKING YOU, TAYLOR, LYNDON JOHNSON’S VIEWS ON RACE EVOLVED OVER TIME AND I THINK WHEN HE BECAME PRESIDENT IN THE WAKE OF THE TRAGEDY OF THE ASSASSINATION A LOT OF CIVIL RIGHTS GROUPS WERE NOT SO SURE OF HIS RECORD AFTER ALL, HE WAS MOST KNOWN TO MANY PEOPLE AT THAT POINT FOR HAVING WATERED DOWN THE 57 AND 60 BILLS TO GET THEM PASSED, THE FIRST LAWS SINCE RECONSTRUCTION BUT WHAT WAS THE ARC OF HIS CONSCIOUSNESS ON THE QUESTION OF RACE AND THE NECESSITY OF COMPREHENSIVE CIVIL RIGHTS LAW? >> I DON’T THINK I KNOW HIM WELL ENOUGH TO SAY THAT, AND I CERTAINLY WOULDN’T PRESUME THAT THE ARC IS MEASURED BY HIS VOTING RECORD HIS VOTING RECORD IS A PRACTICAL THING I THINK YOU MIGHT EVEN BE ABLE TO ARGUE THAT HIS VIEWS ON RACE WERE FIXED WHEN HE WAS TEACHING IN COTULLA OR EVEN BEFORE THAT WHEN HE TAUGHT DRAMA IN THE 1920’S BY TEACHING PEOPLE FIRST OF ALL TO MAKE ANIMAL NOISES AND BE COMFORTABLE EXPOSEING THEMSELVES IN FRONT OF OTHER PEOPLE AND GETTING OUT OF THEIR SELF CONSCIOUSNESS ABOUT BEING AROUND OTHER PEOPLE AND GETTING A SENSE OF EXPOSEING YOURSELF TO DIFFERENT KINDS OF PEOPLE I THINK JOHNSON HAD AN ENORMOUS EMPATHY HIS WHOLE LIFETIME AND PRACTICAL POLITICS MADE IT IMPOSSIBLE FOR THAT TO EXPRESS ITSELF UNTIL HE GOT CLOSE TO THE WHITE HOUSE WELL, CERTAINLY IN THE 57 BILL SO I THINK THAT’S A MYSTERY WITH THE MAN IN PUBLIC LIFE AS LONG AS HE WAS IT PRESENTS A MYSTERY LOOKING BACK ON IT, DID HE SUDDENLY HAVE A CONVERSION, WHICH I THINK IS THE COMMON VIEW OF IT, TO TAKE HIS EARLIER VOTES AS REFLECTING HIS INNER FEELINGS AND THAT’S REALLY HARD TO RECONCILE WITH THE SUSTAINED SUSTAINED — NOMINATING THURGOOD MARSHALL IN THE MIDDLE OF THE VIETNAM WAR, I THINK THAT THAT TENDS TO SHOW THE LONGEVITY OF THAT RECORD THROUGH THE UPHEAVAL AND THE BACKLASH AGAINST CIVIL RIGHTS, SHOW THAT THOSE WERE PROBABLY HIS SINCERE VIEWS, AND MY GUESS IS THAT THEY WERE FORMED LONG BEFORE IT IS POPULAR TO BELIEVE THEY WERE THERE >> GEORGE, ONE OF THE REVOLUTIONS TO DOING THIS BOOK AND YOU KNOW BOTH FAMILIES, BOTH MEN, IS JOHN KENNEDY’S ACQUAINTANCE WITH BLACK PEOPLE IS LIMITED TO HIS TWO VALETS AND TO THE LEADERS OF THE MOVEMENT HIMSELF JOHNSON HAD KNOWN PERSONAL PRY VATION, HE HAD KNOWN WHAT HATE CAN DO TO THE EYES OF A CHILD IN COTULLA WHAT WAS YOUR EXPERIENCE WITH HIM IN HIS OWN DISCUSSIONS ABOUT THESE QUESTIONS AND HOW THEY CAME TO US? >> I HAVE NO DOUBT I ONLY KNEW HIM REALLY IN THE LAST YEARS OF HIS LIFE IN 1967 UNTIL HE DIED BUT THERE WAS NO QUESTION THE TIME I SPENT WITH HIM IN THE WHITE HOUSE AND THEN ON THE RANCH HE WAS PROUDEST OF CIVIL RIGHTS OF ANYTHING HE HAD EVER DONE AND HE KNEW THAT IT WOULD STAND THE TEST OF TIME MY SENSE IS THAT ONCE HE BECAME PRESIDENT HE HAD THE POWER AND HE HAD ALWAYS WANTED TO DO MORE THAN HE COULD DO JUST AS TAYLOR SAID, HE WAS STUCK AND IT WAS RIGHT TO REPRESENT THE STATE OF TEXAS TEXAS HE IS A TEXAS SENATOR, HE’S A TEXAS CONGRESSMAN, BUT ONCE HE MOVED — I DON’T THINK IT WAS JUST JOHN KENNEDY’S DEATH, ALTHOUGH THAT GAVE HIM AN OPENING I DON’T THINK IT WAS JUST THE MOVEMENT WAS OUT THERE, ALTHOUGH THAT’S HUGE I THINK WHAT YOU SAID, MR. MR AMBASSADOR, AND WHAT YOU’VE POINTED OUT IN THIS TENSION BETWEEN MARTIN LUTHER KING AND LBJ IS A TENSION FROM THE MOVEMENT OF THE OUTSIDE THAT’S PUSHING TO THE GOVERNMENT FROM THE OUTSIDE IN AND THERE’S A PRESIDENT THAT KNOWS HE NEEDS THE MOVEMENT, BUT THERE WILL BE TENSION NO PRESIDENT WANTS PRESSURE FROM THE OUTSIDE THE SAME TENSION EXISTED BETWEEN LIEN COOL AND FREDERICK — LINCOLN AND FREDERICK DOUGLAS EVENTUALLY THEY BECAME VERY GOOD FRIENDSS AND LINCOLN UNDERSTOOD THAT HE NEEDED FREDERICK DOUGLAS AND THE ABOLITIONISTS JUST AS LBJ

NEEDED THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT AND TOGETHER MARTIN LUTHER KING AND LBJ PRODUCED SOMETHING, THANK GOD THEY WERE THERE AT THAT MOMENT IN HISTORY, THAT CHANGED OUR COUNTRY FOREVER >> SECRETARY CALIFANO — [APPLAUSE] WHAT WOULD YOUR PERSPECTIVE BE ON THEIR RELATIONSHIP? YOU HAD THE GOOD OR BAD LUCK TO BE THERE WHEN THE RELATIONSHIP DISSOLVED IN A WAY >> WELL, I THINK THAT AT BOTH ENDS ENDS, I DON’T KNOW THAT DISSOLVED IN THE SENSE THAT MARTIN LUTHER KING MADE A DECISION ABOUT THE VIETNAM WAR AND THIS WAS THE GREATEST HAIR SHIRT THAT JOHNSON HAD TO WEAR DURING ALL THOSE YEARS I THINK HE ADMIRED KING I THINK THEY WERE BOTH QUITE GOOD AT POLITICS I MEAN, YOU SAID I WANTED TO MENTION SELMA AND ANDREW DID DID JANUARY OF ’65 — ’64, RATHER, IN A PHONE CONVERSATION, ONE OF THESE WONDERFUL TAPEED PHONE CONVERSATIONS BETWEEN KING AND THE PRESIDENT JOHNSON, JOHNSON STARTS TALKING ABOUT ABOUT — ’65, I’M SORRY, ABOUT THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT AND KING REMINDS HIM THAT THE FIVE SOUTHERN STATES HE DIDN’T CARRY HAD THE LOWEST VOTING RECORD AND THEN JOHNSON SAYS TO KING, NOW, THIS — IF YOU CAN FIND THE WORST CONDITION CONDITION — THIS IS JANUARY JANUARY 15TH , 1965 THE WORST CONDITION RUN INTO IN ALABAMA, MISSISSIPPI, LOUISIANA, SOUTH CAROLINA, WHERE PEOPLE WERE DENIED THE RIGHT TO VOTE, TO CAST A VOTE, IF YOU JUST TAKE THAT ONE ILLUSTRATION, GET IT ON THE RADIO, GET IT ON TELEVISION, GET IT IN THE PULPITS, GET IT IN THE MEETINGS, EVERY PLACE YOU CAN, THEN PRETTY SOON THE FELLOW WHO DIDN’T DO ANYTHING BUT DRIVE A TRACTOR WOULD SAY WELL, THAT’S NOT RIGHT THAT’S NOT FAIR THAT WILL HELP US FOR WHAT WE’RE GOING TO SHOVE THROUGH IN THE END [LAUGHTER] AND KING SAYS THAT’S RIGHT AND IF WE DO THAT, JOHNSON SAID , WE’LL BREAK THROUGH IT WILL BE THE GREATEST BREAK THROUGH OF ANYTHING THIS WAS THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT NOT EVEN EXCEPTING THE ’64 ACT I THINK THE GREATEST ACHIEVEMENT OF MY ADMINISTRATION, THE GREATEST ACHIEVEMENT IN FOREIGN POLICY WAS THE PASSAGE OF THE 1964 CIVIL RIGHTS ACT, BUT I THINK THIS WILL BE BIGGER BECAUSE IT WILL DO THINGS THAT EVEN THE ’64 ACT COULDN’T DO INCREDIBLE A PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THESE TWO GUYS THAT, I MEAN, WAS WONDERFUL AND IDEALISTIC AND WHAT HAVE YOU, BUT VERY PRACTICAL KING I THINK, AS YOU INDICATED, KNEW WHAT HE WAS DOING JOHNSON WANTED HIM TO DO IT THERE’S ALWAYS, YOU DON’T LIKE THE PRESSURE AND THE OTHER WONDERFUL EXCHANGE HERE IS IS JOHNSON SAYS TALK ABOUT THE RIGHT TO VOTE, DON’T TALK ABOUT THE RIGHT TO VOTE FOR FOR NEGROES, TALK ABOUT THE RIGHT TO VOTE FOR EVERYBODY >> HE HAD ANOTHER MARVELOUS THING THE WEEKEND THE BILL WAS SIGNED HE CALLED JOHN CONNALLY AND SAID DON’T TALK ABOUT ENFORCING IT, THAT MAKES PEOPLE’S HACK HE WILLS GO UP UP, TALK ABOUT OBEYING IT >> AND THE MEAT OF THE COCONUT THAT WAS ONE OF HIS GREAT METAPHORS LBJ HAD THESE INCREDIBLE METAPHORS, THE MEAT IN THE COCONUT THAT’S WHAT THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT WOULD BE >> AND I WOULD LIKE YOU TO CONTRAST PRESIDENT KENNEDY’S RELATIONSHIP WITH DR. KING IT WAS SAID THEY HAD A PRICKLY RELATIONSHIP THAT KENNEDY THOUGHT HE WAS PREACHY AND STARCHY AND THEY DIDN’T RELATE AT THE POINT OF HUMAN DISCOURSE IT SEEMS THAT IT MIGHT HAVE SERVED THEM WELL IN A WAY >> IT’S JUST BEING SOUTHERN [LAUGHTER] >> IS THAT EARTH THINKNESS? [LAUGHTER] >> PRESIDENT KENNEDY AS YOU SAY REALLY DID NOT UNDERSTAND THE SOUTH OR OUR RACE AND PRESIDENT JOHNSON UNDERSTOOD IT ALL TOO WELL AND DR. KING WOULD SAY WHEN I TALK TO PRESIDENT KENNEDY HE ASKED QUESTIONS FOR AN HOUR, BUT WHEN I GO TO SEE PRESIDENT JOHNSON HE TALKS FOR AN HOUR [LAUGHTER] HE SAID HE KNOWS WHAT HE WANTS TO DO AND HE KNOWS WHAT — HE SAID, I DON’T HAVE TO CONVINCE HIM OF ANYTHING, BUT I THINK THEIR ONLY TENSION WAS I THINK JOHNSON WOULD HAVE LIKED TO HAVE TAKEN THE POVERTY PROGRAM, AID TO EDUCATION, ALL OF THOSE ISSUES FIRST AND THEN COME BACK TO VOTING VOTING AND THAT WAS ONE POINT OF TENSION WE DIDN’T REALLY HAVE THAT CHOICE I MEAN, WE DIDN’T LIKE THE SIT- INS, YOU KNOW? WE DIDN’T LIKE THE BACK OF THE BUS THERE WOULD HAVE BEEN MUCH MORE RELEVANT ISSUES, BUT WE WERE SUBJECT TO THE PRESSURE PRESSURES OF THE PEOPLE

AND — I MEAN, THERE WAS SO MUCH GOING ON WELL, WE SAW IT ON BLOODY SUNDAY >> YES >> THAT WAS A NAZILIKE COMMUNITY >> YOU HAVE SAID THAT THE MOVEMENT IN THE STREETS AND THE GRASSROOTS EFFORT THAT WAS SO WIDESPREAD ACROSS THE COUNTRY WAS DRAFTING THE ’64 BILL AZURE LY AS THE ALL WHITE LAWYERS IN THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT AND THE WHITE HOUSE AND THE CONGRESS WERE DOING THAT BUT THE TRUTH IS THE PEOPLE IN THE END WHO DID THE LEGISLATIVE SCUT WORK ON THE BILL WERE OVERWHELMINGLY WHITE MEN AT THE TIME WHEN THERE WERE FIVE BLACK MEMBERS OF CONGRESS DORIS, COULD YOU — >> WELL, EXCEPT THAT THEY HAD BEEN 30 OR 40 YEARS OF WORK AT HOWARD UNIVERSITY, YALE, PENNSYLVANIA, AND THE LAW SCHOOLS HAD BASICALLY PATTERNED , FASHIONED THE PATH TO FREEDOM AND THERE WAS PROBABLY MORE TENSION BETWEEN MARTIN LUTHER KING AND THURGOOD MARSHALL THAN THERE WAS BETWEEN MARTIN LUTHER KING AND LYNDON JOHNSON BECAUSE THURGOOD MARSHALL DID NOT — HE FELT VERY UNCOMFORTABLE WITH US BREAKING THE LAW THE CONCEPT OF CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE WAS NOT SOMETHING HE ADHERED TO BUT ACTUALLY, THE FIRST TIME I READ AN ARTICLE ABOUT CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE WAS WRITTEN BY HARRIS WOFFORD IN THE HOWARD UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW AND I ALWAYS THOUGHT HE WAS BLACK [LAUGHTER] >> YOU KNOW, BUT IT’S THAT FAMOUS EXCHANGE BETWEEN ROY WILKINS AND DR. KING ABOUT WILKINS DEMANDING TO KNOW JUST WHAT HAVE YOU DE DESEGREGATED, MARTIN, AND HE SAID MAYBE ONLY A FEW HUMAN RATES HEARTS AND APPARENTLY ONE OF THE HEARTS WAS JOHN KENNEDY IN THE SPRING OF 1963 >> I WOULD LIKE TO SAY HE WAS MOVED BY DR. KING’S WORDS AND EXAMPLE IN THE MOVEMENT, BUT THE FACT OF THE MATTER IS AFTER BIRMINGHAM THE DEMONSTRATIONS SPREAD TO OVER 200 CITIES LIKE WILDFIRE, ALL OVER PRESIDENT KENNEDY SAID THERE WERE EVEN DEMONSTRATIONS ON MILITARY BASES OVERSEAS AND WE’RE EITHER GOING TO PUT IT OUT ONE AT A TIME, RISKING SOMETHING THAT MAKES US LOOK BAD IN THE WORLD, OR WE WILL HAVE TO BITE THE BULLET SO I THINK THAT IT WAS — THE MOVEMENT, THE SYMPATHETIC DEMONSTRATIONS THAT SPREAD FROM BIRMINGHAM CREATED THE PRESSURE THAT PUSHED KENNEDY TO GIVE THAT SPEECH ON THE OTHER HAND, THAT SPEECH OUGHT TO BE MUCH MORE ICONIC THAN IT IS RIGHT NOW IT RANKS WAY BEHIND ASK NOT WHAT YOU DO FOR YOUR COUNTRY, BUT WE ARE CONFRONTED PRIMARILY WITH THE MORAL ISSUE IT IS AS OLDS AS THE SCRIPTURES AND CLEAR AS THE U.S CONSTITUTION IS WHAT DR. KING HAD BEEN ASKING HIM TO SAY THAT WAS A SHINING MOVEMENT AND THE NIGHT EDGAR MEDGARS WAS KILLED I THINK IT WAS AN ISOLATED MOMENT AND A COMBINATION OF IT WAS NOT WRITTEN HE DECIDED TO DO IT THAT AFTERNOON AND WAS STILL WRITING IT — >> EXACTLY >> IT WAS IMPROMPTU AND IN SOME SENSES IT CAME FROM THE HEART AND THAT’S ONE OF THE BEST THING YOU CAN SAY ABOUT THAT THAT HIS HIGHEST SPEECH CAME FROM THE HEART AND THE PRESSURE S OF THE MOVEMENT, BUT THE PRESSURES WERE SEVERE AND HE WAS CUTTING LOOSE FROM THE DEMOCRATIC SOUTHERN BASE THAT HAD ANCHORED DEMOCRATS IN THE WHITE HOUSE FOR A CENTURY AND HE KNEW THAT, BUT HE DID IT WITH VERY FINE WORDS >> I THINK I WAS GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE ARMY AT THE TIME OF THE ’63 MARCH AND INITIALLY ROBERT KENNEDY, WHO JOHN DOUGLAS WAS HIS REPRESENTATIVE, AND CY VANCE VANCE, SECRETARY OF THE ARMY ARMY, WE MET — JOHN DOUGLAS AND I MET WITH TWO OTHERS AND BOBBY KENNEDY DID NOT WANT THE MARCH TO TAKE PLACE PLACE, VANCE DID NOT WANT THE MARCH TO TAKE PLACE THE KENNEDYS SAW THIS AS A POLITICAL ISSUE THERE WAS NO — I MEAN, BOBBY KENNEDY WAS REALLY TOUGH ON THIS, BUT WE CAME BACK FROM THAT MEETING AND SAID THIS MARCH IS GOING TO HAPPEN AND AT THAT POINT THERE WAS TERRIBLE CONCERN ABOUT THE MARCH JUST TO GIVE YOU A SENSE, WE HAD MILITARY PEOPLE AND MUFT MUFTEE AND THE CROWD, WE CLOSED ALL THE LIQUOR STORES IN WASHINGTON WE LITERALLY CALLED HOTELS TO TELL THEM YOU NEED TO CANCEL EVENTS WE DON’T WANT ANYBODY TO STAY OVERNIGHT COME AND GO, IN AND OUT WE CAN’T TAKE THE CHANCE WE ASKED THE HOTELS TO IMPOSE OUTRAGEOUS PRICES FOR THEIR ROOMS I GOT IN AN ARGUMENT WITH THE CARDINAL IN WASHINGTON BECAUSE THE CATHOLIC CHURCH WAS PROVIDING COTS WE DIDN’T WANT ANY COTS IN THE

GYMS [LAUGHTER] IT REALLY GAVE YOU A SENSE THAT I WATCHED THEM MARCH WITH VANCE IN THE ARMY WAR ROOM, FILM WE HAD PEOPLE ON TOP OF THE LINCOLN MEMORIAL IT WAS ALL REALLY SCARED ABOUT VIOLENCE, VIOLENCE, VIOLENCE AND SORT OF SOMETHING NOBODY REALLY WANTED IF ONLY THESE GUYS — IF ONLY KING WOULDN’T DO THIS IF ONLY THESE GUYS — WE EVEN HAD JOHN LEWIS WHO WILL BE HERE THIS AFTERNOON HAD A STINGING SPEECH ATTACKING KENNEDY AND WE DID EVERYTHING WE COULD TO PUT THE HEAT ON LEWIS TO TONE IT DOWN [LAUGHTER] >> BECAUSE THE ARCHBISHOP WAS GOING TO GET UPSET >> AND I THINK THAT MARCH HAD A PROFOUND IMPACT ON EVERYBODY IN THE GOVERNMENT I MEAN, I BEGAN TO SEE THINGS CHANGE DRAMATICALLY, BUT I WILL SAY, STILL SITTING IN THE PENTAGON THEN THEN, WITHIN A MONTH AFTER JOHNSON BECAME PRESIDENT THE GOVERNMENT CHANGED I MEAN, THE PRESSURE TO DO CIVIL RIGHTS — YOU KNOW BETTER THAN I DO, TAYLOR, BUT IT WAS IN HIS GUT IT WAS REALLY IN HIS GUT >> DORIS, IF I COULD ASK YOU ABOUT THAT BECAUSE HERE HERE IN THIS WONDERFUL INSTITUTION WITH NO DISRESPECT TO PRESIDENT JOHNSON’S CLAUSAL ROLE IN THIS BILL, IT’S FAIR TO SAY THAT MANY OTHER PEOPLE IN CONGRESS HAD A HAND IN IT TOO AND WE FORGET AND PROBABLY PRESIDENT JOHNSON WILL BE EAGER TO REMIND US WHAT A CRUCIAL ROLE THE REPUBLICANS PLAYED, FOR EXAMPLE , BUT I THINK IT’S LESS WELL-KNOWN THAT IN THE SENATE PARTICULARLY THE PRESIDENT WAS HALFING YOU CAN READ IN THE TRANSCRIPTS HE WAS CHOMPING AT THE BIT AT MIKE MANSFIELD AND HUBERT HUMPHREY WANTED WANTING THEM TO HOLD THE SENATE AROUND THE CLOCK AND THEY WANTED THE SENATORS TO TALK AND EXHAUST THEMSELVES WHAT DISCIPLINE MUST IT HAVE TAKEN HIM TO RESTRAIN HIMSELF, CONTROL HIMSELF AND NOT APPLY THE JOHNSON TREATMENT WILLIE WILLY-NILLY AS PART OF GETTING THE BILL DONE >> THAT SHOWS EXTRAORDINARY UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONGRESS HE KNEW FOR A CERTAIN PERIOD OF TIME HE HAD TO TRUST HIS LEADERS THERE, PARTICULARLY HUBERT HUMPHREY WHO DID AN EXTRAORDINARY JOB DURING ALL OF THIS HE WOULD CALL WHEN HE NEEDED TO THE DISCUSSIONS WITH DIRKSON DIRKSON ARE JUST FABULOUS YOU COME WITH ME ON THIS BILL AND TWO HUNDRED YEARS FROM NOW THEY WILL KNOW ONLY TWO NAMES, ABRAHAM LINCOLN AND EDGAR DIRK SON AND THE NAACP WILL BE FLYING YOUR BARN BUT JUST TO GO BACK TO WHAT WE WERE SAYING BEFORE, I THINK THAT TENSION BETWEEN A SOCIAL MOVEMENT, PUSHING AT A PRESIDENT, IS THE BEST MOMENT IN OUR AMERICAN HISTORY, THE PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT PUSHED IT, TEDDY ROOSEVELT, THE BACK RITIONIST BACKRITIONISTS PUSHED ABRAHAM LINCOLN AND THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT PUSHED KENNEDY AND JOHNSON THAT’S WHERE THE CHANGE TAKES PLACE, THE WOMEN’S MOVEMENT, THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVIE THEATER, MOVEMENT, AND YOU NEED A PRESIDENT OPEN TO THAT AND I THINK EVEN THOUGH JFK HAD STARTED TO BE OPEN TO IT AFTER THAT MARCH, WHAT YOU NEEDED WAS SOMEBODY WHO WAS GOING TO PUT IT AT THE TOP OF HIS AGENDA AND THAT’S WHAT LBJ DID HE WAS ABLE TO UNDERSTAND THAT HE COULD SAY IN HIS FIRST SPEECH TO CONGRESS, NO MEMORIAL WOULD MATTER TO JFK MORE THAN THE PASSAGE OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS BILL SO HE USED THAT WHOLE FEELING TOWARDS JFK AND HIS DEATH TO HELP HIM, BUT THEN IT BECAME HIS THING AND WHEN YOU HAVE A LEADER THE STATURE OF MARTIN LUTHER KING, WHEN YOU HAVE AN ANDREW YOUNG, WE WERE LUCKY TO HAVE THOSE MOMENTS AI SAID BEFORE IN HISTORY THOSE GENERATIONS DON’T ONLY EXIST GOD ALL MIGHTY WE NEED ONE NOW, A GENERATION OF THOSE KIND OF LEADERS [APPLAUSE] >> I THINK THESE TWO MEN KNEW EACH OTHER EVEN THE WEEK BEFORE THE PRESIDENT DECLINED TO RUN AGAIN I HEARD THEM ON THE PHONE TALKING LIKE BROTHERS, LIKE PASTOR AND MEMBER AND YET IN THE MIDST OF THIS YOU HAD TWO ALIEN FORCES, I THINK, DIVIDING THEM ONE WAS J EDGAR HOOVER AND THE OTHER WAS WHAT I CALLED THE HARVARD MAFIA THAT — >> I THOUGHT YOU WERE GOING TO SAY VIETNAM >> THAT’S THE HARVARD MAFIA >> THE BEST AND BRIGHTEST [LAUGHTER] >> I DIDN’T REALIZE UNTIL NICK COTS BOOK THAT WRITE ABOUT BLOODY SUNDAY WAS THE OVERTHROW OF ONE OF THE GOVERNMENTS IN VIETNAM AND JOHNSON WAS NOT FOCUSED ON VIETNAM AT ALL, HE WAS TRYING TO DEAL WITH SELMA AND MCNAMARA SAID WHY DON’T WE SEND IN TWO BATTALIONS AND JOHNSON SAID WE CANNOT WIN THIS WAR

AND MCNAMARA’S ANSWER IS NOBODY WILL KNOW EVERYBODY IS CONCERNED ABOUT ABOUT — WE’LL AT LEAST FLY THE FLAG BUT HE WAS LURED INTO VIETNAM AND ONE OF THE REASONS WHY DR KING STOOD UP AGAINST THE WAR IN VIETNAM WAS HE THOUGHT HE WAS STANDING WITH PRESIDENT JOHNSON BECAUSE PRESIDENT JOHNSON WOULD SAY TO HIM OVER THE PHONE, LOOK, THEY’RE TRYING TO GET ME TO BOMB THIS, THEY’RE TRYING TO GET ME TO DO THAT YOU DON’T KNOW THE JOB I HAVE STANDING UP AGAINST THE GENERAL S THEY WANT MORE TROOPS, THEY WANT — AND SO HE FELT THAT PLUS THE MEETING WITH TRICKN TRICKNOTHAN, WHO EXPLAINED TO HIM THE BUDDHIST POSITION OF THE TENSION BETWEEN THE VIETNAMESE AND THE CHINESE AND IRONICALLY THE ONE WAR I HAD TO MEDIATE AT THE U.N. WAS BETWEEN CHINA AND VIETNAM AND SO THEY WERE WRONG ABOUT VIETNAM AND WE KNEW IT AND NOBODY WOULD ADMIT IT AND THAT I THINK PLUS — AND I STILL DON’T UNDERSTAND WHAT HOOVER’S MOTIVATION WAS WAS BUT HE HAD A SICKEN I HAVE OR HATRED OF MARTIN LUTHER KING >> LET ME JUST PUT IN TWO POINTS ON HOOVER, I REMEMBER I WAS THEN BOB MCNAMARA’S ASSISTANT IN THE PENTAGON AND HOOVER SENT OUT THIS MEMO DESCRIBING DR KING TO ALL THE CABINET OFFICERS UNBELIEVABLE BUT YOU’RE RIGHT ABOUT THE SELMA THING AFTER BLOODY SUNDAY WHEN THE MARCH RESUMEED RESUMEED, JOHNSON SENT TROOPS, WE NATIONALIZED THE GUARD SO THAT WE COULD PROTECT THE MARCHERS I WAS — MY INSTRUCTION WAS TO SEND MEMOS TO THE WHITE HOUSE EVERY TWO HOURS ABOUT THOSE MARCHS AND THEY’RE ACTUALLY — >> YOU CAN READ THEM >> YOU CAN READ THEM THEY’RE ACTUALLY ON THE LBJ LIBRARY TAPES EVERY TWO HOURS WHERE THEY WERE , HOW FAR THEY HAD GOTTEN I SENT THEM TO JACK VOLENTE, WHO WOULD BRING THEM INTO THE PRESIDENT. THE QUESTIONS WOULD COME BACK HE JUST DIDN’T — HE WAS SO FOCUSED ON SELMA AND ON THAT MARCH WORKING, IT WAS REALLY QUITE REMARKABLE >> I THINK ONE OF THE THINGS THAT PEOPLE FORGET IF THEY ARE NOT FAMILIAR WITH THE PERIOD IS HOW MANY THINGS WERE ACHIEVED, AS HE POINTED OUT THE ASSASSINATION OF MET GAR EVERS HAPPENED JUST HOURS AFTER THE SPEECH SENATOR KENNEDY WAS IN THE TERRIBLE PLANE CRASH ON THE NIGHT THE SENATE PASSED THE BILL YOUR HEAD SPINS WITH ALL THE THINGS THE PRESIDENT IS DEALING WITH BUT IT WAS REMARKABLE HOW UNWILLING PRESIDENT JOHNSON WAS FOR SUCH A FAMOUS WHEELER DEALER TO WHEEL AND DEAL HE WAS SENT AWAY IN 20 MINUTES EMPTY HANDED THERE’S A MARVELOUS EXCHANGE ON THE TAPES WHERE JOHNSON TELLS HUMPHREY I’M AGAINST THESE AMENDMENTS I WILL BE AGAINST THEM RIGHT UP UNTIL I SIGN THEM! [LAUGHTER] HE NEVER DID HAVE TO SIGN THEM BUT THE OTHER POIGNANT PART TAYLOR IS THAT THE SIGNING OF THE BILL AND THE PASSAGE OF THE ’64 ACT TOGETHER WITH ’65, BUT IT REALLY REPRESENTS A KIND OF WATER MARK OF CONSENSUS AND JUST WEEKS LATER WITH THE NOMINATION OF BARRY GOLDWATER IN SAN FRANCISCO, THE REPUBLICANS BEGIN THEIR LONG TRANSFORMATION OF IDENTITY AND IN ATLANTIC CITY THE CONFLICT BETWEEN THE MISSISSIPPI FREEDOM DEMOCRATIC PARTY AND THE REGULAR DEMOCRATIC PARTY GIVE PRESIDENT JOHNSON INCREDIBLE HEARTBURN AROUND HEARTACHE TALK A LITTLE BIT ABOUT HOW EVEN IN THE WAKE OF THE SIGNING OF THE BILL THE GOOD FEELING AND CONSENSUS THAT HAD MADE IT POSSIBLE BEGAN TO DISSIPATE >> I THINK WE HAVE TO LOOK AT THIS PERIOD WITH A SENSE OF HISTORY THAT IS RARE 50 YEARS AGO THERE WASN’T A REPUBLICAN IN CONGRESS FROM TEXAS TO THE ATLANTIC OCEAN IT WAS THE SOLID SOUTH AND 80% OF REPUBLICANS IN BOTH HOUSES OF CONGRESS VOTED FOR THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 BUT AT THE SAME TIME WITH GOLDWATER ANNOUNCING HIS OPPOSITION TO THE BILL AND JOHNSON PUSHING THE BILL FORWARD, YOU ADDED SOMETHING UN PRECEDENT IN HISTORY, WHICH IS THAT THE PARTIES REVERSED ABRUPTLY THEIR 100 100-YEAR-OLD POSITION ON RACE, WHICH HAS ALWAYS BEEN THE LITMUS TEST OF DEMOCRACY IN AMERICA AND IT SWITCHED NOTHING BUT RACE — TRY TO IMAGINE SOMETHING TODAY THAT COULD HAPPEN IN POLITICS THAT NEXT YEAR WOULD HAVE REPUBLICAN S VOTING DEMOCRAT AND DEMOCRATS DEMOCRATS DEMOCRATS VOTING REPUBLICAN I GREW UP IN ATLANTA WE DIDN’T EVEN KNOW ANY REPUBLICANS [LAUGHTER] THEY WERE POLAR BEARS, THEY WERE YANKEES >> NOT TRUE >> THERE WAS BLACK AND TAN >> ACTUALLY, WHEN I WENT TO GEORGIA IN 1954 THEY ASKED ME TO RUN A VOTEER REGISTRATION DRIVE TO SUPPORT EISENHAUER AND I SAID, BUT I’M A STEPHENSON SPORTER SPORT SUPPORTER

THEY SAID NOT HERE [LAUGHTER] THEY SAID IN GEORGIA IF STEPHENSON WINS, RICHARD RUSSELL APPOINTS THE FEDERAL JUDGES IF EISENHAUER WINS, WE GET TO NOMINATE THE JUDGES AND THE WHOLE BEVY OF SOUTHERN JUDGES THAT REALLY SAVED THE NATION WERE ALL REPUBLICAN APPOINTEES >> BUT WHAT I’M SAYING IS THAT THERE’S THIS — AS AN HISTORIAN , AND I’M SO GLAD THE LBJ LIBRARY HAS ALL THOSE AMAZING TAPES OF JOHNSON BECAUSE I GUARANTEE YOU IF THOSE TAPES DIDN’T EXIST THERE WOULD BE — PEOPLE WOULD BE PUSHING A CONSENSUS THAT JOHNSON NEVER HAD HIS HEART IN ANY OF THOSE THINGS BECAUSE IF THERE’S ONE THING THAT OVER OVERSHADOWED THE TENDENCY OF RACE TO DETERMINE HOW WE PERFORM, IT’S OUR TENDENCY TO MISREMEMBER RACE I WAS BROUGHT UP TAUGHT THAT THE CIVIL WAR HAD NOTHING TO DO WITH SLAVERY PEOPLE WANT TO MISREMEMBER IT AND THOSE TAPES PRESERVE THE INTIMACY OF JOHNSON’S FEELINGS IN WAYS THAT I THINK WILL RESIST THAT AND WE REALLY NEED A BALANCE AGAIN ABOUT HOW — I THINK RACE , JOHNSON SHOWS THAT RACE WAS THE GATEWAY, THE CIVIL RIGHTS BILL, TO BROADER FREEDOMS FOR LOTS OF OTHER PEOPLE IT OPENED THE DOOR FOR THE WOMEN’S MOVEMENT, FOR ALL KINDS OF DISABILITY MOVEMENT MOVEMENT, THINGS THAT ARE HARD TO IMAGINE, THAT BACK THEN WOMEN COULDN’T SERVE ON JURYIES AND WOMEN COULDN’T DREAM OF GOING TO THE IVY LEAGUE SCHOOLS , LET ALONE WEST POINT AND ALL THOSE DOORS OPENED IN THE THE WAKE OF GOING THROUGH THE GATE OF RACE BUT AT THE SAME TIME PEOPLE STARTED WANTED WANTING TO MIS MISREMEMBER IT AND SAY THIS WAS A BAD TIME PRESIDENT CLINTON TOLD ME ONCE IN ONE OF OUR INTERVIEW SESSIONS THAT HE COULD PREDICT HOW PEOPLE WERE GOING TO VOTE WITH 85% ACCURACY BY ASKING ONE QUESTION, DO YOU THINK THE 60’S ON BALANCE WERE GOOD OR BAD FOR AMERICA? AND THAT IS THE RE REINTERPRETATION OF ALL THIS WHEN IN FACT I THINK ANDY AND JOHNSON, THE CIVIL RIGHTS LEADERS, WERE IN THE ROLE OF MODERN FOUNDING FATHERS THEY WERE CONFRONTING SUBJUGATION AND SETTING IN MOTION EQUAL CITIZENSHIP, BUT WE DON’T REMEMBER IT THAT WAY ALWAYS THAT’S WHY I THINK THIS 50 50th ANNIVERSARY IS SUCH A GREAT OPPORTUNITY TO GET THE MEMORY MORE IN BALANCE OF WHAT REALLY HAPPENED [APPLAUSE] >> THERE’S NO QUESTION THAT I THINK FOR HISTORIANS 200 YEARS FROM NOW THOSE TAPES WILL STILL BE THE GOLD STAR BECAUSE YOU UNDERSTAND WHERE THE PRESIDENT IS COMING FROM FROM, YOU UNDERSTAND WHERE THE PEOPLE HE’S TALKING TO ARE COMING FROM I’LL NEVER FORGET YEARS LATER I MET THIS MAN NAMED DON KINDLE, THE CEO OF PEPSI COLA AND HE TOLD ME I KNOW YOU KNEW JOHNSON WHEN HE WAS A YOUNG GIRL, BUT I BET YOU DON’T KNOW THE FOLLOWING STORY HE TOLD ME WHEN NIXON WAS FIRST MADE PRESIDENT HE, KINDLE, WAS TOLD TO GO TO THE RANDOLPH AIR FORCE BASE TO TALK TO JOHNSON AND JOHNSON WAS SAYING HOW AM I GOING TO REMEMBER ANYTHING HE SAID I HAVE THESE TAPE MACHINES AND I HAVE VERBATIM CONVERSATIONS THOSE CHAPTERS COME OUT GREAT YOU TELL YOUR GOOD FRIEND NIXON , THERE’S NOTHING MORE IMPORTANT THAN A TAPEING SYSTEM [LAUGHTER] AND THERE BY HE CONTRIBUTES TO THE DOWNFALL OF HIS GOOD FRIEND RICHARD NIXON >> THAT LAPSE IN HISTORICAL JUDGMENT NOTWITHSTANDING, PRESIDENT JOHNSON WAS TELLING BILL MOYERS THAT JUST THE CHANGE YOU TALKED ABOUT WAS COMING BUT DORIS, YOU’VE WRITTEN ABOUT HOW HE SAID HE FELT HE HAD TO GET CIVIL RIGHTS TO ESTABLISH HIS CREDIBILITY SO HE COULD THEN DO THE THINGS OF THE GREAT SOCIETY THAT WERE SO IMPORTANT TO HIM TO PUSH THE FREEDOM ENVELOPE FURTHER, TO PUSH OPPORTUNITY EVEN FURTHER I WONDER, JOE, IF YOU COULD TALK A LITTLE BIT ABOUT DID DR KING GIVE HIM CREDIT FOR THAT, AND YOU TOO, MR. MR AMBASSADOR, FOR DOING THAT? THEY WERE OBVIOUSLY ON THE SAME PAGE, THEY WERE DIVIDED LATER BY VIETNAM AND BY HOOVER, BUT DID DR. KING GIVE HIM CREDIT? >> I THINK ANDY CAN ANSWER THAT BETTER THAN I CAN I DON’T THINK HE WAS — RELEVANT IS THE WRONG WORD, BUT HE CERTAINLY WASN’T INVOLVED WHEN YOU LOOK AT EVERYTHING FROM HEAD START TO THE SECRETARY OF EDUCATION, HIGHER EDUCATION, THE FOOD STAMP PROGRAM, MEDICARE, MEDICAID AND WHAT HAVE YOU AND I THINK IT’S IMPORTANT TO KNOW RACE WAS AN ISSUE IN THOSE GREAT SOCIETY PROGRAMS BECAUSE SOMETHING YOU MAY REMEMBER ADAM CLAYTON POWELL POWELL, WE COULDN’T GET THE ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION ACT THROUGH THERE WERE TWO PROBLEMS ONE WAS THE CATHOLICS WANTED HELP FOR PA REASONABLE ACCOMMODATIONIAL SCHOOLS AND THE EVANGELICALS AND THE SECULAR JEWS DIDN’T WANT HELP FOR THOSE SCHOOLS AND BOTH HAD THE POWER TO BLOCK IT BUT JOHNSON SAW AS A KILLER PROBLEM THE CONGRESS BEGAN TO LOOK AT THIS AS A BLACK BILL, THE POOR SCHOOLS

THAT, INCIDENTALLY, FOR THOSE OF YOU WHO GO BACK THAT FAR, IS WHY HE TOLD ADAM CLAYTON POWELL, YOU HAVE TO GET OUT OF TOWN POWELL WENT TO BIMINI, NEVER RECOVERED FROM THAT, BUT — AND THEN MOVED TO UCARI, IRISH CONGRESSMAN FROM NEW YORK JOHNSON DID NOT WANT BLACK INVOLVEMENT IN THAT LEGISLATION IN ANY PUBLIC WAY CAREY CAME UP WITH THE IDEA OF LEASING BOOKS AND THINGS THE BILL PASSES THE HOUSE, JOHNSON SAYS, CALL SPEAKER MCCORMACK MCCORMICK, TELL HIM NOT TO SEND THE BILL HERE FOR ANOTHER MONTH BECAUSE I WANT TO SIGN IT ON HUGH CAREY’S BIRTHDAY HE FIGURED THIS OUT AND HE HAD THE BILL COME OVER I DON’T THINK IT WAS — I DON’T THINK IT WAS THAT KING WASN’T INTERESTED YOU CAN ANSWER THAT PART OF IT, BUT I SURELY KNOW THAT WE WERE CONSTANTLY WORRIED THAT PEOPLE WOULD SEE THESE GREAT SOCIETY PROGRAMS AIMED AT THE POOR ON A RACE BASIS >> AND WE DIDN’T WANT THAT EITHER AND I THINK THE LAST GATHER GATHERING WE HAD DR. KING BROUGHT TOGETHER 23 DIFFERENT MINORITY GROUPS, FOUR, FIVE DIFFERENT HISPANIC GROUPS, POOR WHITES FROM APPALACHIA AND THE POOR WHITES MOVEMENT AND THE IDEA OF THE GREAT SOCIETY CAMPAIGN WAS — WE KNEW SEGREGATION WAS ABOUT RACE, BUT WE DIDN’T EVEN THINK VOTING RIGHTS WAS JUST A RACIAL ISSUE AND I TO THIS DAY THINK THAT PRESIDENT JOHNSON KNEW POVERTY AND KNEW THE POOR AND HE HAD TAUGHT KIDS WHO CAME TO SCHOOL HUNGRY AND THOSE WERE THE PEOPLE HE WAS MOST CONCERNED HE WAS PROBABLY — I THINK DR KING THOUGHT HE WAS MORE CONCERNED ABOUT THE POOR THAN THE VOTE AND I THINK THAT HE WAS PROBABLY WRONG — HE WAS RIGHT IN SAYING THAT WE WOULD LOSE THE SOUTH, BUT WE’VE HAD FOUR SOUTHERN PRESIDENTS SINCE THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT CLINTON, CARTER , BUSH AND OF COURSE JOHNSON HIMSELF , BUT WE HAVEN’T LOST THE SOUTH AND THE SOUTH IS GOING TO RISE AGAIN [LAUGHTER] [APPLAUSE] ON NOVEMBER FOURTH WE’LL SEE ANOTHER NEW SOUTH >> ALL RIGHT HOORAY! >> WE TEND TO FORGET HOW INTERTWINEED THE QUESTION OF ECONOMIC FAIRNESS AND ECONOMIC JUSTICE ALWAYS WAS IN THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT MOVEMENT, THE MARCH ON WASHINGTON WAS THE MARCH FOR JOBS AND FREEDOM WHEN PRESIDENT KENNEDY PROPOSED THE BILL HE CITED THESE STATISTICS THAT HARRIS WOFFORD HAD WORKED UP FOR HIM BETWEEN A BLACK AND WHITE BABY BORN IN THE SAME PLACE, ON THE SAME DAY AND ON QUESTIONS OF OPPORTUNITIES AND LIFE EXPECTANTTY, BLACKS ARE DOING MUCH BETTER TODAY THAN IN 1963, BUT IN QUESTIONS OF LIFETIME EARNING POWER, ECONOMIC POWER, IT’S DISTRESSING DISTRESSINGLY ALMOST IDENTICAL WHAT DO YOU THINK BOTH DR. KING AND PRESIDENT JOHNSON WOULD HAVE MADE OF THIS ENDUREING GAP AND WHAT DO YOU THINK WE AS A COUNTRY TODAY CAN DO ABOUT IT? >> I JUST WANT TO POINT OUT ON THE LIFE EXPECTANCY, THE REAL PROMOTEER OF THAT WAS MEDICAID, NOT MEDICARE, NOT HIGH-TECH MEDICINE GIVING THE POOR PEOPLE HEALTH CARE DRAMATICALLY THE BLACK LIFE EXPECTANCY WENT FROM JUST OVER 40 TO 60 PLUS WITHIN A FEW YEARS THEY ARE ENTWINEED >> NO, I THINK THAT NOW I’M HOLDING THIS SOCIAL SECURITY CARD WITH MY PICTURE ON IT >> YOU LOOK CUTE [LAUGHTER] >> BECAUSE THERE ARE THINGS THAT WE WOULD — WE NEED TO DO WE NEED TO MAKE THE VOTE MORE ACCESSIBLE AND A SOCIAL SECURITY CARD WITH YOUR PICTURE ON IT IS SOMETHING THAT YOU NEED TO GET IN A HOTEL, YOU NEED TO GET ON AN AIRPLANE, YOU NEED A GOVERNMENT-ISSUEED ID AND THE SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION COULD DO IT FOR NINE CENTS APIECE AND IT WOULD DO A LOT TO SAVE MONEY IF THE GOVERNMENT BEGAN TO SEND ITS MONEY THROUGH BANKING CHANNELS IT WOULD PUT A LOT MORE MONEY IN THE BANK IF WE REALLY WANTED TO MAKE GOVERNMENT EFFICIENT — AND I THINK THOSE ARE THE KINDS OF

THINGS THAT DR. KING AND PRESIDENT JOHNSON WERE INTERESTED IN THEY WEREN’T JUST INTERESTED IN THE SHOW, THEY WERE INTERESTED IN THE DELIVERY AND HOW DO YOU WIPE OUT POVERTY YOU CAN’T JUST — DR. KING AT ONE POINT SAID A GUARANTEED ANNUAL INCOME JUST GIVE PEOPLE MONEY AND GIVE THEM A CHANCE, THAT WOULDN’T FLY TOO WELL IN TODAY’S WORLD, BUT WE STILL HAVE TO HAVE A WAY TO MAKE DEMOCRACY AND FREE ENTERPRISE WORK FOR POOR PEOPLE OF ALL DOLLARS >> TAYLOR AND DORIS, I WOULD LIKE TO ASK YOU BOTH, TOMORROW MORNING A YOUNG FELLOW WHO WAS — RECEIVED THE NOMINATION FOR PRESIDENT AUGUST 28TH, WHAT WOULD HAVE BEEN PRESIDENT JOHNSON’S 100 100TH BIRTHDAY AND I REMEMBER THAT PRESIDENT JOHNSON’S NAME WAS NOT MENTIONED, WHITE HOUSE AIDES TELL ME THAT PRESIDENT OBAMA OBAMA’S GENERAL REACTION TO COMPARISONS BETWEEN HIS SITUATION AND PRESIDENT JOHNSON ‘S IS YADA YADA YADA SO SINCE YOU ARE A PROFESSIONAL HISTORIANS AND I’M JUST A JOURNALIST WRITING ABOUT HISTORY WHO COULD EASY BE IGNORED, I WANT TO ASK YOU WHAT COULD PRESIDENT OBAMA PROFITABLY TAKE AWAY FROM PRESIDENT JOHNSON AND HIS RELATIONSHIP WITH DR. KING AND THE WORLD THEY FACED? AND IS THERE ANYTHING THAT COULD BE COMPARABLE, ANY INSTRUCTION WE COULD TAKE IN THE PRESENT DAY FROM PRESIDENT JOHNSON ABOUT HOW TO GET SOMETHING DONE? >> WELL, I THINK HE COULD SAY FIRST OFF HE NEEDS TO GET 67 SENATORS >> YOU ONLY NEED 60 NOW >> YEAH, WHICH HE DOESN’T HAVE AND IN THAT SENSE — AND TO CHANGE THE MOOD OF THE COUNTRY FROM CYNICISM TO OPTIMISM IS NOT SOMETHING THAT IS WHOLLY WITHIN THE PURVIEW OF THE PRESIDENT IN THAT SENSE I THINK THAT PRESIDENT OBAMA IS FAIR TO SAY IT’S A TOTALLY DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENT AND ATMOSPHERE ON THE OTHER HAND, I WISH HE TALKED MORE ABOUT RACE AND HOW IT CONTRIBUTED WHEN WE DEAL HONESTLY WITH IT, NOT TO BECOME THE ISSUE THAT DWARFS ALL OTHERS, BUT IS A WAY THAT HELPS INFORM ALL THE OTHERS WE GO NUTS WHENEVER HE EVEN MENTIONS ANYTHING THERE WAS A QUOTE IN IN THE “NEW YORK TIMES” SAYING THAT HIS COMMENT ABOUT TRAYVON MARTIN BETRAYED THE GREAT PROMISE OF AMERICA, WHICH IS NEVER TO DISCUSS RACE NEVER TO DISCUSS RACE TURNS AMERICAN HISTORY AND POLITICS INTO A FAIRY TALE AND I DO THINK OBAMA IS A LITTLE TOO CAPTIVE IN THAT, BUT HE IS FACING A GRIDLOCK WHERE — THAT IS NOT COMPARABLE TO WHAT PRESIDENT JOHNSON HAD AND THAT WAS BECAUSE OF TWO THINGS WORLD WAR II AND THE GREAT OPTIMISM THAT CAME OUT OF THAT, WE’RE GOING TO GO TO THE MOON, WE’RE GOING TO LICK POLIO, WE WERE OPTIMISTIC AND THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT HAD BEEN BUILDING UP AN OPTIMISTIC, PATRIOTIC SENSE OF SACRIFICE FROM THE BROWN VISION FOR YEARS INTO THE 60’S THAT MADE PEOPLE SAY, WELL, MAYBE SOMETHING GOOD HAPPENED, CAN HAPPEN WHEN WE CONFRONT KNEES INTRACTABLE PROBLEMS SO OBAMA HAS NEITHER OF THOSE MAJOR ADVANTAGES SO I THINK THAT IT’S UNFAIR TO LOOK TO THE PRESIDENT TO DO ALL OF IT THE GREAT MOMENT FOR DR. KING TO ME WITH PRESIDENT JOHNSON WAS AFTER SELMA THEY HAD A PHONE CONVERSATION WHERE JOHNSON SAYS TO DR. KING, I COULDN’T HAVE DONE ANYTHING UNTIL YOU GOT DOWN THERE AND MOBILEIZED THE PEOPLE AND THERE WERE NUNS FLYING IN IN FROM EVERYWHERE INTO SELMA AND THE WHOLE MOOD OF THE COUNTRY CHANGED YOUR MOVEMENT AROUSEED THEM SO THAT I COULD GO BEFORE CONGRESS IN THAT NIGHT SESSION HE SAID THAT WAS ABOUT THE GREATEST THING THAT EVER HAPPENED AND KING IS SAYING ABSOLUTELY RIGHT ANAN AROUSEED, RESPONSIBLE CITIZENRY WITH AN OPTIMISTIC OPTIMISTIC, PATRIOTIC AGENDA GETTING RESPONSIVE GOVERNMENT, THAT’S WHAT AMERICA IS ABOUT SO IT’S NOT ALL UP JUST TO PRESIDENT OBAMA, IT’S UP TO US TOO >> I THINK THERE’S TWO MAJOR CHANGES IN OUR POLITICAL CULTURE TODAY THAT MAKE IT MUCH HARDER FOR PRESIDENT OBAMA THAN IT WAS FOR PRESIDENT JOHNSON ONE IS THAT IN THE OLD DAYS THEY USED TO STAY IN WASHINGTON TOGETHER ON THE WEEKENDS THEY FORMED FRIENDSHIPS OVER PARTY LINES THEY WEREN’T RUSHING HOME TO RAISE MONEY FOR THESE ESCALATING CAMPAIGN COSTS, WHICH I STILL AM CONVINCED ARE THE POISON IN THE SYSTEM TODAY [APPLAUSE] I SHOULDN’T SAY STUPID PEOPLE, BUT HOW MUCH TIME OUR CONGRESSMEN AND SENATORS SPEND RAISING MONEY AND GOING BACK TO DO IT RATHER THAN DOING THE BUSINESS OF THE COUNTRY AND TELEVISION ACCESS CERTIFY BATES IT THEY WANT MUSEUM ON EITHER SIDE , DISTRICTING EXACERBATE EXACERBATES EXACERBATE EXACERBATES IT THEY LOOK AT EACH OTHER WITH TRIBAL ALLIANCES NOW RATHER THAN FRIENDSHIPS I THINK THE BULLY PULPIT MAKES IT HARDER TODAY THAT IF THE PRESIDENT GIVES A SPEECH IT USED TO BE COVERED ON ALL THREE NETWORKS EVERYBODY WATCHED IT NOW YOU HAVE THE PUNDITS LIKE US SOMETIMES TEARING IT APART BEFORE IT’S EVEN BEGUN AND YOU’VE GOT PEOPLE WATCHING THEIR OWN CABLE NETWORKS, ONLY SEEING A PART OF THE SPEECH SO ALL OF THOSE THINGS ARE TRUE , BUT I THINK THE ONE THING THAT PRESIDENT OBAMA CAN DO NOW , WHICH GOES TO THE HEART OF

LBJ AND WHAT YOU WERE TALKING ABOUT WITH A MIXTURE BETWEEN POVERTY AND RACE, WHEN HE TALKS ABOUT THE DEFINING ISSUE OF OUR TIME BEING THE GAP BETWEEN THE RICH AND THE POOR AND THE LACK OF MOBILITY PRESIDENT JOHNSON IN HIS HOWARD UNIVERSITY SPEECH TALKED ABOUT YOU CAN’T JUST BRING PEOPLE TO THE STARTING RACE AND — GATE AND THINK THEY’LL HAVE AN EQUAL CHANCE FOR THE RACE THAT OPPORTUNITY HAS TO BE DEEPLY BUILT INTO THE SOCIETY WHEN WE SEE NOW THAT IN OUR COUNTRY THE PEOPLE BORN IN THE BOTTOM FIFTH HAVE A LESS CHANCE OF GETTING UP BEYOND THAT THEN PEOPLE IN EUROPE, THIS WAS THE PROMISE OF AMERICA THAT IF YOU WORKED HARD YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO MOBILIZE THROUGH THE SOCIETY SOCIETY AND I THINK OBAMA HAS RECOGNIZED THAT, HE’S TALKED ABOUT THAT, AND IT SHOULD BE THE DEFINING ISSUE AND IN THE END DR. KING WAS TALKING ABOUT POVERTY THAT WAS THE WHOLE MOVEMENT WAS ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY WAS THE NEXT STEP AFTER CIVIL RIGHTS AND BOY, DO WE NEED THAT NOW NOW [APPLAUSE] >> IT’S VERY HARD, THOUGH AS MAYOR I COULD NEVER TALK ABOUT RACE IN ATLANTA BUT LOOKING BACK, EVERYTHING I DID TO HELP PEOPLE HELPED BLACK AND WHITE TOGETHER NOW, YOU DON’T SEE THAT AT THE TIME, BUT I DON’T THINK I EVER CAST A VOTE IN ALL OF MY POLITICAL CAREER THAT JUST HELPED BLACK PEOPLE THAT EVERY VOTE I CAST HELPED 10 TIMES AS MANY BLACKS AS WHITES AND WE’VE GOT TO DERACIALIZE THESE ISSUES TO GET PEOPLE TO LOOK AT THEM A BIT MORE OBJECTIVELY BECAUSE THE STABBING IN THE SCHOOLS TODAY, JUST BEFORE WE GOT HERE, 19 KIDS STABBED STABBED THAT’S NOT RACE THAT’S A CULTURE OF VIOLENCE VIOLENCE IT’S A SICKNESS THAT IS PERVADE ING OUR SOCIETY THAT’S FAR MORE COMPLICATED THAN ANYTHING DR KING AND PRESIDENT JOHNSON HAD TO DEAL WITH BERNICE KING IS DEALING WITH IT IN THE SCHOOL NAME FOR HER MOTHER WHERE SHE WENT IN TO A ROUGH NEIGHBORHOOD AND DECLARED — GOT THE GIRLS THERE IN THIS MIDDLE SCHOOL TO SAY WE’RE GOING TO TRY 100 DAYS OF NON- VIOLENCE AND SHE MADE IT WORK BUT THIS WAS A ROUGH SCHOOL THAT THE TEACHERS COULD NOT HANDLE, BUT GOING IN, TALKING ABOUT NON-VIOLENCE IN A PUBLIC SCHOOL, IT WAS ALL BLACK IT IS SOMETHING — WE’VE GOT TO DEAL WITH THE CULTURE OF VIOLENCE THE THINGS THAT PRESIDENT CARTER TALKED ABOUT, THE FACT THAT THERE ARE MORE SPOUSAL ABUSES, MURDERS, THAN THERE ARE IN THE WARS NOWADAYS MORE DOMESTIC VIOLENCE THAN MILITARY KILLINGS I MEAN, THAT IS A SICKNESS IN SOCIETY THAT WE’VE GOT TO SOMEHOW FIND A WAY TO FACE IT’S NOT WHAT IT USED TO BE >> MR. SECRETARY, YOU’RE LAST UP >> I’M LAST UP I WANT TO JUST SAY ONE THING ABOUT VIOLENCE I CANNOT RESIST THE FACT, BUT REMEMBER ALCOHOL AND DRUGS, BUT PARTICULARLY ALCOHOL, IS INVOLVED IN ABOUT THREE-FOURTHS OF THE RAPES IN THIS COUNTRY AND OF THE INSTANCES OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE SO WE HAVE A HELL OF A LOT OF PROBLEMS TO DO WITH THAT IT HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH RACE I THINK THERE ARE SOME LESSONS FOR PRESIDENT OBAMA I GUESS I DISAGREE A LITTLE BIT HERE I THINK ONE IS IT’S IMPORTANT TO RECOGNIZE, WHICH JOHNSON DID , WHEN YOU SIGN A LAW, THAT’S THE BEGINNING THAT’S NOT THE END WHEN HE SIGNED THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT, HE ANNOUNCED THAT THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT WAS FILING SUIT THE NEXT MORNING TO HAVE THE MISSISSIPPI POLL TAX DECLARED UNCONSTITUTIONAL WE SENT SCORES OF MONITORS INTO THE OTHER SOUTHERN STATES SECONDLY I THINK THERE ARE OPPORTUNITIES OF VARIOUS KINDS AND I’D SAY I THINK — MAYBE THIS IS SOMETHING TO MENTION MENTION, ESPECIALLY WITH DR KING, JOHNSON WAS VERY OPPORTUNEISTIC IN THE BEST WAY HE WAS OPEN POOR TUNEISTIC — OPEN POOR TUNEISTIC IN USING THE KENNEDY ASSASSINATION IN HIS ABILITY TO GET THE ACT PASSED WHEN MARTIN LUTHER KING WAS ASSASSINATED, THAT NIGHT, THAT NIGHT HE SAID TO ME WE’RE GOING TO GET ONE GOOD THING OUT OF THIS HORRIBLE ACT WE’LL GET THE FAIR HOUSING BILL WE’VE BEEN TRYING FOR FOUR YEARS TO GET IT HE WANTED A DRAFT LETTER THE NEXT MORNING, WHICH HE SENT TO THE SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE HE SENT A HANDWRITTEN NOTE TO JERRY FORD, THE MINORITY LEADER OF THE HOUSE, TO GET THAT BILL PASSED WHEN REPORT KENNEDY WAS KILLED, HE SAID WE’RE GOING TO GET OUR GUN CONTROL BILL WE DIDN’T GET ALL OF IT WE GOT ABOUT HALF OF IT WE’RE GOING TO GET IT WE’RE GOING TO GET SOMETHING GOOD OUT OF IT I THINK THERE IS — THERE SHOULD BE SOME USE OF THIS IN A

MUCH MORE OPPORTUNEISTIC WAY AND A MUCH MORE IMMEDIATE WAY THAT’S THE LAST POINT I WOULD MAKE YOU HAVE TO GO FAST I KNOW — I THANK GOD WE HAVE PRESIDENT OBAMA IN THE WHITE HOUSE I WISH HE HAD MOVED ON GUN CONTROL WITH THAT LAME DUCK SESSION HE WOULD HAVE GOTTEN A GUN CONTROL BILL HE WAITED A COUPLE OF MONTHS TO LOOK AT IT YOU CAN’T AND IF WE HAD PROBLEMS THEN, WE’RE IN A WORLD — YOU LIVE IN IT MORE THAN ANY OF US, I GUESS, WITH YOUR REPORTING WE HAVE 30-SECOND ATTENTION SPANS AND LASTLY, AND I JUST — I THINK OBAMA, ONE OF THE PROBLEMS HE HAS IS BECAUSE HE IS BLACK I THINK THERE ARE A LOT OF PEOPLE — [APPLAUSE] LET’S BE REALISTIC ABOUT THIS I THINK THERE STILL IS A LOT OF RESENTMENT ABOUT THAT AMONG PEOPLE IN CONGRESS, AMONG PEOPLE ALL OVER THIS COUNTRY AND WE’VE GOT TO GET OVER THAT WE’VE REALLY GOT TO GET OVER THAT [APPLAUSE] >> IN THAT CONTEXT, IT DOES SEEM WORTH REMEMBERING IN THIS ROOM THAT PRESIDENT JOHNSON’S LAST PUBLIC APPEARANCE WAS ON THIS STAGE IN THIS ROOM AT A CONFERENCE ON CIVIL RIGHTS MARKING THE OPENING OF SOME OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS PAPERS HERE IN THIS LIBRARY AND ON THAT DAY HE SAID NOTHING WAS MORE CLOSE TO HIS HEART, NOTHING WAS MORE ESSENTIALLY HIM AND HE ALSO FAMOUSLY SAID THAT WHITES STAND ON HISTORY HISTORY’S MOUNTAIN AND BLACKS IN HISTORY’S HOLE LOW AND THE CHALLENGE FOR AMERICA WAS TO STAND BLACKS AND WHITES ON LEVEL GROUND I’M HONORED TO BE PART OF THIS DISCUSSION TODAY, BUT I THINK YOUR DISCUSSION HAS SHOWN THAT THE WORK PRESIDENT JOHNSON SO NEGOTIABLELY BEGAN 50 YEARS AGO IS NOT OVER AND THANK YOU ALL FOR ALL YOU DO TO KEEP THE BALL ROLLING [APPLAUSE] >>> >>> I

PLEASE WELCOME MR. MICHAEL J KRAMER [ APPLAUSE ] >> LETTING A FEW PEOPLE GET SEATED ALL RIGHT WE’LL GET STARTED GOOD AFTERNOON, MY NAME IS MIKE KRAMER, I’M THE DIRECTOR OF THE TEXAS PROGRAM IN SPORTS AND MEDIA HERE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS WE ARE PLEASED TO PARTNER AGAIN WITH THE LBJ LIBRARY AND MUSEUM THIS IS PROBABLY ABOUT OUR FIFTH EVENT THAT WE’VE PARTNERED AT LEAST ON A PIECE OF A PROGRAM WITH THEM THEM TODAY’S CONVERSATION IS PART OF OUR SERIES CALLED THE MCGARR SYMPOSIUM ON SPORTS AND SOCIETY THAT WAS FOUNDED BY ONE OF THE DISTINGUISHED ALUMS, KATHY MCGARR WHO WE’RE PLEASED TO PARTNER WITH ON MANY OCCASIONS WE ALSO HAVE A — AN INTERESTING TIMING OF THIS TODAY YESTERDAY, ONE OF OUR PARTICIPANTS, DR. HARRY EDWARDS, WHO I’M GOING TO FORMALLY INTRODUCE HERE IN A MOMENT, WE FORMALLY ANNOUNCED THAT WE HAVE ESTABLISHED A PERMANENT LECTURE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS CALLED THE DR. HARRY EDWARDS LECTURE ON SPORTS AND SOCIETY [ APPLAUSE ] AND SO WE COULDN’T POSSIBLY FIND A BETTER PERSON IN THE HISTORY OF SPORTS AND CIVIL RIGHTS THAN DR. HARRY EDWARDS AND HE WAS GRACIOUS ENOUGH TO LEND HIS NAME TO THAT LECTURE AND WE EXPECT WE’LL HAVE SEVERAL PRESENTATIONS UNDER THAT NAME IN THE COMING YEARS TODAY IS — WE HAVE A CONVERSATION THAT’S GOING TO OCCUR ON THE AREA OF SPORTS AND CIVIL RIGHTS I’VE BEEN A PART OF MANY PANELS AND MANY PRESENTATIONS OVER THE YEARS AND NORMALLY YOU TRY AND FIND THE BEST PANELISTS AND THE BEST PEOPLE TO MAKE THAT PRESENTATION RARELY DO YOU HAVE THE PEOPLE, THE TOP PEOPLE, WHO ARE PRESENTING IN OTHER WORDS, IF YOU HAD TO PICK ONE, TWO AND THREE, RARELY DO YOU GET ONE, TWO AND THREE TODAY WE’RE FORTUNATE THAT WE HAVE PROBABLY THE THREE MOST IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN THE CIVIL RIGHTS SPORTS AND SOCIETY AND SPORTS AND CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT IN THE LAST 50 YEARS AND WE’RE ECSTATIC, WE’RE PLEASED, WE’RE PROUD THAT WE CAN PRESENT THEM AND HAVE A CONVERSATION WITH THEM WITH YOU TODAY SO LET ME SAY THAT AGAIN WE HAVE HERE PROBABLY THE TOP THREE PEOPLE IN THIS WHOLE AREA IN THE LAST 50 YEARS [ APPLAUSE ] SO LET ME GET ON WITH THE PROGRAM

IT’S THEM YOU’RE HERE TO SEE SEE I WOULD LIKE TO INTRODUCE TO YOU DR. HARRY EDWARDS MR. BILL RUSSELL MR. JIM BROWN [ APPLAUSE ] TAKE IT AWAY, HARRY >> THANK YOU VERY MUCH IT’S A REAL LEARN TO BE HERE WITH TWO MEN THAT I HAVE KNOWN FOR ABOUT THE LAST 45 OR 50 YEARS AND IF YOU HEAR A TOUCH OF RESPECT AND AND ADMIRATION AND AFFECTION IN MY VOICE DURING THE COURSE OF THIS CONVERSATION YOU HAVE ME CORRECTLY I WANT TO BEGIN BY STATING THAT THERE HAVE BEEN FOUR ATHLETES OVER THE LAST HALF OF THE 20th CENTURY WHO HAVE BEEN UTTERLY TRANSFORM TRANSFORMATIVE THE FIRST, OF COURSE, IS THE IMMORTAL JACKIE ROBINSON THE SECOND — [ APPLAUSE ] [ APPLAUSE ] — THE SECOND IS THE INDOMNITABLE MR. BILL RUSSELL [ APPLAUSE ] AND THE THIRD IS THE IN INCOMPARABLE MR. JIM BROWN [ APPLAUSE ] AND THE FOURTH IS THE ABSOLUTELY UNCONQUERABLE MS MS. BILLIE JEAN KING [ APPLAUSE ] I WANT TO FOCUS ON THE STRUGGLE AT THE INTER INTERFACE OF RACE, SPORT AND SOCIETY AND IN PREPARING FOR THIS CONVERSATION I WENT BACK AND READ JIM BROWN AND BILL RUSSELL’S FIRST TWO BOOKS, JIM BROWN’S OFF MY CHEST, AND OUT OF BOUNDS AND BILL RUSSELL ‘S GLORY FOR GLORY AND SECOND WIND I THINK THAT THOSE ARE FOUR BOOKS THAT SHOULD BE REQUIRED READING FOR ALL ATHLETES ENTERING COLLEGE AND PROFESSIONAL SPORTS TODAY BECAUSE THEY SAY SO MUCH ABOUT WHERE WE HAVE COME FROM AND THE SACRIFICES THAT WERE MADE IN ORDER FOR THEM TO BE WHERE THEY ARE TODAY THE THINGS THAT STUCK WITH ME ABOUT — ABOUT THOSE BOOKS AND READING THEM, WAS FIRST, HOW WELL THE PHILOSOPHIES, THE PERSPECTIVES, THE ETHICAL ARGUMENTS AND SO FORTH OF JIM AND BILL HAVE STOOD UP OVER THE LAST 50 YEARS THE SECOND THING IS THAT THEY WERE SUPERSTAR ATHLETES WHEN THEY STOOD UP THEY WEREN’T A BUNCH OF OLD GUYS WHO HAD RETIRED AND SO FORTH THEY WERE SUPERSTAR ATHLETES WHEN THEY STOOD UP AND SPOKE OUT THE THIRD THING THAT STRUCK ME WAS THAT THEY NEVER WERE WILLING TO EXCHANGE WHITE RACEISM FOR BLACK ORTHODOXY THEY WERE ALWAYS ABOUT THE PEOPLE AND THEIR ARGUMENT WAS THAT I AS A MAN AM PART OF THE PEOPLE AND I INSIST ON BEING RESPECTED AS SUCH THROUGHOUT THEIR BOOKS AND THEN THE FOURTH THING THAT REALLY BLEW ME AWAY, THAT I FIND AMAZING TO THIS DAY IS HOW YOUNG THEY WERE WE’RE TALKING ABOUT 22, 23, 24 YEARS OLD WHAT WE CALL TODAY YOUNG ADULTS A WAY OF CONFINEEING AN ENTIRE GENERATION OF PEOPLE TO SANDBOX CITIZENSHIP [ APPLAUSE ] BUT THEY WERE SPEAKING OUT AT 24 YEARS OLD WHEN THIS HAPPENED SO I WOULD LIKE, FIRST OF ALL, TO GO BACK TO THAT TIME AND I’M GOING TO EXERCISE MY PREROGATIVES AS THE ONLY 72 72-YEAR-OLD UP HERE AND CALL YOU YOUNG MEN BY YOUR FIRST NAMES [LAUGHTER] AND ASK ABOUT WHAT TOOK YOU TO THAT PLACE? HOW DID YOU END UP AT THAT PLACE? AND WHY DON’T WE START, JIM, WITH WITH YOU IN TERMS OF THIS HOW DID YOU END UP AT THAT PLACE AT 23, 24 YEARS OLD? >> WELL, DOC, I WAS VERY FORTUNATE TO HAVE A GREAT MOTHER, NO FATHER, WENT TO HIGH SCHOOL WITH A GREAT COACH GREATEST MAN I EVER MET IN MY LIFE, ED WALSH, A GREAT MENTOR, CONTEND LEE KENNY MALLOY, THEY WERE IMPECCABLE IN ADVOCATING EDUCATION, SELF DETERMINATION AND I HAD AN EXAMPLE OF PEOPLE THAT WERE REALLY GOOD AND THERE WAS TREMENDOUS DISCRIMINATION IN THIS COUNTRY AT THE TIME AND IT WAS — IT WAS TOLD TO ME THAT I COULD BE LOVED AND POPULAR IF I WOULD BOW DOWN AND DO A LITTLE DANCE [LAUGHTER]

AND I DON’T KNOW IF I ALL KNOW WHAT THAT MEANS [LAUGHTER] BUT I SAID “I DON’T REALLY DANCE.” [LAUGHTER] I JUST PREFER TO BE A MAN AN AMERICAN CITIZEN AND I PAY MY TAXES, I WANT MY RIGHTS SO FREEDOM, EQUALITY AND JUSTICE ARE WHAT I PURSUED, I PURSUED IT AT ALL COSTS BECAUSE NOTHING ELSE WOULD SUBSTITUTE FOR THAT NO TROPHY, NO FORMAL POPULARITY AND BECAUSE I WAS HELPED AS A YOUNG MAN, I KNEW THAT MY LIFE’S WORK WOULD BE TO HELP OTHERS SO THAT’S — THAT’S WHAT YOU HAVE HERE [ APPLAUSE ] >> BILL, WHAT — WHAT TOOK YOU DOWN THAT PATH THAT YOU TOOK? I WAS READING GORE FOR GLORY GLORY, YOU HAVE STATED THAT I HAVE NEVER BEEN ONE TO PURSUE BEING LIKED FROM DAY ONE I WAS ABOUT BEING RESPECTED AND WHAT TOOK YOU DOWN THAT PATH THAT 22, 23 YEARS OLD? >> WELL, I GUESS IT STARTED WHEN I WAS BORN MY MOTHER AND FATHER, THE FIRST THING I KNEW ABOUT LIFE, WAS MY MOTHER AND FATHER LOVED ME I WAS BORN IN THE SEGREGATEED SOUTH IN THE ’30S IN LOUISIANA >> LOUISIANA, UH-HUH >> AND MY MOTHER, OUR FIRST CONVERSATION SAID TO ME, THERE’S NOBODY ON THIS PLANET ANY BETTER THAN YOU ALSO THERE’S NOBODY ON THIS PLANET THAT YOU ARE BETTER THAN THEM AND SO — SO I GREW UP CAN WITH CONFIDENCE THAT I WAS OKAY AND — MY MOTHER AND FATHER ALWAYS TREATED EACH OTHER WITH RESPECT AND SO — SO WHAT I — WHAT HAPPENED TO THE WORLD, THAT’S THE WAY I THOUGHT IT WAS SUPPOSED TO BE >> AND EVERYTHING THAT YOU COULD CHANGE TO MAKE IT THAT WAY WHEN IT WASN’T >> HUH >> DID EVERYTHING THAT YOU COULD TO MAKE IT THAT WAY WHEN IT WASN’T >> WELL, MY MOTHER TOLD ME, WHEN I WAS YOUNG, SHE SAYS TO ME ONE DAY, “YOU CAN PLAY IN THE FRONT YARD, FOR THE FIRST TIME.” MOSTLY SHE KEPT ME IN THE BACK YARD ALL OF THE TIME AND SHE SAID, “THE REASON I WANT YOU PLAYING IN THE FRONT YARD IS PEOPLE WILL WALK BY AND THEY WILL SAY THINGS TO YOU GOOD OR BAD BUT IT HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH YOU IT HAS TO DO WITH THEM AND THEIR PERSPECTIVE AND SO YOU PLAY AND HAVE FUN FUN AND DON’T WORRY ABOUT THAT.” >> OKAY >> AND SO WHEN I GREW UP, I ENCOUNTERED THINGS, I KNEW THAT I WAS OKAY [LAUGHTER] AND SO — BUT MOVING AHEAD, A FEW YEARS AGO, I BET — I MET NELSON MANDELA AND WE HAD A BRIEF CONVERSATION AND I ASKED HIM HOW HE COULD BE SUCH A GOOD PERSON OF ALL OF THE THINGS THAT HE HAD ENCOUNTERED AND HE SAID IF I HAD REACTED THE WAY THEY PREDICTED THAT I WOULD ACT, THEN THEY WERE RIGHT BUT I — HE SAID I AM A MANDELA AND THAT’S WHERE I GET MY PHILOSOPHY FROM IS THAT THE OPPOSITE OF LOVE IS NOT HATE THE OPPOSITE OF LOVE IS IN INDIFFERENCE AND SO THE ONLY WAY AS A — AS HUMANS CAN EVOLVE IS THEY HAVE TO CARE ABOUT EACH OTHER >> THAT WAS — THAT WAS EVIDENT THROUGHOUT A NUMBER OF YOUR — CHAPTERS IN YOUR BOOK LET ME — LET ME ASK YOU, ASK YOU THIS JIM IN PARTICULAR I WAS LOOKING AT A BOOK ENTITLED THE 100 MOST IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN AMERICAN SPORTS AND QUITE FITTINGLY B BILLIE JEAN KING WAS ON THE

COVER BUT THERE WAS A STATEMENT THAT YOU MADE EARLY ON IN ONE OF YOUR EARLIEST BOOKS WHERE YOU STATED THAT YOU A TIME WHEN YOU WERE NOT CONSCIOUS OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT YOU STATED I WAS VERY CONSCIOUS OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT AND VERY ACTIVE IN WHAT I CALLED THE MOVEMENT FOR DIGITS TEE, E EQUALITY AND JUSTICE IN FACT IT SUPERSEDED MY INTEREST IN SPORTS SPORTS GAVE ME AN OPPORTUNITY TO HELP THE CAUSE AND THAT IS WHAT I DEDICATED MYSELF TO DOING NOW, I KNOW THAT YOU SUPPORTED THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT BUT YOU WERE AHEAD OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT IN TERMS OF YOUR FOCUS ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT WHAT LED YOU TO MOVE BEYOND SIMPLE DESEGREGATION TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, TO STARTING THE BLACK ECONOMIC UNION, SETTING UP THESE OFFICES ALL OVER THE COUNTRY COUNTRY, TRAVELING THROUGH THE DEEP SOUTH IN A BUS WITH OTHER PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES TALKING TO BLACK SMALL BUSINESS PEOPLE IN GEORGIA, ALABAMA, TENNESSEE WHAT LED YOU TO THAT SENSE THAT THAT WAS THE DIRECTION THINGS HAD TO GO INTO? >> WELL, IT WAS HAD TO GET OFF OF THEIR BUTTS AND REGARDLESS OF WHAT THE CONDITION, USE AS MUCH INTELLIGENCE AND LABOR AS THEY COULD TO DELIVER THEMSELVES WE COULDN’T DEPEND ON THE GOVERNMENT OR CORPORATE AMERICA OR ANYONE AND SO I WAS ALWAYS A PERSON THAT ADVOCATEED ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BECAUSE AMERICA IT’S A CAPITALIST SOCIETY, IT’S BASED ON ECONOMICS IF YOU DON’T USE ECONOMICS IN YOUR COMMUNITY, YOUR COMMUNITY WILL NEVER GROW THE JEWISH COMMUNITY IN THIS COUNTRY AND IN THE WORLD THAT PROVEN THAT COLLECTIVELY YOU CAN BE A MINORITY AND APPLY THE RIGHT PRINCIPLES AND EMANCIPATE YOURSELF SO I THOUGHT THAT THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN COMMUNITY HAD TO APPLY ITSELF, HAVE THE GREATEST COMMUNITY, THE SAFEST COMMUNITIES AND PROBABLY MOST OF ALL, UNDERSTAND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT SO THAT WAS THE WAY THAT I LED AND I ATTRACTED THE TOP YOUNG MBAS IN THE COUNTRY, SPENCER JORDAN WAS MY NUMBER ONE GUY, GRADUATED HARVARD, MAGNA CUM LAUDE AND I GOT THE TOP BLACK ATHLETES IN THE COUNTRY AND I PUT THEM TOGETHER AND WE GOT A GRANT FROM THE FORD FOUNDATION OF OVER A MILLION DOLLARS AT THE TIME AND WE HAD A FUND THAT ANY YOUNG BLACK ENTREPRENEUR COULD COME AND MAKE THAT LOAN AND GET THE BENEFIT OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF OUR NATIONAL BUSINESS PLANNING TEAM AND SO THAT WAS THE WAY I FELT WE COULD GAIN EQUALITY QUICKER THAN DOING ANYTHING ELSE >> YOU KNOW, I WANT PEOPLE TO REALLY UNDERSTAND WE’RE TALKING ABOUT SOMETHING — THINK OF A 26, 25, 26, 27-YEAR-OLD ATHLETE TODAY THAT WOULD HAVE THAT KIND OF INSIGHT AND VIG THIS– AND VISION, THIS IS HOW FAR AHEAD YOU WERE IN TERMS OF THIS SITUATION IT ASTOUNDS ME EVEN NOW BILL, YOU, TOO, HAD A SENSE OF THE NECESSITY OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT NOT ONLY DID YOU HAVE YOUR OWN BUSINESS HERE, BUT LONG BEFORE GLOBALIZATION CAME INTO THE LANGUAGE AND ELECTION SON OF — AND LEXIKON OF THE SOCIETY YOU HAD ALREADY SET UP RELATIONSHIPS IN WEST AFRICA AND WERE TALK TALKING ABOUT HOW WE NEEDED TO CONNECT WITH AFRICAN COUNTRYIES AND HAVE SOME MUTUAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND SO FORTH YOU ALSO WENT INTO THE SOUTH SOUTH I MEAN, TWO MONTHS AFTER THE ASSASSINATION, I KNOW YOU WENT DOWN TO MISSISSIPPI AND IT WAS A FRIGHTENING TIME AND HELD INTEGRATEED BASKETBALL CLINICS IN MISSISSIPPI, TWO MONTHS AFTER MEGER EVERS DEATH OF COURSE YOUR BOSTON CELTICS TEAMMATES AS YOU STATED SAID DON’T WORRY ABOUT IT, YOU’RE GOING TO BE SAFE, YOU’RE GOING TO BE OKAY, JUST KEEP A LOW PROFILE [LAUGHTER] BUT YOU WENT DOWN AND HELD THOSE CLINICS, WHEN YOU WERE DOWN THERE, YOU TALKED TO YOUNG PEOPLE ABOUT THE NECESSITY OF COMPLETING SCHOOL, BECOMING ECONOMICALLY VIABLE AND SO FORTH >> WELL, MOST OF THE PEOPLE THAT WERE — AS I COULD SEE, WERE ECONOMICALLY DEPRIVEED AND I SAW THAT AS ONE OF THE THE — ONE OF THE PLACES

WHERE YOU CAN PURCHASE E EQUALITY IF YOU HAVE WHAT — WHAT STARTED OUT AS A CHARITY, YOU COULD MAKE IT A FORCE AND I KNOW THAT I WAS — I WAS IN BOSTON AND THERE WAS A GREAT MANY QUESTIONS ABOUT WHY I WOULD GO TO AFRICA PEOPLE TOLD ME, THEY SAID THE AFRICANS DON’T LIKE YOU WELL, THE PEOPLE THAT WERE TELLING ME THAT DIDN’T LIKE ME [LAUGHTER] SO I WANTED TO GO AND SEE FOR MYSELF OKAY AND SOME GUY CAME UP TO ME AND HE SAYS, “WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT AFRICA? YOU DON’T KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT THEM, THEY’RE NOT LIKE YOU AND YOU GOT NO BUSINESS DOING THAT.” SO I SAID “, YOU KNOW, I HAVE THIS FAMILY THAT ARE FRIENDS OF MINE AND THEY HAVE BEEN RECUSED OF SUPPORTING THE IRISH REVOLUTION THEY HAVE BEEN ACCUSED OF SUPPORTING THE IRISH REVOLUTION THE FAMILY WAS THE KENNEDYS, I KNEW ALL OF THEM IN FACT, I’M OLD ENOUGH THAT I REMEMBER MEETING AND SITTING AND TALKING WITH ROSE KENNEDY AND I SAYS “WELL, IF IT’S ALL RIGHT FOR THEM TO GO BACK WHERE THEIR ANCESTORS CAME FROM, WHY IS IT NOT ALL RIGHT FOR ME TO GO BACK WHERE I THINK MY ANCESTORS CAME FROM?” AND SO IT WAS ALL ABOUT — I NEVER, EVER CONSIDERED MYSELF AS A LEADER OR ANYTHING LIKE THAT ALL I DID WAS — ONE THING THAT I WANTED TO MAKE SURE THAT I NEVER DID ANYTHING THAT MY FATHER WOULD BE A ASHAMEED OF AND SO THE — SOME OF THE THINGS I DID, FOR EXAMPLE, I COACHED THE BOSTON CELTICS I WAS A PLAYER COACH OF THE BOSTON CELTICS AND SO THEY SAID, “WELL, YOU’RE THE FIRST BLACK COACH IN THE N.B.A AND IN FACT YOU’RE THE FIRST BLACK COACH, MANAGER, IN BASEBALL, FOOTBALL, BASKETBALL IN THE MAJOR LEAGUES WHAT ABOUT THAT?” I SAID TO THEM, “IF RED HAD EVER SAID TO ME THIS IS A GREAT SOCIAL EXPERIENCE, EXPERIMENT, I WOULD HAVE NOTHING TO DO WITH IT THE ONLY REASON I WOULD DO IT, BECAUSE I’M CONVINCED THAT I’M THE BEST PERSON FOR THE JOB.” [ APPLAUSE ] >> YEAH >> SO — SO WHAT I CONSIDERED, TRIED TO DO, EVERYTHING IN MY LIFE, BASED ON MERIT AND I EXPECTED ALL OTHER PEOPLE I SURROUND MYSELF WITH >> TO DO THE SAME >> NOW JIM AND I HAVE KNOWN EACH OTHER SINCE COLLEGE AND HE USED TO TELL ME ALL THE TIME THAT HE WAS A BETTER BASKETBALL PLAYER THAN I WAS ANYWAY LAWSUIT.[LAUGHTER] >> THAT WAS 38 POINTS A GAME GAME >> I SAID, “JIM, NO.” [LAUGHTER] AND IF I — IN FACT I SAID TO HIM ONE TIME, I SAYS “YOU KNOW, I THINK YOU’RE ONE OF THE GREATEST ATHLETES, IF NOT THE GREATEST AT LEAST IN THE 20th CENTURY.” BUT LEAVE BASKETBALL ALONE [LAUGHTER] >> JIM — JIM SAW AND I SUPPORTED — IF YOU DON’T HAVE ANY WHEREWITHAL TO EXERCISE INFLUENCE, THEN YOU’LL NEVER SUCCEED IN EXERCISING INFLUENCE AND I TRIED TO — LIVE MY LIFE THAT WOULD

EXERCISE INFLUENCE I PERSONALLY AM NOT INTEREST INTERESTED IN THAT I’M JUST INTEREST ED IN — I RAISE MY KIDS AND I ALWAYS LET THEM KNOW THAT I LOVED THEM IN FACT, THAT’S ONE OF THE KEY THINGS ABOUT RAISING KIDS MY DAUGHTER, I HAVE TO FIGHT OFF HER TELLING ME WHAT TO DO NOW [LAUGHTER] SHE GRADUATED FROM HARVARD LAW SCHOOL AND THE MINUTE SHE GETS A DEGREE FROM HARVARD, SHE KNOWS EVERYTHING [LAUGHTER] SO I JUST TRY TO SEE WHERE THINGS ARE NEEDED, RECOGNIZE THAT THINGS ARE NEEDED , AND TRY TO PUT MYSELF IN A PLACE WHERE I CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE >> LET’S JUMP TO THE PRESENT PRESENT WHERE DID THE TRAIN LEAVE THE TRACK? I MEAN, WHERE ARE YOU THE BILL RUSSELLS, WHAT ARE THE JIM BROWNS? I KNOW WE DON’T EXPECT PEOPLE TO DO THE SAME WAY — DO THINGS THE SAME WAY THAT THEY WERE DONE IN THE ’60S IN THE SAME SENSE THAT BILL YOU AND JIM DIDN’T DO THE THINGS THE SAME WAY THAT JACKIE ROBINSON DID OR JESSIE OWENS DID, BUT WHAT HAPPENED? HOW DO WE COME TO THE PLACE THAT WE HAVE THE LEVEL OF UN UNINVOLVEMENT, APATHY, ALMOST A LACK OF CONCERN ABOUT THESE BROADER ISSUES THAT YOU SPEAK OF NOW? >> WELL, YOU MENTIONED JACKIE ROBINSON I MET HIM A COUPLE OF TIMES WHEN HE DIED, I GOT A CALL FROM RACHEL ROBINSON SAID THAT SHE WANTED ME TO BE A PALL BEARER AT HIS FUNERAL I SAID GIVEN MY AGE, THAT’S AN OVERWHELMING HONOR WHY ME? SHE SAID, YOU WERE ONE OF JACKIE’S FAVORITE ATHLETES AND I TOOK THAT TO SAY THAT JACKIE HAD DONE A TREMENDOUS THING FOR US THAT HE — THAT HE WAS THE FIRST BLACK TO PLAY BASEBALL BUT HE WAS NEVER A PUSHOVER AND HE TOOK US TO A PLACE, OPENING UP THIS WHOLE WORLD FOR US, BUT I WAS NOT GOING TO REVISIT THAT PLACE I WANTED TO TAKE IT TO THE NEXT STEP >> WHICH YOU MOST CERTAINLY DID >> AND SO — WHEN RED ASKED ME HE SAID HE’S RETIRING, BACK TO MY COACH, HE SAYS I’M RETIRING, I GOT TO FIND A NEW COACH TO REPLACE ME HE SAYS, FIRST, DO YOU WANT THE JOB? I SAID HELL NO! [LAUGHTER] I SAID I’VE WATCHED WHAT YOU GONE THROUGH, I DON’T WANT NO PART OF THAT SO WE AGREEED, BOTH MADE OUT A LIST OF 10 GUYS THAT WE WOULD APPROVE OF HE SAYS NOBODY CAN GET THE JOB UNLESS YOU APPROVE OF IT IT SO I MADE A LIST OF 10 AND HE MADE A LIST OF 10 THERE WERE NO MATCHES [LAUGHTER] AND SO HE SAID, “WELL, WHAT DO YOU WANT TO DO?” I SAID, “I DON’T KNOW.” HE SAYS, “OKAY — HE WILL DECIDE WHATEVER, IT’S JUST ONE COACH HE SAID THIS IS WHO I’M GOING TO HIRE I SAID RED IF YOU HIRE HIM, I AM GOING TO RETIRE WITH YOU I DIDN’T EVEN WANT TO BE IN THE SAME ROOM WITH THAT PERSON I CLEANED IT UP, I SAID PERSON [LAUGHTER] AND — AND HE SAYS, WHY? I SAID NO I WILL NOT BE ON THE TEAM WITH HIM HE SAYS, “WELL, WHAT DO YOU WANT TO DO?” I SAID, “I’LL TELL YOU WHAT, I WILL TAKE THE JOB AS A PLAYER/COACH, AND IF IT DOESN’T WORK, IF YOU ASK ME TO I’LL QUIT OR

YOU CAN FIRE ME, IT DOESN’T MAKE ANY DIFFERENCE AND I WILL GIVE WHOEVER YOU REPLACE ME WITH 100% COOPERATION.” BECAUSE I DIDN’T WANT TO — I HAD GROWN TO LOVE THAT ORGANIZATION AND I WASN’T GOING TO DO ANYTHING TO HARM IT >> TO MESS IT UP >> SO — I DID A PRETTY GOOD JOB >> I THINK YOU DID 11 N.B.A. CHAMPIONSHIPS — >> WHAT I TOLD EVERYBODY WAS I WAS A PLAYER/COACH WITH NO ASSISTANTS I DIDN’T HAVE ANY ASSISTANTS IS THAT NOBODY COULD WORK WITH YOU [LAUGHTER] I HEARD THAT STORY [LAUGHTER] >> I CAN BE DIFFICULT >> I KNOW [LAUGHTER] >> BUT, YOU KNOW, I HAD A SONG WRITTEN FOR ME AND HE TALKED ABOUT MY FATHER AND THE KEY LINE TO THE SONG WAS: I AM MY FATHER’S SON AND HE TAUGHT ME HOW TO BE A MAN BY BEING ONE AND SO — SO I THINK THAT I CAN HAVE FRIENDSHIPS WITH GUYS THAT POLITICALLY WERE COMPLETELY OPPOSED BUT SINCE I DEMAND RESPECT, ALSO GIVE RESPECT SO THE THINGS THAT I DID, I TRIED TO DO FOR THE RIGHT REASONS NEVER TO PROVE ANYTHING TO SOMEONE I DON’T KNOW NOW, JIM IS A LIFE-LONG FRIEND PROBABLY AFTER MY FATHER, THE BEST FRIEND THAT I’VE EVER HAD AND THE WHOLE THING WAS BASED ON MUTUAL RESPECT YOU KNOW WHAT’S ODD ABOUT IT TO ME IS JIM AND I HAVE KNOWN EACH OTHER SINCE COLLEGE, AND THAT’S IN THE ’50S AND I DO NOT REMEMBER, AND HE SAYS HE DOESN’T REMEMBER, WHEN WE MET [LAUGHTER] >> MOMENTOUS TIME THERE, MOMENTOUS MOMENT, YEAH >> BUT — BUT THE FOUNDATION IS — THE WHOLE THING IS WE LIVE IN AMERICA, AND THE BETTER AMERICA IS FOR EVERYBODY HERE, THE BETTER AMERICA WILL BE >> FOR EVERYBODY [ APPLAUSE ] >> AND LET ME — GO AHEAD, JIM >> I WOULD LIKE TO EMPHASIZE WHAT YOU SAID, BILL BECAUSE THIS IS A VERY DIVERSE AUDIENCE AND SOMETIMES I’M MIS MISUNDERSTOOD I THINK SOMETIMES YOU’RE MIS MISUNDERSTOOD BUT WHEN YOU TALK ABOUT JACKIE ROBINSON, AND I KNEW JACKIE VERY WELL, I HAD A LOT OF ADMIRE REHABILITATION ADMIRATION FOR HIM BUT I ALWAYS TALK ABOUT THE MAN THAT TRULY INTEGRATEED BASEBALL WAS NOT JACKIE, IT WAS FRANK RICKY YAK KEY JACKIE CALLED HIM MR. RICKY HE STEPPED OUT OF THE POWER STRUCTURE HE DECIDED BASEBALL SHOULD BE INTEGRATED ONE THING MIGHT BE BECAUSE IT WAS THE RIGHT THING TO DO DO THE OTHER THING MIGHT BE BECAUSE OF BOX OFFICE, THERE WAS A WHOLE BLACK AUDIENCE OUT THERE THAT WENT TO BASEBALL GAMES HE COULD HAVE CHOSEN SATCHEL PAGE OR JOSH GIBSON BECAUSE THEY WERE GREAT, GREAT BASEBALL PLAYERS BUT HE CHOSE JACKIE BECAUSE HE KNEW JACKIE HAD THE ABILITY TO PLAY GREAT BASEBALL YET PLAY THE POLITICAL ROLE THAT HE HAD TO PLAY EVEN THOUGH IT WAS KILLING HIP SO HIP — KILL HIM SO I SAY TO YOU I HAD A LOT OF RESPECT FOR BRANCH RICKY AND PEOPLE LIKE HIM SO IF I DIGRESS FROM THERE, I GO TO SLAVERY AND THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD AND YOU MUST TAKE NOTE OF THESE THINGS TO BE ABLE TO LIVE IN AMERICA PROPERLY, I FEEL AND THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD REPRESENTED HARRIETT TUBMAN AND HARRIETT TUBMAN WAS GIVEN TREMENDOUS PRAISE FOR BEING THAT PIONEER WHO BASICALLY LIVED HER LIFE TO FREE THE SLAVES

WHAT IS ALSO OVERLOOKED IS THAT THOSE FREE HOUSES THAT THOSE PEOPLE PUT UP FOR THE SLAVES TO STAY AT AND TO HIDE THEM AND TO GET THEM UP TO THE NORTH AND GET THEM TO CANADA WERE REGULAR PEOPLE REGULAR PEOPLE NOTHING SPECIAL BUT THE COMMONALITY WAS THAT THEY WERE GOOD HUMAN BEINGS WHEN WE TALK, THE THREE OF US, I WANT TO EMPHASIZE THIS THIS, WE ALWAYS TALK ABOUT THE CATEGORY OF GOOD HUMAN BEINGS BEFORE WE TALK ABOUT WHITE, BLACK, WHATEVER >> RIGHT >> AND THAT BECOMES IMPORTANT IN BEING A MAN BECAUSE IF I HAVE THE CHARITY IN MY SOUL OR THE WISDOM TO RECOGNIZE THE GOOD GOODNESS IN PEOPLE, THEN I’M A MAN A MAN OF GOD A MAN OF TRYING TO DO THE RIGHT THING THEREFORE, NOTHING YOU CAN DO OR SAY TO ME WILL CHANGE MY ATTITUDE ABOUT MY MANHOOD MANHOOD AND OVER THE YEARS, THE BIGGEST PROBLEM THAT WE’VE HAD IN THIS COUNTRY IS WHENEVER YOU STAND UP FOR THE RIGHT THING, EVEN THOUGH IT’S FOR THE OVERALL POPULOUS, PEOPLE TAKE THE ATTITUDE THAT YOU ARE A RACE RACIST OR THEY CALL IT AN OPPOSITE RACEIST AND SO I WANTED TO MAKE THAT POINT BECAUSE WHEN YOU SAY, WHERE ARE WE TODAY, ONE — WELL, THE ONE GUY THAT I DEPEND ON MOST, YOUNG MAN THAT JUST WON THE SUPERBOWL, AND WHO IS A TREMENDOUS HUMAN BEING AND WHO HAS GOTTEN THROUGH SOME TROUBLED TIMES AND WHO UNDERSTANDS WHAT WE’RE DOING IS RAY LEWIS AND RAY, I THINK, CAN BE THE LEADER OF A LOT OF THESE YOUNG INDIVIDUALS WHO NEED THAT LEADERSHIP WHO WANT TO LEARN WHAT TO DO AND HOW TO PARTICIPATE IN MAKING TREMENDOUS CHANGE WITHIN THIS COUNTRY SO I JUST THOUGHT THAT I WOULD INTERJECT THAT >> THERE’S NO QUESTION THAT THE — EVERY GENERATION HAS TO DEVELOP ITS OWN LEADERSHIP AND I THINK THAT WE CAN — PEOPLE OF OUR GENERATION CAN DO THEIR ANALYSIS AND TELL THEM ABOUT WHAT HAPPENED IN THE PAST AND WHERE WE THINK THEY ARE NOW, BUT ULTIMATELY IT’S GOING TO BE THIS GENERATION THAT’S GOING TO HAVE TO TAKE THE LEADERSHIP AND RESPONSIBILITY LET ME ASK YOU, I KNOW THAT THAT — BECAUSE WE ARE RUNNING SHORT HERE, BUT LET ME ASK THIS: I KNOW THAT PROGRESS MANY TIMES IS A LOT LIKE THE CONCEPT OF PROFIT IT REALLY COMES DOWN TO WHO WHO’S KEEPING THE BOOKS [LAUGHTER] AND SO IN LOOKING AT WHERE WE ARE, HOW MUCH PROGRESS HAVE WE ACTUALLY MADE IN SPORTS? GIVEN THE FACT THAT WE’RE DOWN TO 8% AFRICAN-AMERICANS IN BASEBALL, FROM 21% IN 1973 THE HEAVYWEIGHT DIVISION OF BOXING HAS JUST ABOUT BEEN WIPED OUT I REMEMBER A TIME AND YOU DO DO, TOO, WHEN THERE WAS ALI, FRASIER, FOREMAN, PATTERSON, JIMMY ELLIS, JIMMY YOUNG, ERNIE TURRELL, BIG CAT CLEVELAND, A GUY BY THE NAME OF LARRY HOLMES COULDN’T BREAK INTO THE LINE IF HE WAS A SPARRING PARTNER TODAY YOU COULDN’T FIND TWO PEOPLE IN A 100 IN THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN COMMUNITY WHO COULD TELL YOU IF THERE WAS A BLACK HEAVYWEIGHT CONTENDER AROUND NOW WHEN YOU LOOK THE A THE FACT THAT THE N.B.A. IS — AT THE FACT THAT N.B.A. IS ONE QUARTER FOREIGN BORN WE ARE LOSING SPOTS THERE HOW MUCH PROGRESS HAVE WE — HAVE WE ACTUALLY MADE? WHERE ARE WE IN TERMS OF THAT CONCEPT >> WELL, HARRY, I’M GOING TO JUMP IN THERE BECAUSE I THINK A SIMPLE WAY I CAN SAY THAT JIMMY CARTER, PRESIDENT CARTER, EXPERIENCED YESTERDAY WAS ALMOST EVERYTHING THAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT PROGRESS, ABOUT HEART, ABOUT HONESTY, AND ABOUT THE FUTURE HE IS ON TOP OF IT IN EVERY WAY SO I WOULD SAY TO ALL OF AMERICA, IF YOU CAN GET A TAPE OF THE JIMMY CARTER PRESENTATION, OF YESTERDAY, AT THAT — [ APPLAUSE ] — UNBELIEVABLE >> THERE’S A MOVEMENT GOING ON NOW ABOUT UNIONIZEING COLLEGE ATHLETES I WOULD BE VERY INTERESTED IN BOTH OF YOUR OPINIONS IN THIS UNIONIZATION EFFORT IT’S JUST STARTING, AND I THINK PEOPLE ARE REALLY LOOK LOOKING AROUND ABOUT AN OPINION, A DISPOSITION, A PERSPECTIVE ON IT THAT THEY CAN KIND OF UNDERSTAND AND WRAP THEIR MINDS AROUND JIM, BILL? >>> BILL, YOU WANT TO TAKE

IT? >> WELL, FOR ME, IF I HAVE HAVE — I HAVE THIS PHRASE THAT I USE, ALL GREAT FORTUNE S ARE [INDISCERNIBLE] EITHER CHEAP OR SLAVE LABOR AND SO THE NCAA IS ONE GROUP EVERYBODY IS FOCUSING ON THEY HAVE THIS MONEY MACHINE MACHINE AND TO KEEP IT THIS WAY, THE LABOR FORCE HAS TO BE FREE OR VERY LOW WAGES THAT’S WHY YOU LOOK AT A LOT OF THE GREAT COMPANIES IN THIS COUNTRY, THEY PAY THEIR LABOR — THEY CAN’T EVEN AFFORD TO GO TO THE PLACE WHERE THEY WORK I KNOW WHEN I WAS A ROOKIE, 100 YEARS AGO — [LAUGHTER] [LAUGHTER] — THE AVERAGE SALARY IN THE N.B.A. WAS $5,000 THAT’S NOT EVEN MEAL MONEY NOW AND IN THE MIDDLE ’60S WE STRUCK THE ALL STAR GAME, THE 20 TOP PLAYERS IN THE LEAGUE, GOT TOGETHER AND STRUCK AN ALL STAR GAME TO FORM THE UNION AND THE OWNERS SAID “NO WAY WAY.” “WE’RE NOT GOING TO DO THAT THAT.” SO WE SAID, ” OKAY, THE ALL STAR GAME.” WELL, ABC TELEVISION SAID TO THEM YOU WANT US TO TELEVISE BASKETBALL, YOU CAN’T GET YOUR PLAYERS ON THE FLOOR SO THEY SAID, WELL, LET’S TALK TO ‘EM AND SO THEY SAID, “WELL, WE DON’T WANT TO LOSE FACE SO WHAT WE’LL DO IS IF YOU GUYS WILL PLAY THE ALL STAR GAME, AT THE END OF THE YEAR WE’LL RECOGNIZE THE UNION.” SO THE VOTE, 11-9, TO PLAY AND WE PLAYED THE ALL STAR GAME SO AT THE END OF THE YEAR, WE SENT OUR LAWYER IN TO TALK TO THE COMMISSIONER AND HE SAYS, “I RECOGNIZE THE PLAYERS ASSOCIATION, BUT WE DO NOT HAVE ANYTHING TO TALK ABOUT I’M NOT GOING TO TALK TO YOU ABOUT ANYTHING.” SO OUR LAWYER SAYS “OKAY, I’LL SEE YOU IN SEPTEMBER.” THAT’S THE BEGINNING OF THE NEXT SEASON THE COMMISSIONER SAID, “WELL “WELL, THE PLAYOFFS START NEXT WEEK.” HE WAS LIKE OH, NO, WE’RE NOT GOING TO PLAY IN THE PLAYOFFS BECAUSE YOU SEE WHAT WE KNEW THEN WAS OUR CONTRACT WAS FOR THE REGULAR SEASON GAMES ONLY NOT FOR PRESEASON, ALL-STARS OR PLAYOFFS SO WE SAID, “WELL, WE’LL SEE YOU NEXT SEPTEMBER.” THE PLAYOFFS IS WHEN EVERYBODY GOT WELL YOU ALMOST DOUBLED THE PRICE OF TICKETS AND YOU SOLD OUT EVERY GAME AND THEY SAW THAT REVENUE GOING OUT THE WINDOW, SO THEY SAID, “OKAY, WE’LL TALK TO YOU WHAT DO YOU WANT TO TALK ABOUT?” AND SO WE HAD A LIST OF THINGS THAT WE HAD TO CHANGE CHANGE AND ONE OF THE THINGS THAT WE KNEW WAS BASEBALL WAS THE ONLY SPORT THAT HAD ANTI- ANTI-TRUST EXEMPTION THE REST OF US HAD TO — THE REST OF THE SPORTS HAD TO GO THROUGH ANTI-TRUST LAWS SO ALL OF THE AGREEMENTS WITH THE N.B.A. NOW ARE BASED ON COLLECTIVE BARGAIN BARGAINING AGREEMENTS >> JIM, WILL WITH WORK IN COLLEGE? IS THAT A MODEL FOR COLLEGE? IS THAT SOMETHING THAT THESE YOUNG ATHLETES SHOULD BE LOOKING AT? >> I’M GOING TO SIMPLIFY IT I’M TOTALLY AGAINST THE UNION IN COLLEGE I DON’T LIKE THE NCAA I THINK IT’S A GREEDY ORGANIZATION AND A DICTATORIAL ORGANIZATION AND AN ORGANIZATION THAT’S TOTALLY UNFAIR FOR THE PLAYERS I MEAN, THE PLAYERS CAN’T EVEN GET ENOUGH MONEY TO BRING THEIR PARENTS TO A GAME BUT ON THE OTHER HAND, I THINK THAT WE HAVE ALL GOTTEN AWAY FROM THE VALUE OF EDUCATION

[ APPLAUSE ] SO I’M AN ADVOCATE OF LET’S GO BACK TO FOUR YEARS OF COLLEGE [ APPLAUSE ] AND LET’S GRADUATE AND DON’T LET’S CHOOSE TO PLAY FOOTBALL — BASKETBALL, FOOTBALL, WHATEVER OR NOT AND AS YOU KNOW, THERE’S A VERY LOW PERCENTAGE OF INDIVIDUALS THAT MAKE THE PROFESSIONAL TEAMS BUT EVERYBODY CAN GET, WITH A SCHOLARSHIP, CAN GET A COLLEGE EDUCATION SO WE HAVE THREE EMPHASIZE THE EDUCATION AND THE VALUE OF IT BECAUSE THAT’S GOING TO REALLY BE THE INGREDIENT THAT’S GOING TO MAKE THE CHANGE IT’S NOT GOING TO BE A STRUGGLE BETWEEN THE NCAA AND THE UNION AND ALL OF THAT BECAUSE THAT’S STRICTLY MONEY >> YEAH >> AND AS WE KNOW, WITH THESE PLAYERS TODAY THAT WE HAVE, MILLIONAIRES, OVER THREE — TWO-THIRDS OF THEM GO BANKRUPT WITHIN THREE YEARS SO IT CAN’T BE THE MONEY SO WE PUT THE VALUE BACK ON EDUCATION AND MAKING THAT DEDICATION TO YOUR COLLEGE AND LET THE NCAA SUPPORT THAT WITH GIVING THE PLAYERS THE RIGHT AMOUNT OF MONEY SO THEY CAN LIVE A DECENT LIFE WHILE THEY GET A GREAT EDUCATION [ APPLAUSE ] >> WE ARE RUNNING SHORT HERE HERE, BUT I DO WANT TO ASK YOU ABOUT ONE OTHER THING HOW CLOSE ARE WE IN ATHLETIC ATHLETICS IN THIS COUNTRY TO REALLY MEASURING PEOPLE, EVALUATING PEOPLE, BASED UPON THE CONTENTS OF THEIR CHARACTER AND THE CALIBER OF THEIR COMPETENCE AS OPPOSED TO WHAT THEY ARE AND WHO THEY ARE? WE HAVE A SITUATION NOW WHERE WE HAVE ACTIVE ATHLETES COMING OUT AND SAYING THAT I’M GAY, JASON COLLINS, QWAME HARRIS, USED TO BE WITH THE 49ERS, MOST CERTAINLY MIKE SAMES, BRITTANY GRANIER, A YOUNG MAN THAT PLAYED AN NCAA CHAMPIONSHIP GAME TODAY, THE FIRST ACTIVE DIVISION 1 ATHLETE TO COME OUT AND SAY THAT I’M GAY HOW CLOSE ARE WE TO PUTTING THIS MADNESS BEHIND US ABOUT EVALUATING PEOPLE BASED UPON THESE — ALL OF THESE SECONDARY, INCONSEQUENTIAL KINDS OF THINGS AS OPPOSED TO THE CONTENT OF THEIR CHARACTER AND THE CALIBER OF THEIR COMPETENCE? HOW CLOSE ARE WE TO ACCEPT ACCEPTING THAT IN THE NFL, SAY, OR IN — >> ARE YOU LOOKING AT ME, WILLIAM? >> HUH? >> YOU WANT THAT ONE? [LAUGHTER] >> WELL, WHAT I’LL SAY ABOUT IT IS WHEN THEY — THE FIRST ATHLETE WE HEARD ABOUT COMING OUT AS GAY, ASKED ME HOW WOULD YOU FEEL ABOUT PLAYING WITH A GAY PLAYER? AND I HAD ONE QUESTION COULD HE PLAY? [LAUGHTER] >> THE CALIBER OF HIS COMPETENCE >> RIGHT THAT’S ALL >> I CAN’T ADD TO THAT >> HUH? >> I CANNOT ADD TO THAT [LAUGHTER] >> OKAY WELL, GOOD >> SO — SO JIM, WAS A PROFESSIONAL IN THE MOST MACHO OF ALL AMERICAN SPORTS SPORTS AND — IT SEEMS TO ME, IT MAY NOT BE A GOOD CORRELATION, BUT A LOT OF QUESTIONS THEY ASKED ABOUT GAY ATHLETES THEY WERE ESSENTIALLY THE SAME QUESTIONS THEY USED TO ASK ABOUT US, BLACK ATHLETES ATHLETES >> ABSOLUTELY, ABSOLUTELY [ APPLAUSE ] >> YOU KNOW? >> WELL, ISN’T IT A SIMPLE SITUATION? WE HAVE LAWS IN THIS COUNTRY COUNTRY AND WE TRY TO ABIDE BYLAWS WE HAVE DIFFERENT DENOMINATIONS, WE HAVE DIFFERENT RACES, GENDER, AND IF YOU ARE A LAW ABIDING CITIZEN, AND TRYING TO DO THE RIGHT THING, THEN HOW CAN ANYONE ELSE JUDGE YOU? I MEAN, I THINK IT’S THAT SIMPLE YOU KNOW? I CAN’T GET INTO THE RELIGIOUS ASPECT OF IT TO THE SEXUAL ASPECT OF IT THAT I LOOK FOR THE, AS YOU SAID EARLIER, THE CHARACTER OF A PERSON AND THAT’S GOOD ENOUGH FOR ME BECAUSE I HAVE MY OWN THINGS THAT I’VE GOT TO DEAL WITH, YOU KNOW [LAUGHTER] I DON’T HAVE AN ANSWER TO EVERYTHING SO — >> WE ARE GETTING PRETTY CLOSE TO THE END HERE AND TYPICALLY AT THIS TIME, YOU KNOW, IS WHEN THE MODERATOR WILL ASK HOW DO YOU WANT TO BE REMEMBERED AND ONE THING OR ANOTHER

BUT I HAVE — I HAVE RESEARCHED THAT AND I LOOKED AT 31 PEOPLE WHO SAYS HOW THEY WANTED TO BE REMEMBERED AND THEN WHEN I ACTUALLY READ THE FOLLOW-UP, NOT ONE OF THEM WAS REMEMBERED THE WAY THEY SAID THEY WANTED TO BE REMEMBERED SO WE WON’T WASTE OUR TIME WITH THAT BIT OF MORBID WISH WISHFUL THINKING [LAUGHTER] BUT I DO HAVE — I DO HAVE SOME — A COUPLE OF LAST QUESTIONS FOR YOU WE’VE GOTTEN PRETTY SERIOUS HERE AND I THINK THAT THIS WONDERFUL AUDIENCE DESERVES A LITTLE CHOCOLATE SHAKE WITH THEIR BROCCOLI SO LET ME — LET ME ASK FIRST, BILL, YOU THE QUESTION THAT I’VE BEEN WANTING TO ASK YOU FOR THE LAST 45 YEARS, JUST BETWEEN ME AND ME AND I MEAN — 11 N.B.A. CHAMPIONSHIP S IN 13 SEASONS I MEAN, I LOOKED AT THIS THING WHERE LEBRON JAMES COME OUT AND SAID WHEN HE PUT HIS MOUNT RUSHMORE PLAYERS UP, HE LEFT YOU OFF AND I DIDN’T HAVE ANY PROBLEM WITH THAT BECAUSE IT’S REALLY NOT MOUNT RUSHMORE, IT’S MOUNT RUSSELL RUSSELL [LAUGHTER] AND THE FACES HE HANGS ON IT, WHO CARES, HE CAN PUT IN ANYBODY HE WANTS TO UP THERE BUT I DO HAVE A QUESTION 11 CHAMPIONSHIPS IN 13 YEARS YEARS, 13 SEASONS, IT’S MIND BOGGLEING THE QUESTION THAT I’VE HAD FOR YOU FOR THE LAST 45 YEARS, IS WHAT HAPPENED WITH THEM OTHER TWO? [LAUGHTER] [ APPLAUSE ] >> HARRY — >> CAN I DO ONE THING? [LAUGHTER] >> ALL RIGHT MY TEAM WENT TO THE FINALS 12 TIMES ONE YEAR I — I HAD A SEVERE SPRAINED ANKLE AND I WASN’T ABLE TO PLAY AND WE LOST >> OKAY, NOW WE’RE — [LAUGHTER] — >> BUT, I VERY RARELY BRING THAT UP [LAUGHTER] I TELL YOU WHY THAT’S A TEAM GAME AND MY TEAM LOST AND OF COURSE IT’S BEEN A TEAM GAME, I WANT TO ALSO GO TO THE OTHER SIDE AND SAY MY TEAM WON SO I GIVE THEM CREDIT FOR BEATING US >> OKAY SO THEM LAST TWO, YOU JUST LOST >> YEAH >> OKAY ALL RIGHT WE CAN — [LAUGHTER] >> LET ME — IT’S HARD TO TALK ABOUT YOURSELF BUT I CAN TALK ABOUT YA [LAUGHTER] YOU KNOW, THE 11 CHAMPIONSHIPS WERE PRECEDED BY TWO COLLEGE CHAMPIONSHIPS CHAMPIONSHIPS, TWO OF THEM THE COMMON DENOMINATOR IN THE TEAM SPORT WAS YOU TEAM SPORT MEANS THAT YOU ARE A TEAM, EVERYONE HAVING RESPONSIBILITY, AND YOU WIN TOGETHER NOT MICHAEL JORDAN BEING ACROBATIC OR LEBRON JAMES BEING A FREAK OF NATURE [LAUGHTER] BUT BILL YOUR CONTRIBUTION >> MADE THE DIFFERENCE >> TO THE SUCCESS OF THE TEAM IT IS YOUR CONTRIBUTION WE DON’T HAVE TO DEAL WITH WHETHER YOU’RE THE GREATEST THAT HAS EVER BEEN AND ALL OF THAT, WE KNOW THAT YOU’RE THE GREATEST CONTRIBUTOR >> YEAH >> AND THE OBJECTIVE OF A TEAM IS TO WIN >> THERE SHOULD BE A PICTURE OF BILL RUSSELL NEXT TO THE WORD WINNING, WINNER, IN THE DICTIONARY >> THERE YOU GO, THERE YOU GO, ABSOLUTELY THAT’S MY MAN >> LET ME — [ APPLAUSE ] >> THERE’S NEVER BEEN A GREATER CONTRIBUTOR IN ANY SPORT >> AND TWO MINUTES THAT I GOT LEFT, I HAVE GOT A QUESTION FOR — >> THAT’S A FRIEND OF MINE >> I KNOW, I KNOW >> WHAT BILL IS ESSENTIALLY TELLING YOU IS THAT YOU DON’T HAVE TO PAY HIM THAT MONEY YOU OWE HIM YOU’RE IN GOOD SHAPE [LAUGHTER] LET ME, I HAVE A QUESTION HERE JIM, YOU ARE AN ACTOR, YOU PRODUCED A NUMBER OF VERY SUCCESSFUL MUSICAL GROUPS OF COURSE YOU UNDERSTAND THE POLITICS OF — OF ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY AND HOW MUCH MILEAGE YOU CAN GET OUT OF THE FORM — OF FORMS SUCH AS FOOTBALL AND SO FORTH SO I HAVE A QUESTION FOR YOU YOU JUST IN THE END HERE BECAUSE I REALLY VALUE YOUR JUDGMENT ON THIS PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA LEAD LEADING UP TO HIS FIRST CAMPAIGN, FAMOUSLY WENT TO THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AND PLAYED BASKETBALL I MEAN THEY HAD IT ALL OVER THE TV WITH THE BASKETBALL TEAM CHAMPIONSHIP BASKETBALL TEAM TEAM HE LEADING UP TO HIS SECOND ELECTION, HE FAMOUSLY CHANNELED AL GREEN’S I’M SO IN LOVE WITH YOU IT BECAME THE NUMBER ONE PHONE RINGER ACROSS THE COUNTRY AFTER THAT I HAVE A QUESTION FOR YOU: DO YOU THINK HE WOULD HAVE PROJECTED THE SAME CACHET

CHARISMA AND COOL, SAY IF HE HAD BEEN INTO BOWLING AND HAD — [LAUGHTER] — AND HAD CHANNELED GLEN CAMPBELL’S THE WICHITA LINEMAN? DO YOU THINK THAT HE WOULD HAVE — JUST AS A GUY WHO UNDERSTANDS THE ENTERTAIN ENTERTAINMENT PART OF THIS THING [LAUGHTER] >> I’M SPEECHLESS [LAUGHTER] >> I THINK EVERYBODY ELSE WOULD HAVE BEEN, TOO, IF HE HAD STOOD UP THERE AND SUNG THE WICHITA LINEMAN >> I DON’T KNOW HOW TO ANSWER THAT I WON’T ANSWER IT [LAUGHTER] AND I ALMOST DON’T KNOW WHAT YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT [LAUGHTER] >> ALL RIGHT! >> OKAY [LAUGHTER] >> I DON’T KNOW NOTHING ABOUT THAT >> WE ARE DOWN TO THE LAST 15 SECONDS >> I WANT TO SAY SOMETHING TO YOU >> PLEASE >> I’M SITTING BETWEEN ONE OF MY LIFETIME BEST FRIENDS AND A GUY THAT I’VE KNOWN 50 YEARS I GOT NO BUSINESS BEING HERE HERE, OKAY BUT I THOUGHT IT WAS SUCH AN HONOR FOR ME TO BE INVITED BECAUSE — BECAUSE ALL I’VE EVER TRIED TO DO IN MY ADULT LIFE IS TO MAKE MY FATHER PROUD OF ME AND WE WERE — WE WERE — MY FATHER DIED A FEW YEARS AGO, BUT HE WAS — HE WAS 75, HE SAYS TO ME, “YOU KNOW I LOVE YOU.” THAT WAS THE FIRST TIME THAT HE EVER SAID THAT AND HE SAYS, “AND I’M PROUD OF YOU.” THAT WAS THE FIRST TIME HE EVER SAID THAT HE SAID “I’M PROUD THAT YOU’RE MY SON AND I’M PROUD JUST AS PROUD THAT I’M YOUR FATHER.” AND THAT WAS MY HERO YOU KNOW, I’M GOING TO TELL YOU A QUICK STORY [LAUGHTER] WE GOT ZEROS ON THE CLOCK, YOU’VE GOT TO BE QUICK >> OKAY >> QUICK? >> I GOT MY FIRST $100,000 CONTRACT AND I CALLED MY FATHER AND I SAID “YOU DON’T HAVE TO WORK ANYMORE I’M MAKING ENOUGH FOR BOTH OF US.” AND HIS REACTION WAS, “I DON’T WANT YOUR DAMNED MONEY MONEY I GOT MY OWN MONEY.” AND HE’S WORKING THE FOUNDRY FOUNDRY AND I SAID “THAT’S A TERRIBLE JOB, WHY WOULDN’T YOU GIVE IT UP?” HE SAYS ” “LISTEN, I’VE GIVEN THESE PEOPLE 35 OF THE BEST YEARS OF MY LIFE, NOW I’M GOING TO GIVE THEM A FEW OF THE BAD ONES.” [LAUGHTER] >> IT — IT HAS BEEN A TREMENDOUS HONOR FOR ME TO TO — TO SHARE THIS STAGE WITH TWO OF THE GREATEST MEN MEN I WON’T SAY BASKETBALL PLAYER OR FOOTBALL PLAYER THOSE ARE THINGS THAT YOU JUST HAPPEN TO BE THE BEST IN THE WORLD AT DOING BUT TWO OF THE GREATEST MEN, TWO OF THE GREATEST CITIZENS OF THIS COUNTRY THAT I’VE EVER HAD THE PLEASURE OF BEING ASSOCIATED WITH [ APPLAUSE ] >> LET ME THANK YOU, THANK YOU VERY MUCH THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR REMINDING US, THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR REMINDING US OF WHO WE ARE AND WHAT WE ARE AND WHAT WE STILL HAVE TO DO DO THANK YOU >> GOOD AFTERNOON, EVERYONE I’M BERNICE KING

AS CEO OF THE KING CENTER IN ATLANTA AS WELL AS THE LAST BORN CHILD OF DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING AND DR. CORETTA SCOTT KING I COUNT IT AN HONOR AND PRIVILEGE TO BE PART OF THIS HISTORIC REMEMBRANCE ALL OF US HERE TODAY ARE NOT ONLY FORTUNATE TO BE BENEFICIARYIES OF ONE OF THE MOST PI VALUE MOMENTS IN OUR NATION’S HISTORY, BUT OUR PRIVILEGE TO BE PRESENT AT THIS MOMENT, 50 YEARS LATER TO PAR TACK PARTAKE IN THE FIRSTHAND ACCOUNTS OF THOSE WHO WILLINGLY SACRIFICED SELF FOR THE GREATER GOOD OF HUMANITY MY FATHER, DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR., ONCE SAID THAT AN INDIVIDUAL HAS NOT STARTED TO LIVE UNTIL HE AND I WILL ADD SHE, CAN RISE ABOVE THE NARROW CONFINES OF HIS OR HER INDIVIDUALISTIC CONCERNS TO THE BROADER CONCERNS OF HUMANITY THIS AFTERNOON WE HEAR FROM THREE MEN, WHO LIKE MY FATHER, SERVED IN THE GREAT CAUSE OF BOTH CIVIL AND HUMAN RIGHTS AND ROSE ABOVE THE NARROW CONFINES OF THEIR INDIVIDUALISTIC CONCERNS TO ADDRESS THE BROADER CONCERNS OF HUMANITY IT IS MY GREAT HONOR TO INTRODUCE THEM OUR FIRST PANELIST IS A FORMER NEIGHBOR TO ME AND MY FAMILY I GREW UP WITH HIS CHILDREN, ATTENDED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL WITH HIS CHILDREN JULIAN BOND MR. BOND WAS A FOUNDING MEMBER OF THE STUDENT NON- NON-VIOLENT COORDINATING COMMITTEE KNOWN AS SNIC, WHICH HE SERVED AS COMMISSIONS COMMUNICATIONS DIRECTOR FROM 1961 TO 1966 IN 1965 HE WAS ELECTED TO THE GEORGIA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES AND SERVED UNTIL 1975 BEFORE MOVING ON TO THE GEORGIA SENATE FROM 1975 TO 1986 IN 1972 THE YOUNG AND BRILLIANT JULIAN BOND CAPTUREDED THE IMAGINATION OF THE NATION WHEN HE BECAME THE FIRST AFRICAN-AMERICAN TO BE NOMINATED FOR VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES BUT HE WITHDREW HIS NAME FROM CONSIDERATION BECAUSE CONSTITUTIONALLY HE WAS TOO YOUNG TO BE ON THE BALLOT MR. JULIAN BOND ALSO HELPED FOUND THE SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER SERVING AS THE ORGANIZATION’S PRESIDENT FROM 1971 TO 1979 AND HE SERVED AS CHAIRMAN OF THE NAACP FROM 1998 THROUGH 2009 2009 TODAY HE CONTINUES TO SERVE THE GREAT CAUSE OF EQUALITY AND SOCIAL JUSTICE AND IS AN ELOQUENT VOICE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS AND PEACE CURRENTLY HE TEACHES CIVIL RIGHTS HISTORY AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY IN WASHINGTON, D.C OUR SECOND PANELIST IS MY CONGRESSMAN, JOHN LEWIS [APPLAUSE] HE HAS OFTEN BEEN CALLED THE CONSCIENCE OF THE CONGRESS, AND WITH GOOD REASON BECAUSE HE HAS SERVED AS A TIRELESS CHAMPION OF THE OPPRESSED AND A VOICE FOR THE POWER POWERLESS CITIZENS OF OUR NATION A FOUNDING MEMBER AS WELL AND CHAIRMAN OF THE STUDENT NON- VIOLENT COORDINATING COMMITTEE, HE WAS AN ARCHITECT AND A KEYNOTE SPEAKER AT THE HISTORIC MARCH ON WASHINGTON IN AUGUST 1963 HE WAS THERE IN SELMA AS WE REMEMBER ON BLOODY SUNDAY IN 1965, EXPERIENCING VIOLENCE IN THE FRONT RANKS OF THE HISTORIC VOTING RIGHTS MARCH TO MONTGOMERY SINCE 1986 HE SERVED IN THE CONGRESS AS A U.S REPRESENTATIVE FROM GEORGIA GEORGIA’S FIFTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT AND IN 2010 WAS AWARDED THE MEDAL OF FREEDOM BY PRESIDENT OBAMA, WHO RECOGNIZED THAT HIS PRESIDENCY

WAS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE COURAGEOUS SACRIFICES OF PEOPLE LIKE JOHN LEWIS AND HIS COLLEAGUES IN THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT TODAY JOHN LEWIS IS INSPIRE INSPIRING JOURNEY OF HOPE AND HEALING SERVES AS A LIVING TESTAMENT TO ONE OF MY FATHER’S PRINCIPLES OF NON-VIOLENCE, WHICH IS UN UNEARNED SUFFERING IS INDEED REDEMPTIVE CONGRESSMAN LEWIS RECENTLY MADE HISTORY WHEN HIS HAPPY DANCE WENT VIRAL [LAUGHTER] OUR FINAL PANELIST HAS BEEN A CONSTANT SOURCE OF WISDOM AND GUIDANCE FOR MY FAMILY AND FOR ME SINCE MY FATHER’S ASSASSINATION SO MUCH SO THAT MY SIBLINGS AND I CALL HIM UNCLE ANDY AFFECTIONATELY ANDREW JACKSON YOUNG WAS A TRUSTED AIDE TO MY FATHER DURING THE MOVEMENT AND HE SERVED MY MOTHER AS AN EQUALLY INVALUABLE ADVISOR AND FRIEND WHO SHE OFTEN CALLED ON IN MAKING VERY DIFFICULT DECISIONS HE WAS A KEY STRATEGIST AND NEGOTIATOR ASSISTING MY FATHER DURING THE CIVIL RIGHTS CAMPAIGNS, ESPECIALLY IN BIRMINGHAM AND SELMA, WHERE HIS LEADERSHIP IS REFLECTED IN THE PASSAGE OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 AND THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965 REVEREND YOUNG WAS ELECTED TO THE U.S. CONGRESS IN 1972 1972, THE FIRST AFRICAN-AMERICAN ELECTED FROM THE DEEP SOUTH SINCE RECONSTRUCTION IN 1977 PRESIDENT CARTER APPOINTED HIM AS THE NATION NATION’S FIRST AFRICAN-AMERICAN AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED NATIONS IN 1981 PRESIDENT CARTER AWARDED HIM THE PRESIDENTIAL MEDAL OF FREEDOM AND FRANCE AWARDED HIM THE LEGION D’HONNEUR, THE HIGHEST CIVILIAN HONORS FOR BOTH OF THOSE NATIONS AMBASSADOR YOUNG WAS ELECTED MAYOR OF ATLANTA IN 1982 AND SERVED WITH DISTINCTION TO 1990 AND WAS LATER INSTRUMENTAL IN BRINGING THE 1996 OLYMPICS TO ATLANTA AS A CLERGYMAN, CONGRESSMAN, AMBASSADOR, MAYOR, CIVIL RIGHTS AND BUSINESS LEADER, WE DON’T KNOW WHAT TO CALL HIM [LAUGHTER] ANDREW YOUNG HAS EXPERIENCED A RESUME NO PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE CAN HOPE TO MATCH ALTHOUGH MANY OF THEM HAVE CALLED ON HIM FOR ADVICE AND COUNSEL AND ON TOP OF ALL THAT HE REMAINS A MAN OF EXTRAORDINARY HUMILITY AND HE IS ONE HECK OF A STORY TELLER WHO NEVER FAILS TO PROVIDE INTRIGUING AND INSPIREING MESSAGES THAT ARE DRAWN FROM A TREASURE TROEV OF REAL LIFE EXPERIENCES, BOTH HISTORIC AND CURRENT DAY MODERATING THIS HEROS OF THE CIVIL RIGHT MOVEMENT, VIEWS FROM THE FRONTLINE PANEL, WITH THESE CIVIL RIGHTS ICON ICONS, WILL BE LONNIE BUNCH, WHO IS THE FOUNDING DIRECTOR OF THE SMITHSONIAN’S NATIONAL HUMAN OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE, WHICH WILL OPEN NEXT YEAR, 2015 LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, PLEASE WELCOME LONNIE BUNCH, AMBASSADOR ANDREW YOUNG, CONGRESSMAN JOHN LEWIS AND MR JULIAN BOND [APPLAUSE] >> NOW I KNOW WHAT THE PIPS FELT LIKE WITH GLADYS KNIGHT KNIGHT [LAUGHTER] I HAVE TO TELL YOU OFTEN WE USE THE TERM HERO AND IT’S A TERM THAT WE USE MUCH TOO OFTEN, BUT IN A WAY THESE THREE EXTRAORDINARY MEN ARE TRUE HERO S [APPLAUSE] THESE ARE INDIVIDUALS WHOSE EFFORTS, BOTH DURING THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT AND IN THE YEARS AFTER, TRANSFORMED AMERICA IN MANY WAYS THEY’RE HEROS BECAUSE OF THEIR COURAGE, THEIR PERSONAL SACRIFICE AND THEIR LEADERSHIP THEY MADE AMERICA BETTER AND THERE IS NO HIGHER ACCOLADE THAN YOU CAN GIVE SOMEONE WHO HAS MADE THEIR COUNTRY BETTER SO ONCE AGAIN, THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR ALL THAT YOU’VE DONE FOR US [APPLAUSE] LET ME BEGIN THIS BY ASKING YOU TO TALK A LITTLE BIT ABOUT YOUR EARLY INVOLVEMENT IN THE MOVEMENT CONGRESSMAN LEWIS, YOU TALK A LOT ABOUT HOW YOU WERE TOLD NOT TO GET IN TROUBLE I’M WONDERING FOR THE THREE OF YOU WHAT LED YOU TO TROUBLE THE WATER, TO PICK UP THE GAUNTLET

OF CIVIL RIGHTS? >> THANK YOU VERY MUCH, LONNIE I’M DELIGHTED AND VERY PLEASED TO BE HERE I’M HONORED I GREW UP IN RURAL ALABAMA ABOUT 50 MILES FROM MONTGOMERY OUTSIDE OF A LITTLE PLACE CALLED TROY AND WHEN I WAS GROWING UP I SAW THE SIGNS I DIDN’T LIKE THE SIGNS THAT I SAW SAYING WHITE ONLY, COLORED COLORED ONLY, WHITE WAITING, COLORED ONLY I WOULD ASK MY PARENTS, GRANDPARENTS, AND THEY WOULD SAY THAT’S THE WAY IT IS DON’T GET IN THE WAY, DON’T GET IN TROUBLE BUT IN 1955 AT THE AGE OF 15 I HEARD ABOUT ROSA PARKS, HEARD THE WORDS OF MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. ON THE RADIO, AND THE ACTIONS OF ROSA PARKS, THE ACTION AND LEADERSHIP OF DR KING INSPIRED ME TO FIND A WAY TO GET IN THE WAY, AND I GOT IN TROUBLE, GOOD TROUBLE, NECESSARY TROUBLE I REMEMBER IN 1956 AT THE AGE OF 16 THAT SOME OF MY BROTHERS AND SISTERS AND COUSINS, WE WENT DOWN TO THE PUBLIC LIBRARY IN THE LITTLE TOWN OF TROY TRYING TO GET A LIBRARY CARD, TRYING TO CHECK OUT BOOKS, AND WE WERE TOLD BY THE LIBRARIAN THAT THE LIBRARYIES LIBRARYIES FOR COLORED ONLY — FOR WHITES ONLY, NOT FOR COLOREDS MANY YEARS LATER JULIAN AND I WENT BACK TO THE SAME LIBRARY, JULY 5TH, 1998, FOR A BOOK SIGNING OF MY BOOK, WALK WITH THE WIND [APPLAUSE] AND I WAS GIVEN A LIBRARY CARD AND I’LL MAKE IT SHORT, LONNIE YEARS LATER I MET DR. KING, A I FIRST MET ROSA PARKS IN 1957 WHEN I WAS 17 THE NEXT YEAR, 1958, I MET MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR., CHANGED MY LIFE AND I HAVEN’T LOOKED BACK YOU CANNOT LOOK BACK I GOT INVOLVED, WENT OFF TO SCHOOL IN NASHVILLE AND STUDY A PHILOSOPHY OF DISCIPLINE AND NON-VIOLENCE, DEEPLY MOVED BY THE TEACHING OF A YOUNG MAN BY THE NAME OF JIM LAWSON THAT WE KNOW VERY WELL HE TAUGHT US THE WAY OF PEACE, THE WAY OF LOVE, THE WAY OF NON-VIOLENCE IN NASHVILLE WE HAD NON- NON-VIOLENT WORKSHOPS EVERY TUESDAY NIGHT NEAR FISHER UNIVERSITY DURING THE FALL OF 1959 AND THE EARLY PART OF 1960 WE STUDIED WHAT GANDHI ATTEMPTED TO DO IN SOUTH SOUTH AFRICA, WHAT HE ACCOMPLISHED IN INDIA WE STUDIED THE ROLE OF CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE, WHICH IS WHAT DR KING WAS ALL ABOUT IN MONTGOMERY AND BLACK AND WHITE COLLEGE STUDENTS AND SOME HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WOULD HAVE THESE TESTINGS AND SOMEONE WOULD COME IN AND PULL US OFF THE LUNCH PANEL IN SCHOOL, SPIT ON US, PUT THINGS DOWN OUR BACKS, BUT MOST OF US IN NASHVILLE IN 1960, ACCEPTED THE WAY OF NON- VIOLENCE AS A WAY OF LIFE, AS A WAY OF LIVING >> JULIAN? >> WELL, I GOT INVOLVED IN THE MOVEMENT WHEN I WAS A STUDENT AT MOREHOUSE COLLEGE IN ATLANTA IN 1960 I WAS SITTING IN A CAFE , THERE WAS A CHAIN OF DRUG STORES IN ATLANTA CALLED YATES AND MILL SON, AND THERE WAS ACROSS FROM MOREHOUSE COLLEGE THE PLACE YOU WENT IN BETWEEN CLASSES OR INSTEAD OF CLASSES [LAUGHTER] AND I WAS SITTING THERE AND A FELLOW STUDENT I KNEW ONLY AS A FOOTBALL PLAYER, HIS NAME WAS LONNIE KING, NO RELATION TO THE FAMOUS KING FAMILY AND HE HELD UP A NEWSPAPER AND SAID HAVE YOU SEEN THIS? AND I THOUGHT HE WAS ASKING DO YOU READ THE NEWSPAPER? AND I WAS A LITTLE PUT OFF BECAUSE I THOUGHT EVERY COLLEGE STUDENT EITHER DID OR SHOULD READ A NEWSPAPER EVERYDAY BUT REALLY HE MEANT HAD YOU SEEN THIS STORY AND THE STORY TALKED ABOUT GREENSBORO STUDENTS SITTING IN FOR THE THIRD DAY AND IT TOLD HOW THESE STUDENTS HAD GONE TO THE LOCAL F AND W WOOL WORTH’S DEPARTMENT STORE, GONE OVER HERE AND HERE AND OVER HERE AND THEN SAT AT THE LUNCH COUNTER, ASKED FOR SERVICE AND WERE REFUSED SERVICE AND SAT THERE UNTIL THE STORE CLOSED AND SAID WE’LL BE BACK TOMORROW AND TALKED ABOUT HOW THEY DRESSED, COMPORTED THEMSELVES AND IT WAS HOW TO SIT IN AND HE SAID HAVE YOU SEEN THIS AND I SAID I HAVE SEEN IT HE SAID WHAT DO YOU THINK OF IT ? >> I THINK IT’S GREAT, WONDERFUL I SAID I KNOW IT WILL HAPPEN HERE IN ATLANTA AND HE SAID WHY DON’T WE MAKE IT HAPPEN AND BEFORE I COULD SAY WHAT DO YOU MEAN WE, HE SAID YOU TAKE THIS SIDE OF THE CAFE, I’LL TAKE THIS SIDE AND WE’LL CALL A MEETING AND MAKE IT HAPPEN AND WE WERE IN THE MIDDLE OF A COMPLEX OF BLACK SCHOOLS , MOREHOUSE COLLEGE COLLEGE, WHICH WAS FOR MEN, MORRIS BROWN COLLEGE, CO- CO-EDUCATIONAL, ATLANTA UNIVERSITY, THE GRADUATE SCHOOL, AND THE INTER INTERDENOMINATIONAL THEOLOGICAL CENTER, A COLLECTION OF THEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS

SO WE MADE SURE WE HAD SOMEBODY FROM EACH OF THESE SCHOOLS BECAUSE WE DIDN’T WANT IT TO BE A MOREHOUSE COLLEGE EVENT ONLY AND WHEN WE WE HAD A MASS OF PEOPLE THEN WE HAD OUR FIRST SIT-IN DEMONSTRATIONS AND I WAS CHOSEN TO LEAD PEOPLE TO THE CAFETERIA AT THE ATLANTA CITY HALL AND YOU GOT TO CITY HALL BY GOING UP A SET OF STAIRS AND THEN GOING TO THE BASEMENT AND THE CAFETERIA WAS THERE SO I LED A COUPE OF ABOUT 15 PEOPLE, MEN AND WOMEN, TO THE CAFETERIA AND WE CAME IN THE CAFETERIA AND WE SAW THESE BLACK WOMEN WORKING AT THE STEAM TABLES THERE AND THEY’RE LOOKING AT US WITH A MIXTURE OF FEAR AND ADMIRATION FEAR BECAUSE THEY HAD READ IN THE PAPERS ABOUT SIT-IN DEMONSTRATIONS NOW THEY WERE COMING TO ATLANTA AND ONE THING THAT WAS CERTAIN BEING ARRESTED WOULD FOLLOW AND THEY THOUGHT THE POLICE WOULD COME AND THEY WERE A LITTLE NERVOUS ABOUT THAT BUT ADMIRATION BECAUSE THEY WERE GLAD OF WHAT WE WERE DOING WE CAME UP TO THE STEAM TABLES AND THE CASHIER, WHICH I LATER FOUND OUT A WHITE WOMAN WAS THE MANAGER OF THE CAFETERIA AND SHE’S AWFULLY POLITE, SOUTH SAN SANNERS ARE SO POLITE SHE SAID I’M AWFULLY SORRY, THIS IS FOR CITY HALL EMPLOYEES ONLY I SAID YOU HAVE A BIG SIGN OUT FRONT THAT SAYS CITY HALL CAFETERIA, THE PUBLIC IS WELCOME SHE SAID WE DON’T MEAN IT [LAUGHTER] I SAID WELL, WE’LL STAND HERE UNTIL YOU DO SHE CALLED THE POLICE AND THEY ARRESTED US AND TOOK US AWAY FOR THE FIRST TIME IN MY LIFE I FOUND MYSELF IN JAIL BECAUSE SO MANY OF US HAD BEEN ARRESTED AT SO MANY TIMES AND PLACED IN ATLANTA THEY DECIDED TO TRY ONE PERSON FOR EACH GROUP OF ARRESTEES AND I WAS CHOSEN TO BE TRIED FOR MINE SO I FOUND MYSELF FOR THE FIRST TIME IN MY LIFE BEFORE A JUDGE AND STANDING BETWEEN TWO MEN WHOM I HAD NEVER SEEN BEFORE I FOUND OUT THEY WERE MY LAWYERS, ONE AN OLDER MAN, COLONEL AT WALDEN, THE DEAN OF BLACK LAWYERS IN GEORGIA AND THE YOUNGER MAN, ATTORNEY HOLLOWWELL, THE YOUNGER OF THE TWO THERE WAS SOME BACK AND FORTH BETWEEN THE JUDGE AND MY LAWYERS WHICH I REALLY DON’T UNDERSTAND AND THE JUDGE SAID TO ME HOW DO YOU PLEAD? AND I WAS REALLY — DIDN’T QUITE KNOW WHAT TO SAY ON THE ONE HAND I KNEW I HAD THE RIGHT TO BE THERE THIS IS A STATE SUPPORTED PUBLIC PLACE MY TAXES PAY FOR IT I HAD A RIGHT TO BE IN THIS CAFETERIA BUT ON THE OTHER HAND A POLICEMAN HAD ASKED ME TO LEAVE AND I DIDN’T LEAVE SO I DIS OBEYED THE POLICEMAN SO WAS I GUILTY, WAS I NOT GUILTY? I TURNED TO ATTORNEY HOLLOW HOLLOWWELL AND HE WAS LIKE THIS [LAUGHTER] AND MY HEART SANK AND I TURNED TO ATTORNEY — I’M SORRY, THAT WAS THE OLDER MAN THE YOUNGER MAN SAID, NOT GUILTY, YOU FOOL [LAUGHTER] AND I HAD THE QUICKNESS OF MIND NOT TO SAY THAT OR ELSE I WOULDN’T BE STANDING HERE NOW [LAUGHTER] SO I WAS BOUND OVER TO A GRAND JURY AND SENT BACK TO MY CELL AND LATER WE WERE ALL ARRESTED AND THAT’S HOW I GOT IN THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT >> AMBASSADOR YOUNG? [APPLAUSE] >> I THINK I — I ALMOST THINK I WAS BORN INTO IT IN NEW ORLEANS I GREW UP IN A NEIGHBORHOOD WITH AN IRISH GROCERY STORE ON ONE CORNER, ITALIAN BAR AND A NAZI PARTY ON THE THIRD CORNER [LAUGHTER] AND I WAS THREE, FOUR YEARS OLD AND I COULD SEE THESE PEOPLE H EILING HITLER AND MY FATHER TOOK ME TO SEE JESSE OWENS IN THE 1936 OLYMPIC FILMS AND HE SHOWED ME — TOLD ME THAT WHITE SUPREMACY IS A SICKNESS AND YOU DON’T GET UPSET WITH SICK PEOPLE, YOU HELP THEM AND HE USED JESSE OWENS, JESSE OWENS WON THE 100- 100-METER DASH AND HITLER GOT UP AND STORMED OUT AND HE SAID NOW, JESSE DIDN’T GET MAD HE JUST WENT ON AND WON THREE MORE GOLD MEDALS AND HE SAID DON’T GET MAD IF YOU LOSE YOUR TEMPER IN A FIGHT YOU LOSE THE FIGHT DON’T GET MAD, GET SMART SO IN THAT NEIGHBORHOOD WE WERE IN A CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT DAY-BY-DAY AND THEN YOU HAD TO GO TO A SEGREGATED SCHOOL ON THE OTHER SIDE OF TOWN AND THAT WAS CLASS WARFARE BECAUSE MY PARENTS HAD BEEN TO COLLEGE AND NOBODY ELSE IN THE SCHOOL HAD SO YOU EITHER HAD TO RUN, FIGHT OR NEGOTIATE AND I LEARNED TO DO ALL THREE WHEN APPROPRIATE [LAUGHTER] >> I WONDER, EARLIER TODAY YOU STARTED TO TALK ON THE EARLIER PANEL ABOUT THE SORT OF IMPACT ON THE MOVEMENT OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 1964 SITTING HERE, YOU ARE THE PEOPLE WHO SHAPED THE FREEDOM RIDERS, SHAPED THE S SNIC VOTEER REGISTRATION ISSUES, SHAPED THE BIRMINGHAM CAMPAIGN

HELP US UNDERSTAND HOW YOU SEE THE MOVEMENT SHAPEING AND MAKING POSSIBLE THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF ’64 >> THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT MOVEMENT, THE LEADERSHIP OF MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. AND OTHERS CREATED A CLIMATE, CREATED THE ENVIRONMENT FOR THE PASSAGE OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 HUNDREDS AND THOUSANDS OF YOUNG PEOPLE HAD BEEN ARRESTED GOING TO JAIL CHURCHES HAD BEEN BOMBED, BURNED ON APRIL THE 19TH, 1960, I WAS RETURNING HOME NEAR FISH FISHER UNIVERSITY, AND ONE OF THE MOST RESPECTED CITIZENS OF THE CITY OF NASHVILLE, PEOPLE DIDN’T LIKE IT BECAUSE HIS HOME WAS BOMBED, HE WAS AN ELECTED OFFICIAL, DISTINGUISHED LAWYER, WORKED WITH THURGOOD MARSHALL BEFORE NOON THAT MORNING HIS HOME WAS BOMBED, LIKE 6:30 BY 7:00 WE WERE IN A MEETING MEETING WE SENT A TELEGRAHAM TO THE MAYOR OF THE CITY AND SAID MEET US AT HIGH NOON AT CITY HALL MORE THAN 4,000 STUDENTS MARCH ED IN AN ORDERLY FASHION AND ALL ACROSS THE SOUTH PEOPLE WERE DEMANDING ACTION ACTION THE NAACP HAD A SLOGAN, FREE BY SIX, JULIAN, AND YOU COULD BE SITTING IN THE STUDENT UNION, THE CAFETERIA AND THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN STUDENTS WOULD BE SAYING TO US THE WHOLE OF AFTER COULD WOULD BE FREE AND LIBERATEED AND WE COULDN’T GET A HOT DOG AND COCA-COLA AT A LUNCH COUNTER SO WE HAD BEEN CHALLENGEED PEOPLE DIDN’T LIKE — I REMEMBER WHEN I FIRST GOT ARRESTED THE FIRST TIME, I FELT FREE I FELT LIBERATEED AND I THINK MANY OF US FELT THAT WAY THAT YOU COME TO THAT POINT WHERE YOU CANNOT GO BACK, YOU HAVE TO GO FORWARD AND WE CONTINUED TO PUSH REMEMBER IN JUNE OF 1963 PRESIDENT KENNEDY MADE A SPEECH, I BELIEVE IT WAS JUNE 11th 1963 WHEN HE SPOKE TO THE NATION AND A FEW DAYS LATER THE SO-CALLED BIG SIX, THE LEADERS OF THE NAACP, THE URBAN LEAGUE, THE NAACP I SAID, DR KING >> APRIL RANDOLPH WE MET IN NEW YORK CITY, 1963 AND IN THAT MEETING WE SAID WE WERE GOING TO MARCH ON WASHINGTON IT WAS UP AGAINST ROOSEVELT, TRUMAN AND THIS WAS HIS CHANCE HE WANTED TO MARCH AND HE TOLD THE PRESIDENT, WE’RE GOING TO MARCH AND LATER WE MET AND ORGANIZED AND INVITED FOUR MAJOR WHITE RELIGIOUS AND LABOR LEADERS TO JOIN US AND THE MARCH ON WASHINGTON I THINK WAS ONE OF THE FINEST HOURS AND I MIGHT SAY HERE, WHEN I LOOK BACK ON IT, JULIAN, AND ANDY, I THINK IT WAS ONE OF THE GREAT UNDER COUNT, THE MEDIA SAID 250,000 I THINK IT WAS MANY MORE IT WAS A SEA OF HUMANITY THE PROGRAM WAS OVER AND PEOPLE WERE STILL TRYING TO GET INTO WASHINGTON TO PARTICIPATE IN THAT MARCH ON THE STEPS — TO THE STEPS OF THE LINCOLN MEMORIAL >> SO WOULD YOU AGREE, AMBASSADOR, THAT MOVEMENTS MOVEMENTS — MOMENTS LIKE THE MARCH ON WASHINGTON WERE CRUCIAL IN SHAPEING THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT’S RESPONSE WHICH ULTIMATELY LED TO THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT? >> WELL, I THINK WHAT JOHN HAD DONE AND WHAT JULIAN HAD DONE IN THE STUDENT SIT-INS WAS — HAD CREATED A MOVEMENT IT WAS FOLLOWED BY THE FREEDOM RIDES THE FREEDOM RIDES LEFT SNIC STUDENTS FOR THE MOST PART CAMPED OUT OR PLANTED THROUGHOUT MISSISSIPPI WE WERE TRAINING WORKERS WITH THE CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION PROGRAM THERE WAS REALLY A SOUTH SOUTH-WIDE MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE FOR EQUAL RIGHTS THE MARCH ON WASHINGTON WAS SORT OF A CULMINATION OF THAT MOVEMENT I DON’T THINK — I DON’T THINK WE COULD HAVE JUST A AMOSTLY SUNNYIED THE MOVEMENT AND HAD — I MEAN A MARCH AND HAD IT SUCCEED THAT WAY IT TOOK THE FREEDOM RIDES, IT TOOK THE SIT-INS IT TOOK MEDGAR EVERS’ DEATH IT TOOK ALL OF THE SUFFERING SUFFERINGS THAT WE HAD — HAD BUILT UP THROUGH THE YEARS

AND WHAT THE MARCH DID WAS TOOK A SOUTHERN PREDOMINANTLY BLACK MOVEMENT AND MAKE IT A NATIONAL MULTI MULTIRACIAL, MULTICULTURAL MOVEMENT? >> YOU KNOW, JOHN IS THE ONLY SURVIVING SPEAKER FROM THE MARCH ON WASHINGTON JOHN IS ONE OF THE FEW PEOPLE WHO PARTICIPATED — HAD A LEADERSHIP ROLE IN IN THE SIT-INS IN NASHVILLE, THEN IN THE FREEDOM RIDES, THEN IN FREEDOM SUMMER IN MISSISSIPPI, THEN IN ALMOST EVERYTHING THAT HAPPENED IN THE MOVEMENT, THIS MAN HAS BEEN INTO EVERYTHING AND BEEN INTO ALMOST EVERY JAIL JAIL — [LAUGHTER] AND HE REALLY IS A SINGLE FIGURE THAT IS JUST A WONDERFUL , WONDERFUL PERSON [APPLAUSE] >> JULIAN, IT IS VERY KIND OF YOU TO SUGGEST THAT, BUT I MUST TELL YOU I WAS DEEPLY MOVED BY THE ACTION OF HUNDREDS AND THOUSANDS OF BRAVE AND COURAGEOUS PEOPLE, ESPECIALLY YOUNG PEOPLE AND ALSO WHAT I CALL THE SPIRIT OF HISTORY SOMETIMES YOU HAVE TO FIND A WAY TO GET IN THE WAY AND YOU MOVE AND INSPIREED TO SPEAK UP AND SPEAK OUT AND MAKE A LITTLE NOISE THAT’S WHAT I TELL PEOPLE TODAY I SAY, YOU’RE JUST TOO QUIET QUIET YOU NEED TO MAKE SOME NOISE [LAUGHTER] >> JULIAN, FOR INSTANCE , JUST VOTED AGAINST THE WAR IN VIETNAM IN THE GEORGIA LEGISLATURE AND GOT PUT OUT >> WELL, I TOOK A POSITION AGAINST MY ORGANIZATION OF STUDENT NON-VIOLATING COORDINATING COMMITTEE, JOHN LEWIS AS THE CHAIRMAN TOOK A POSITION AGAINST THE WAR IN VIETNAM AND AS A CONSEQUENCE MY COLLEAGUES TO BE IN THE GEORGIA STATE LEGISLATURE EXPEL LED EXPELLED ME OR WOULDN’T ALLOW ME TO BE ADMITTED AND DECLARED MY SEAT VACANT AND DECLARED A NEW ELECTION TO BE HELD, AND I RAN IN THAT ELECTION AND I WON THAT ELECTION [LAUGHTER] AND I WAS PUT OUT AGAIN AND THEY THREW ME OUT AGAIN AND THEN I RAN IN ANOTHER ELECTION AND WON THAT ELECTION AND THEN WENT TO THE SUPREME COURT AND WON THAT COURT CASE TOO SO IT WAS A LONG, LONG HAUL UP THERE >> THAT’S PART OF THE MESSAGE PEOPLE ARE LOOKING FOR A QUICK FIX AND THEY SAY WHERE IS THE MOVEMENT NOW I DON’T KNOW IT’S PROBABLY ON SOMEBODY’S i PHONE OR iPAD THE AIR ARAB SPRING REALLY NEVER WOULD HAVE OCCURRED IN THE 50’S, BUT WHEN A SINGLE WORKER WHO COULD NOT GET HIS PERMIT, HIS WORK PERMIT TO RUN HIS PUSH CART IN TUNIS DECIDED AFTER FRUSTRATION TO PULL GASOLINE ON HIMSELF AND SET HIMSELF ON FIRE, EVERYBODY TOOK A PICTURE OF IT AND IT WAS ALL OVER THE WORLD IN A MATTER OF MINUTES MINUTES AND THAT’S WHERE I THINK THE NEXT MOVEMENTS ARE GOING TO COME FROM >> AND ON THIS POINT, JULIAN AND LONNIE, THERE WAS A LITTLE BOOK, LITTLE COMIC BOOK THAT MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. HAD ADDED, CAME OUT IN 1967 — NOT 67, BUT 57, 58, CALLED THE MONTGOMERY STORY MARTIN LUTHER KING AND THE MONTGOMERY STORY, PUBLISHED BY THE FELLOWSHIP OF RECONCILIATION THOSE OF US IN NASHVILLE READ IT THE STUDENTS IN GREENSBURG READ IT FIRST AND PEOPLE WERE SAYING IF THEY CAN DO IT IN GREENSBURG GREENSBURG, WHY CAN’T WE DO IT? AND JIM LAWSON USED THAT COMIC BOOK — IT WAS ONLY 14 PAGES AND SOLD FOR 10 CENTS AND THAT SAME BOOK WAS TRANSLATED AND USED IN EGYPT JUST TWO OR THREE YEARS AGO SO THE MENTAL OF THE MOVEMENT, TEACHING THE PHILOSOPHY AND THE MOVEMENT OF NON-VIOLENCE HAS BEEN SPREAD AROUND THE WORLD AND I THINK SOME HISTORIAN MANY, MANY YEARS AGO HAD E PREDICTED THAT MAYBE IT WOULD BE AN AMERICAN NEGRO WHO SAID THAT IT WOULD CARRY THE MESSAGE OF NON-VIOLENCE TO THE WESTERN WORLD >> IF I CAN JUST DO A SHAME SHAMELESS PLUG OF SOMEBODY ELSE ‘S WORK IS JUDGMENT DAY’S BY NICK COTS YOU CAN DOWNLOAD THAT ANY TIME AND YOU GET A REAL FEEL FOR DR KING AND PRESIDENT JOHNSON, BUT THE NEW JIM CROWE BY MICHELLE GRIFFITH, IS ANOTHER

BOOK THAT IS TELLING US WHERE OUR STRUGGLE IS HEADED NOW SO WE CAN’T JUST LOOK BACK WE’VE GOT TO SEE WHERE WE’RE GOING NOW AND ALSO WE STILL NEED AN ASSURANCE OF THE RIGHT TO VOTE, THE RIGHT TO HAVE — OF A SOCIAL SECURITY CARD WITH YOUR PICTURE ON IT THAT WOULD LET YOU GET YOUR CHECKS CASHED OR VOTE THESE ARE THINGS THAT COULD BE DONE ALMOST INSTANTLY AND AUTOMATICALLY WITHOUT A GREAT DEAL OF FIGHT IN FACT, IT WOULD SAVE THE GOVERNMENT MONEY IF THEY AUTOMATED THEIR PAYMENTS TO INDIVIDUALS AROUND — AND REQUIREED THEM TO HAVE BANK ACCOUNTS AND DO EVERYTHING ELECTRONICALLY I MEAN, IT’S JUST — THERE ARE GOOD SENSE MOVEMENT WAIT IS TO HAPPEN — WAITING TO HAPPEN >> ONE THING, WHEN THE SMITH SMITHSONIAN DECIDED TO HELP CREATE A NEW NATIONAL MUSEUM IN BLACK AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE WE SURVEYED TENS OF THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE ABOUT WHAT THEY KNEW, WHAT THEY WANTED TO KNOW AND WHAT WAS INTERESTING WAS THE NOTION THAT THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT WAS INEVITABLE MORE THAN ANYBODY ELSE THE PUBLIC SAID TO US WHAT WAS GOING TO HAPPEN ANYWAY YET THE REALITY IS AS WE SIT HERE YOU ALL KNOW HOW STRATEGIC YOU HAD TO BE, HOW DIFFICULT IT WAS, AND SO I ALMOST WONDER IF YOU COULD TALK TO US A LITTLE BIT ABOUT A MOMENT WHERE YOU DESPAIR, WHERE YOU WORRIED THAT THIS WAS REALLY GOING TO HAPPEN AND A MOMENT WHERE YOU SUDDENLY REALIZED THAT I THINK WE CAN MAKE THIS TRANSFORMATION THAT WE’VE ALL SACRIFICED FOR >> I CAN ANSWER THAT VERY EASILY THE MOMENT OF GREAT DESPAIR I FELT WAS WHEN DR. KING WAS KILLED I WAS NOT HIS BEST FRIEND, I WAS NOT THAT CLOSE TO HIM I HAD A UNIQUE EXPERIENCE OF BEING TAUGHT BY HIM WHEN HE TAUGHT AT MORE HOUSE, BUT WHEN HE DIED I FELT AS IF ONE OF MY FAMILY MEMBERS HAD DIED, SOMEBODY I KNEW CLOSELY AND THAT WAS NOT THE CASE I JUST FELT EVERYTHING WE’VE WORKED FOR IS OVER IT’S ALL THROUGH, ALL FINISHED, WE’RE NOT GOING TO DO ANYTHING ELSE AFTER THIS THAT PASSED OBVIOUSLY AND I WAS ABLE TO DO THINGS AFTER THAT AND AMONG ONE OF THE BEST MOVEMENTS I HAD WAS — MOMENTS I HAD WAS THE FIRST TIME I WAS ARRESTED IN ATLANTA AT ATLANTA CITY HALL HALL AND LIKE JOHN, I HAD THIS FEELING OF FREEDOM AS THE POLICEMAN PUT ME IN THE PADDY WAGON AND THEN TOOK ME TO JAIL AND I FOUND MYSELF IN THIS ENORMOUS ROOM WITH ALL THESE OTHER MEN AND I SAID TO MYSELF I BETTER NOT ASK THEM WHY THEY’RE HERE [LAUGHTER] THEY ASKED US AND KNEW BECAUSE THEY HEARD ON THE RADIO, THEY KNEW WHY WE WERE THERE AND THEY WERE SO HAPPY TO SEE US AND YOU JUST FELT SO GOOD, SO GREAT >> CONGRESSMAN — LIKE JULIAN, WHEN I HEARD THAT DR. KING HAD BEEN ASSASSINATED, IT WAS A SAD TIME FOR ME AND A VERY DARK HOUR I MIGHT — I LOVEED DR. KING IF IT HADN’T BEEN FOR HIM I DON’T KNOW WHAT WOULD HAVE HAPPENED TO ME GROWING UP VERY, VERY POOR IN RURAL ALABAMA AND SEEING SEGREGATION AND RACIAL DISCRIMINATION, HE GAVE ME A WAY OUT, MAYBE A WAY IN BUT THE PHILOSOPHY AND THE DISCIPLINE OF NON-VIOLENCE TEND TO TELL US THAT YOU SHOULD NOT GET LOST IN A SEA OF DESPAIR THAT YOU SHOULD BE HOPEFUL YOU HAVE TO PICK YOURSELF UP AND CONTINUE TO MOVE >>> [APPLAUSE]

>> WE COMMITTED TO CARRY ON AND WE DID, BUT THE LOW POINT FOR ME THEN CAME WHEN ROBERT KENNEDY WAS ASSASSINATED BECAUSE I DIDN’T HAVE A FOLLOW-UP PLAN DR. KING HAD PREPARED US DR., BUT I WAS EXPECT KING PREPARED US, BUT I WAS RESPECTING ANOTHER LEADER LIKE LYNDON JOHNSON GOING TO THE WHITE HOUSE.ING ANOTHER LEADER LIKE LYNDON JOHNSON GOING TO THE WHITE HOUSE AND WE DIDN’T KNOW — THE COUNTRY FELL APART AND WE LOST THAT ELECTION IN 1968, WHICH I THINK WE WOULD HAVE WON IF PRESIDENT JOHNSON HAD RUN AND DR. KING WOULD HAVE BACKED HIM WE WERE AGAINST THE WAR IN VIETNAM WE WERE NOT AGAINST LYNDON JOHNSON AND WE SAW OURSELVES TRYING TO HELP HIM OUT OF THE WAR, BUT THE COUNTRY WAS SO CONFUSED WE LOST — WE LOST THE MOVEMENT BY ONE VOTE PER PRECINCT, DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NIXON AND HUMPHREY AND THAT’S WHERE WE LOST THE SUPREME COURT THAT’S WHERE WE LOST THE ECONOMY WE STILL HAVEN’T FIGURED OUT WHY WE’RE POOR, STILL AND WHY WE CAN’T — I WENT TO CONGRESS AND ONE OF THE FIRST THINGS THAT NIXON DID AND — AFTER HIS SECOND TERM WAS TO BREAK UP THE BRETTO N WOODS AGREEMENTS I DIDN’T EVEN KNOW WHAT THAT WAS, BUT THAT WAS THE ECONOMIC AGREEMENT THAT HELD THE WORLD ECONOMY TOGETHER TIED TO THE DOLLAR AND THE DOLLAR WAS TIED TO GOLD AND THAT MEANT THERE WAS ECONOMIC STABILITY ALL OVER THE WORLD FROM 1944 TO 1974 WHEN THEY BROKE UP THAT AGREEMENT FROM NEW HAMPSHIRE IN THE CONGRESS, IN THE BANKING COMMITTEE WHERE I WAS SITTING AND DIDN’T HAVE SENSE ENOUGH TO KNOW WHAT WAS GOING ON, IT CHANGED EVERYTHING OIL WAS $2.50 A BARREL IT WENT TO AS HIGH AS $160 A BARREL THIS EQUILIBRIUM IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY IS — IS WHY I SAY WOULD BE A STUDY IN ECONOMICS BECAUSE THE ECONOMICS IN TODAY’S WORLD DID NOT MAKE SENSE AND MOST OF US DON’T EVEN UNDERSTAND HOW WE’RE GETTING SCREWED [LAUGHTER] >> WHEN ROBERT KENNEDY WAS KILLED I COULDN’T MAKE UP MY MIND WHO TO SUPPORT FOR PRESIDENT AND JOHN WAS WITH ROBERT KENNEDY IN CALIFORNIA AND HE CALLED ME FROM CALIFORNIA THAT NIGHT AND HE SAID BOBBY HAS WON THE PRIMARY AND WE’RE GOING ON TO NEW YORK HE SAID MEET US IN NEW YORK I SAID OKAY, I WILL HE SAID TURN ON YOUR TV SET BOBBY IS GOING DOWN TO MAKE THE ANNOUNCEMENT AND I TURNED ON MY TV SET AND BAM, HE WAS GONE DO YOU REMEMBER THAT? >> YES >> WELL, I WONDER AS YOU TALK ABOUT THE DEATHS AND THE VIOLENCE, TWO WEEKS AGO I GUESS I WAS WITH CONGRESSMAN LEWIS AND FOR THE FIRST TIME IN MY LIFE I WALKED ACROSS THE EDMUND PET PETTIS BRIDGE AND WHAT STRUCK ME IS AS YOU GET TO THE TOP OF THE BRIDGE HOW MUCH YOU CAN SEE AND HOW MUCH FURTHER THERE WAS BEFORE YOU RAN INTO THE ALABAMA STATE TROOPERS AND IT STRUCK ME BECAUSE MY FIRST THOUGHT WAS WELL, I NEED TO TURN AROUND AND I WONDERED HOW DO YOU DEAL WITH FEAR? HOW DO YOU DEAL WITH THE COMRADES WHO WERE LOST? THE VIOLENCE THAT YOU SUFFERED ON BLOODY SUNDAY? HOW DO YOU AS INDIVIDUALS, HOW DOES THE MOVEMENT DEAL WITH THAT PRESSURE AND THAT FEAR? >> WELL, YOU GROW, YOU COME TO THAT POINT IN YOUR LIFE YOU HAVE WHAT I CALL AN EXECUTIVE SESSION WITH YOURSELF , JUST DON’T TALK BACK TO YOURSELF [LAUGHTER] AND YOU SAY I’M NOT GOING TO BE AFRAID I’M NOT AFRAID I AM NOT AFRAID BACK IN 1961 WHEN WE WENT ON

THE FREEDOM RIDE, WHEN THOSE OF US LEFT NASHVILLE, WHEN WE LEFT WASHINGTON ON MAY 4 MAY 4TH , 1961, THE SAME YEAR THAT PRESIDENT OBAMA WAS BORN , WE WERE PREPARED TO DIE SOME OF US FIND NOTES AND WILLS THAT IF IT TOOK OUR DEATH, AS DR. KING WAS SAID, TO REDEEM THE SOUL OF AMERICA, I THINK SOME OF US WERE PREPARED I THOUGHT I WAS GOING TO DIE ON THAT BRIDGE I THOUGHT I SAW DEATH, BUT I WAS NOT AFRAID YOU HAD TO CONTINUE TO MOVE ON YOU GET BEATEN, YOU GET ARRESTED, YOU GET THROWN IN JAIL, BUT MAYBE YOU WILL SURVIVE >> YOU KNOW, I THINK UNFORTUNATELY I’M NOT A SADIST, BUT PROBABLY THE HOURS THAT I AM MOST THRILLED ABOUT IN THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT WAS WHEN I GOT BEAT UP IN ST. AUGUSTINE BECAUSE I HAD BEEN THE NEGOTIATOR, I HAD BEEN THE BEHIND THE SCENES GUY I WASN’T ALLOWED TO GO TO JAIL [LAUGHTER] AND ALL OF A SUDDEN HERE I AM DR. KING SENDS ME TO ST AUGUSTINE TO STOP THE DEMONSTRATION AND I GET THERE AND JOSE WILLIAMS SAYS WHO IS GOING TO LEAVE THIS MARCH WITH ANDREW YOUNG? AND THEY WERE ALL READY TO MARCH AND SO I HAD SEEN, YOU KNOW, A COUPLE HUNDRED KLANS MEN OUT THERE IN THE OLD SLAVE MARKET AND I THOUGHT I SHOULD LEAD THEM AND THEY’LL TURN AROUND WHEN THEY SEE WHAT I SAW THEY WON’T MIND TURNING AROUND EXCEPT WE GOT THERE AND THEY SAW AND I GOT THEM IN A CIRCLE AND WE PRAYED AND I SAID NOBODY NEEDS TO GO DR. KING SAID WE SHOULD — AND SOMEBODY STARTED SINGING SINGING, BE NOT DISMAYED WHERE THERE BE TIDE, GOD WILL TAKE CARE OF YOU AND EVERYBODY WANTED TO GO DOWN THERE AND MARCH AND I SAID OH LORD [LAUGHTER] BUT TO KEEP EVERYBODY FROM GETTING BEAT UP I KEPT THEM ON ONE SIDE OF THE STREET AND I WENT ACROSS TO TRY TO TO — TO REASON WITH UNREASONABLE PEOPLE BUT I WAS DOING PRETTY GOOD UNTIL SOMEBODY HIT ME FROM THE BACK WITH A BLACKJACK AND THEN I DIDN’T KNOW ANYTHING EXCEPT THAT SOMEBODY WAS PICKING ME UP AND I SAID NO, WE CAN’T STOP NOW WE HAVE TO GO ON AND FINALLY, WE WALKED ON THROUGH, BUT IT WAS ALMOST 40 YEARS LATER BEFORE I SAW THE PICTURES YOU KNOW, OF WHAT HAPPENED AND — BUT THAT NIGHT I FELT GOOD I FELT LIKE, YOU KNOW, PLAYING FOOTBALL YOU RUN INTO THE LINE, YOU GET CLOBBERED, YOU GET UP, YOU TRY IT NEXT TIME AND IT WAS NOT FRIGHTENING THOUGH THE GUY WHO THE POLICEMAN WHO PULLED ME OUT SAID THAT IF HE HADN’T, THEY WOULD HAVE PROBABLY KILLED ME BUT I DIDN’T MEET HIM UNTIL 45 YEARS LATER AND HE WAS — JUST HAPPENED TO BE A BIG SIX 6’6″ GREEK WHO HAPPENED TO BE FROM NEW YORK AND AS FAR AS I’M CONCERNED HE WAS THE ANGEL THAT SAVED ME THAT NIGHT >> JULIAN, WHAT ABOUT YOU? >> NONE OF THESE THINGS EVER HAPPENED TO ME [LAUGHTER] I FOUND MYSELF ON OCCASION IN PLACES WHERE I THOUGHT SOMETHING BAD MIGHT HAPPEN, BUT IT NEVER DID, NEVER HIT, NEVER STRUCK, SO I HAD NONE OF THESE EXPERIENCES >> BUT YOU STILL FIND WAYS TO DEAL WITH YOUR FEARS? >> YES AND GENERALLY IT WAS TO SAY, WELL, HE’S DOING IT AND HE’S DOING IT, AND SHE’S DOING IT IT SO WHY CAN’T I DO IT? [APPLAUSE] >> IN SOME WAY SINCE YOU MENTIONED SHE, THIS IS A PANEL THAT’S RIPE WITH TESTOSTERONE, SO I THOUGHT IT WOULD BE IMPORTANT TO TALK A LITTLE BIT ABOUT THE ROLE OF WOMEN AND GENDER IN THE MOVEMENT AND ALSO TO HELP US UNDERSTAND WERE THERE TENSIONS IN TERMS OF THE CHANGING IDENTITY, CHANGING WORLD OF WOMEN AND THEIR ROLE HERE IN THE MOVEMENT ITSELF? >> OH, THERE ARE ALL KINDS OF TENSIONS BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN IN THE MOVEMENT AND THE STUDENT NON-VIOLENT COORDINATING COMMITTEE, WHICH I THINK WAS THE BEST OF ALL THESE ORGANIZATIONS IN TERMS OF THE WAY WOMEN WERE TREATED REALLY UP HERE COMPARED TO MANY OF THE OTHERS, EVEN THERE WE HAD ENORMOUS TENSIONS BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN OVER THE ROLES EACH WOULD PLAY

BUT WOMEN PLAYED AN ENORMOUS ROLE IF YOU LOOK AT THE MOVEMENT AS A TOTALITY, HAD IT NOT BEEN FOR WOMEN THERE WOULD NOT HAVE BEEN A MOVEMENT [APPLAUSE] IF YOU LOOK AT — IF YOU LOOK AT ORGANIZATION AS OLD AND AS VETERAN VENERABLE AS THE NAACP, WOMEN ARE ALL THROUGH THE ORGANIZATION, ALL THROUGH THE LEADERSHIP, ALL THROUGH THE — RUNNING THINGS, DOING THINGS WOMEN WERE INDEPENDENCE I BELIEVE IN THE MOVEMENT — INDISPENSABLE AND ARE INDISPENSABLE ANYWHERE, EVERYWHERE, BUT THERE WERE ALWAYS TENSIONS AT THE SAME TIME >> YOU CALL THE ROLL, THOUGH THOUGH, YOU CAN GO BACK, MARY M c MCCLEOD AND THE SIN OF THE MOVEMENT TO ME WAS DOROTHY HEIGHT FOR SOME REASON DIDN’T TO SPEAK AT THE MARCH ON WASHINGTON, BUT ROSA PARKS MRS. BOINTON WENT TO SELMA IN 1929 AS A 19-YEAR-OLD AND SHE REGISTERED TO VOTE WHEN SHE TURNED 21 IN 1932 SHE STILL — SHE LED A GET OUT THE VOTE MARCH IN THE BACK OF A CONVERTIBLE IN 2010 FOR BARACK OBAMA THE MIDTERM ELECTIONS AND SHE STILL IS ON THE BATTLEFIELD SHE WAS THE ONE THAT CAME TO GET DR. KING AND MADE US COME TO SELMA IT WAS NIGH DIANE NASH IN NASHVILLE WHO I SAW — I WAS IN NEW YORK AND SAW ON TELEVISION AND WE SAW JOHN AND BERNARD AND BEVIL AND I KNEW JIM LAWSON FROM CHURCH DAYS AND MY WIFE SAYS TO ME, IT’S TIME FOR US TO GO BACK HOME I WOULD NOT HAVE LEFT NEW YORK PROBABLY ON MY OWN, BUT AT EVERY JUNCTURE — FANNY LOU HAM MA IN MISSISSIPPI THERE JUST COULD NOT HAVE BEEN A MOVEMENT WITHOUT THE WOMEN THE NIGHT WHEN WE WERE MARCHING IN Z AUGUSTINE ONE OF THE REASONS WHY I HAD TO GO WAS THERE WAS NO MEN, IT WAS MOSTLY WOMEN AND CHILDREN AND WHEN I WENT BACK I WENT BACK TO THE POOL HALL AND I CUSSED EVERYBODY OUT [LAUGHTER] AND BLAMEED THE BLACK MEN WHO WERE SITTING AROUND SAYING THAT THEY COULDN’T BE NON-VIOLENT FOR GETTING ME BEAT UP AND THE NEXT NIGHT THEY MARCHED WITH US, ABOUT 25 OF THEM MARCHED WITH US, AND THE KLAN WOULDN’T BOTHER — I WOULD SAY IF THERE WERE 25 BLACK MEN IN THE MARCH YOU WON’T GET TOUCHED >> LONNIE, I MAY GET IN TROUBLE HERE, BUT IT WILL BE GOOD TROUBLE [LAUGHTER] I AGREE WITH ANDY AND WITH JULIAN I THINK THERE WAS SOME MALE SHAW SHOW CHAUVISM YOU MENTIONED ELLA BAKER SHE HAD BEEN WORKING WITH LC LCS C AND DR. KING SUGGESTED OR RECOMMENDED OR MAYBE JUST INSTRUCTED HER TO COORDINATE COORDINATE, TO BRING TOGETHER ALL OF THESE YOUNG PEOPLE THAT WERE SITTING IN AND SHE MADE THE DECISION TO ORGANIZE THIS MEETING AT HER HER — SCHOOL THAT SHE GRADUATED FROM IN RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA AND ELLA BAKER TODAY MUST BE CONSIDERED THE MOTHER OF THE STUDENT NON-VIOLENT COORDINATING COMMITTEE AND EVEN IN MONTH MONTGOMERY IN 1955 WAS A WOMAN BY THE NAME OF JOHANNE ROBERTSON — >> THE WOMEN DECIDED THAT DR KING SHOULD LEAVE >> SHOULD LEAVE? >> THEY WERE THE ONES — THERE WAS A TENSION BETWEEN THE BAPTISTS AND THE METHODISTS — >> THAT’S WHAT I’M GOING TO GET TO [LAUGHTER] THE MOVEMENT HAD ALL OF THESE MINISTERS AND A LOT OF THESE RELIGIOUS CREATURES WANTED TO TREAT THE MOVEMENT LIKE IT WAS THEIR OWN CHURCH CHURCH AND YOU GO TO A MASS MEETING MEETING, THE GREAT MAJORITY OF THE PEOPLE WERE WOMEN LOOK AT SOME OF THE OLD PHOTOGRAPHS YOU GO TO — PEOPLE ARE GETTING READY TO GO DOWNTOWN TO SIT IN FROM THE FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH IN NASHVILLE, IT WAS THE YOUNG WOMEN AND JULIAN IS RIGHT, A LOT OF THE GUYS TALK ABOUT I CAN’T BE NON-VIOLENT, I PLAY FOOTBALL [LAUGHTER] YOU CAN BE NON-VIOLENT YOU CAN STAND IN LINE AND KEEP THE PEACE SO WOMEN PLAYED A MAJOR ROLE ROLE WITHOUT WOMEN, WITHOUT THE YOUNG WOMEN, MIDDLE AGED WOMEN, OLDER WOMEN, THERE WOULDN’T HAVE BEEN A MODERN DAY CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT [APPLAUSE]

>> BUT YOU KNOW, ONE OF THE REASONS WHY I CAN UNDERSTAND RACEISM IS I UNDERSTAND SEX SEXISM I HAD TO TELL MY OWN DAUGHTERS, I SAID LOOK, DO NOT LISTEN TO ME I AM YOUR OPPRESSOR [LAUGHTER] I WANT YOU TO BE SWEET AND CUTE AND SIT ON MY LAP AND BE DADDY ‘S LITTLE GIRL AND YOU START TALKING ABOUT BEING A LAWYER AND AN ENGINEER, I’M GOING TO DO EVERYTHING I CAN TO DISCOURAGE YOU ONE OF THEM PACKS UP AND SAYS I’M GOING TO UGANDA OH, NO BUT DADDY YOU PREACH THAT ALL THE TIME BUT NOT FOR YOU [LAUGHTER] AND MY CHILDREN HAD TO — THEY HAD TO RESIST MY PROJECTING MY MALE CHAUVINISM ON TO THEM AND I ENCOURAGED IT EVEN THOUGH I FOUGHT AGAINST IT >> I THINK THE CHANCE TO HELP PEOPLE REMEMBER, PEOPLE LIKE ELLA BAKER, I GUESS ONE OF THE QUESTIONS I WANTED TO ASK YOU IS AS YOU’RE THINKING ABOUT THE WAY WE REMEMBER THE MOVEMENT, ARE THERE OTHER PEOPLE THAT QUICKLY COME TO MIND TO YOU THAT WE’VE LOST THEIR STORY OR WE DON’T UNDERSTAND HOW CENTRAL THEY WERE TO THE MOVEMENT? >> I DON’T THINK IT’S THAT WE DIDN’T KNOW HOW CENTRAL THEY WERE BECAUSE THOSE OF US WHO KNEW THEM KNEW HOW CENTRAL THEY WERE, BUT I THINK HISTORY, THE LARGER HISTORY, HAS FORGOTTEN THESE WOMEN THERE ARE THREE EXCELLENT BOOKS WRITTEN ABOUT ELLA BAKER WONDERFUL BOOKS THAT TELL HER STORY AND YOU COULD READ ALL THREE OF THEM TO SOME GREAT PROFIT PROFIT, BUT I DOUBT — TO SOME GREAT PROPHET, BUT I DOUBT IF THEY HAVE MANY SALES OR ARE PROMOTED BY THEIR PUBLISHERS >> IN OUR DEFENSE, LET’S SAY THAT MARTIN WAS 25, 30 I WAS THREE YEARS YOUNGER I’M STILL TRYING TO BREAK AWAY FROM MY MOMMA [LAUGHTER] HIS MOTHER WAS ONE OF THE MOST STRONGEST, DOMINEERING FEMALES YOU EVER WANT TO MEET SHE DOMINATED DADDY KING SHE RAN EBB EBENEZER BAPTIST CHURCH WE COULDN’T WORK UNDER ELLA BAKER IT WOULD JUST — IT JUST WAS A PSYCHOLOGICAL BARRIER THERE SO WE PASSED HER OVER TO SNC SNCC [LAUGHTER] WE WERE TRYING TO BREAK AWAY FROM OUR MOMMAS AND THEY STILL NEEDED A MOMMA [LAUGHTER] AND SHE WAS A GOOD ONE >> SHE WAS A GOOD MOTHER AND SHE WAS OLDER, BUT I TELL YOU, SHE WAS AS RADICAL AND AS FOCUS ED FOCUSED AND SHE WAS ALWAYS PUTTING US TO PUSH >> IT WAS SHE WHO TOLD US NOT TO JOIN SCLC, NOT TO JOIN THE NAACP, NOT TO JOIN THESE OLDER CIVIL RIGHTS ORGANIZATIONS THAT HAVE BEEN AROUND FOR YEARS AND YEARS AND IN OUR OPINION HADN’T DONE ANYTHING SHE SAID DON’T JOIN THEM START SOMETHING NEW, SOMETHING BRAND NEW WE STARTED THE STUDENT NON- NON-VIOLENT COORDINATING COMMITTEE >> WELL, CON STANCE BAKER MOTLEY DID AS MUCH OF THE WORK FOR THE NAACP AS THURGOOD MARSHALL OR JACK GREENBURG AND I’D SAY IT’S THROUGHOUT THE MOVEMENT >> AND PRESIDENT JOHNSON APPOINTED HER TO A JUDGESHIP JUDGESHIP, RIGHT? >> MY NIECE IS NAMED AFTER HER >> YOU KNOW, I WAS ON THE PLANE COMING HERE AND IT WAS FULL OF STUDENTS AND WE BEGAN TO TALK TO THEM ABOUT THIS EVENT AND TWO THINGS STRUCK ME FIRST, PRESIDENT CARTER WALKED DOWN THE AISLE AND SHOOK EVERYONE’S HAND, RIGHT RIGHT, EVERYONE BUT AS HE PASSED WHERE MY WIFE WAS SITTING SEVERAL OF THE STUDENTS SAID, NOW, WHO IS JIMMY CARTER? SO AFTER WE LECTUREED FOR ABOUT AN HOUR — BUT THE OTHER THING THAT THEY ASKED US, I SAID WELL, WHAT DO YOU WANT TO KNOW OFFICE KNOW? AND THEY SAID TO ME, WE WANT TO UNDERSTAND WHAT ARE THE CIVIL RIGHTS ISSUES TODAY? WE WANT TO UNDERSTAND WHAT YOU WOULD TELL US WHO ARE TRYING TO BECOME ACTIVISTS ACTIVISTS WHAT WOULD YOU TELL US ARE THE LESSONS THAT YOU’VE LEARNED, WHAT ARE THE LESSON LESSONS THAT YOU WOULD PASS ON TO US? IN ESSENCE ONE WOMAN SAID TO ME , HOW DO YOU HELP US HELP AMERICA? >> WELL, I’M GETTING OLDER, SO I’M WORRIED ABOUT THE JUDGMENT AND WHAT JESUS ASKS IS DID YOU FEED THE HUNGRY, DID YOU CLOTHES THE NAKED, DID YOU HEAL THE SICK, DID YOU SET AT LIBERTY THOSE WHO ARE OPPRESSED ?

NOW, HE DOESN’T MEAN PASSING OUT MISSIONARY BASKETS IN THIS DAY AND AGE HE MEANS WE’VE GOT TO FIND A WAY TO DEFINE AN ECONOMIC ORDER WHERE WE WIPE OUT HUNGER ON THE FACE OF THE EARTH AND WHERE THE PEOPLE CAN BE CLOTHED AND HOUSED AND THERE IS ENOUGH WEALTH, THERE’S ENOUGH TECHNOLOGY, THERE’S ENOUGH UNDERSTANDING OF HUMAN NEED, BUT WE HAVE NOT DEVELOPED THE VISION TO PUT IT ALL TOGETHER AND MAKE IT WORK AND THAT’S AN ECONOMIC VISION, IT’S A GLOBAL VISION VISION, IT’S A TECHNICAL VISION AND SOMEBODY WAS TELLING ME WHAT THEY WERE HEARING ABOUT TWITTER ABOUT THIS CONFERENCE, AND I DON’T KNOW ABOUT TWITTER, SO THAT’S Y’ALL’S MOVEMENT [LAUGHTER] AND SOMEHOW THERE HAS GOT TO BE SOME GLOBAL UNDERSTANDING OF HOW THE RESOURCES OF THE EARTH ARE UTILIZED TO SOLVE THE PROBLEMS OF HUNGER, OF DISEASE AND WAR >> I THINK THE MOST PRESSING NEED FOR YOUNG PEOPLE AND FOR ALL AMERICANS, FOR ALL OF US, IS TO MOVE WITH MORE THAN DELIBERATE SPEED TO CREATE A TRULY MULTI MULTICULTURAL, MULTIRACIAL DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY IT DOESN’T MAKE SENSE IN OUR COUNTRY, IN AMERICA ON THIS LITTLE PIECE OF REAL ESTATE, TO HAVE MILLIONS AND MILLIONS OF PEOPLE LIVING IN A SHADOW WE NEED TO PASS COMPREHENSIVE IMMIGRATION REFORM AND SET PEOPLE ON THE PATH TO CITIZEN SHIP CITIZENSHIP [APPLAUSE] >> I DON’T ACCEPT THIS IDEA AND I KNOW JULIAN HAS BEEN INVOLVED AND OTHERS HAVE BEEN INVOLVED, ALL OF US — I DON’T ACCEPT THIS IDEA THAT INDIVIDUALS THAT ARE ILLEGAL, THERE’S NO SUCH THING AS AN ILLEGAL HUMAN BEING WE ALL COME FROM SOME OTHER PLACE OR SOME NATIVE AMERICAN AND WE NEED TO DO IT AND I THINK WE’VE BEEN TOO QUIET STUDENTS AND YOUNG PEOPLE SHOULD BE OUT THERE AGITATING AND SPEAKING UP AND SPEAKING OUT AND DEMANDING OF THEIR GOVERNMENT TO ACT, TO DO SOMETHING AND DO IT NOW >> I THINK IF YOU — [APPLAUSE] IF YOU SURVEYED THIS AUDIENCE AND SAID WHAT IS THE MAIN ISSUE I THINK MOST PEOPLE WOULD SAY EDUCATION AND I WOULD AGREE WITH THEM, BUT I WANT TO SUGGEST SOMETHING ELSE AS WELL AND THAT WOULD BE HOUSING SEGREGATION WHICH THE CIVIL RIGHTS ORGANIZATIONS, INCLUDING THE NAACP, WHICH I HEADED FOR 11 YEARS, HAVE NOT DONE AS MUCH ABOUT THIS AS THEY COULD AND AS LONG AS THE WHITE PEOPLE LIVE OVER HERE AND BLACK PEOPLE LIVE ON EVERY HERE AND THE OTHER PEOPLE LIVE OVER HERE AND THE OTHER PEOPLE OVER HERE , AS LONG AS WE’RE SEPARATE IN THIS MATTER SOME OF THE PEOPLE WILL GET SHORT SHRIFT AND IN THIS SOCIETY IT’S THE PEOPLE OF COLOR >> EVERYBODY IS GETTING SHORTCHANGED I MEAN, YOU CANNOT GET A COLLEGE EDUCATION EVEN IF YOU’RE WHITE AND COME OUT WITH NO STUDENT DEBT I MEAN, THAT’S A NATIONAL CRISIS WHEN YOU USED TO BE ABLE TO GET — MY WIFE GOT HER MASTER’S DEGREE FOR $16 A SEMESTER AND SHE WAS A TAX PAYING TEACHER ALL THE REST OF HER LIFE BUT NOWADAYS YOU COME OUT WITH A MASTER’S DEGREE AND YOU HAVE AT LEAST 100,000 DOLLARS’ WORTH OF DEBT NOW, WHO CAN START OUT WITH A FAMILY WITH 100,000 DOLLARS’ WORTH OF DEBT EVEN IF YOU’RE WHITE AND MIDDLE CLASS? IF YOU’RE IN THE UPPER CLASS YOU’RE OKAY BECAUSE THEY’VE SET IT ASIDE FOR YOU, BUT THE POOR AND THE MIDDLE CLASS COME OUT OF COLLEGE WITH TWO STRIKES OF DEBT AND THAT IS PUTTING THE LID LID — THAT’S WHY I SAY WE’VE GOT TO FIND A WAY TO MAKE FREE ENTERPRISE AND DEMOCRACY WORK FOR THE POOR AND THE MIDDLE CLASS LIKE IT HAS DONE FOR THE RICH [APPLAUSE] AND WE DON’T LIKE TO ADMIT IT, BUT WE ARE THE RICH NOW I MEAN, WE ARE THE RICH AND IF YOU’VE GOT — ESPECIALLY WITH LYNDON JOHNSON MEDICARE CARD YOU’RE WEALTHY AT MY AGE [LAUGHTER] >> SO I GUESS AS I’M LOOKING AND LISTENING TO WHAT YOU SAID, WHAT I’M STRUCK BY IS THIS NOTION THAT THE MOVEMENT

CONTINUES, RIGHT? THAT IT MORPHS IN NEW WAYS AND I WONDER ARE THERE OTHER ISSUES THAT YOU THINK REALLY REALLY — AND YOU WONDER WHY MORE PEOPLE, MORE AFRICAN-AMERICANS AREN’T TAKING THE LEAD I KNOW, FOR EXAMPLE, JULIAN, YOU AND THE NAACP CAME OUT EARLY OVER ISSUES OF SEXUAL IDENTITY, SEXUALITY AND THAT’S A DIFFICULT ISSUE FOR MANY PEOPLE IN OUR COMMUNITY IS THAT ONE OF THE ISSUES FOR THE FUTURE? >> I TELL YOU SOMETHING, I’M A LITTLE ASHAMED OF, I WAS CHAIRMAN OF THE NAACP FOR 11 YEARS AND WHENEVER SOMEBODY SAID LET’S THINK ABOUT SAME SEX MARRIAGE, I WOULD SAY NO NO AND THE REASON WASN’T THAT I WAS AGAINST IT, I WAS FOR IT IT, BUT I THOUGHT WE WOULD VOTE NO AND I WOULD RATHER HAVE US HAVE NO POSITION THAN HAVE A BAD POSITION SO ONE DAY AFTER I WAS NOT CHAIRMAN ANYMORE, I’M SITTING AROUND OUR BOARD TABLE WE HAVE 64 BOARD MEMBERS 64 BOARD MEMBERS [LAUGHTER] AND SOMEBODY DOWN HERE SAID I MOVE THAT WE SUPPORT SAME SEX MARRIAGE AND I’M THINKING, NO, NO, NO NO IT’S NOT THE TIME LET’S NOT DO IT SOMEBODY SAID I SECOND IT AND THE CHAIRMAN SAID, ARE YOU READY FOR THE QUESTION? AND A COUPLE OF PEOPLE SAID YEAH, I HAVE A QUESTION AND I WONDERED WHAT THE QUESTION WAS GOING TO BE AND ONE MAN SAID IF YOU HAD ASKED ME TO VOTE ON THIS TWO YEARS AGO I WOULD HAVE SAID NO, BUT I’VE CHANGED MY MIND MIND AND ANOTHER PERSON SAID THAT AND ANOTHER PERSON SAID THAT THAT TWO PEOPLE WERE ABSENT, WHICH MEANT THERE WAS 62 PEOPLE IN IN IN THE ROOM, AND 60 OF THEM VOTED AYE AND TWO OF THEM VOTED NO [APPLAUSE] >> CONGRESSMAN, WHAT ARE SOME OF THE OTHER ISSUES WE SHOULD BE WRESTLEING WITH? >> WE HAVE TO FIND A WAY TO PUT PEOPLE TO WORK, GIVE PEOPLE A JOB AND THE CONGRESS MUST GET — THAT’S ANOTHER STORY [LAUGHTER] THE CONGRESS MUST GET ITS OWN ACT TOGETHER [APPLAUSE] >> IS THAT POSSIBLE? >> WELL, I DON’T WANT TO BE PARTISAN, YOU KNOW, BUT WE NEED ANOTHER ELECTION OR TWO TWO [LAUGHTER] PEOPLE NEED TO REGISTER AND THEY NEED TO VOTE THEY NEED TO VOTE [APPLAUSE] I’VE SAID IT IN THE PAST AND I’VE SAID THE VOTE IS PRECIOUS, ALMOST SACRED IT IS THE MOST POWERFUL, NOT VIOLENT INSTRUMENT OR TOOL WE HAVE IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY AND WE SHOULD USE IT IT WE’VE GOT TO MOBILIZE AND ORGANIZE AND GET EVERYBODY TO PARTICIPATE IN THE DEMOCRATIC PROCESS IN SPITE OF ALL OF THE CHANGES, IN SPITE OF ALL OF THE PROGRESS, EVEN WITH PRESIDENT JOHNSON SIGNING THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT ON AUGUST 6TH, 1965, THERE ARE STILL FORCES IN AMERICA WANT TO TAKE US BACK TO ANOTHER PERIOD, MAKE IT HARDER AND MORE DIFFICULT FOR THE AVERAGE PERSON TO PARTICIPATE AND WE CANNOT ALLOW THAT TO HAPPEN [APPLAUSE] >> LET ME SAY I WAS WITH MRS KING WHEN WE WENT TO VERSUS MRS. GANDHI IN INDIA AND SHE SAID I TELL OUR BOYS AND GIRLS TO GO TO AMERICA, TO GO TO ENGLAND, MAKE AS MUCH MONEY AS YOU CAN, LEARN AS MUCH AS YOU CAN, BUT HURRY BACK TO MOTHER INDIA THAT’S WHAT — I SEE THE IMMIGRATION CYCLE AS BEING IMPORTANT FOR OUR SURVIVAL I THINK WE NOT ONLY NEED TO BRING IN PEOPLE, BUT AS WE EDUCATE THEM AND AS ANOTHER GENERATION GROWS, THAT SECOND AND THIRD GENERATION WENT BACK TO INDIA AND CREATED A MIDDLE CLASS THE CHINESE, WHO ARE DOING A LOT, ARE EDUCATED IN THE UNITED STATES WHO ARE RUNNING CHINA THE NIGERIANS, THE SOUTH AFRICANS, THE ZIMBAWANS, THE FACTORY OF FREE ENTERPRISE AND IDEALISM IS THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND IT ALWAYS AND IT ALWAYSWILL BE AND IT HAS TO CONTINUE THAT WAY BUT WE NEED TO KEEP THE CYCLE GOING BECAUSE WITHIN 2025 AT PRESENT ECONOMIC GROWTH RATES, SIX OF THE 10 FASTEST GROWING COUNTRIES ARE ON THE AFRICAN CONTINENT CONTINENT AND BY 2025 THE LARGEST MIDDLE CLASS ON THE PLANET WILL BE IN AFRICA NOW, IF AMERICAN BUSINESS IS GOING TO BE INVOLVED IN AFRICA, IT’S GOT TO BE DOING SOMETHING WITH AFRICANS AND WITH AFRICAN-AMERICANS GETTING READY FOR THAT EMERGING MIDDLE CLASS OR THERE’S GOING TO BE CHAOS CHAOS AND IF THERE’S CHAOS IN NIGH YEAR JEER

NIGERIA, THERE’S CHAOS IN TEXAS AND THERE IS ONE WORLD AND WE’RE CRUCIAL TO IT AND WE CAN’T TAKE IT EASY NOW THE STRUGGLE IS JUST BEGINNING FOR THIS GENERATION AND GENERATIONS TO COME >> WELL, I THINK AS OUR TIME IS RUNNING OUT, WHAT STRIKES ME IS THAT MANY OF US ARE OPTIMISTIC ABOUT AMERICA IN PART WE’RE OPTIMISTIC BECAUSE IT’S AN AMERICA THAT PRODUCED HEROS LIKE YOU AND THAT YOUR WORK CONTINUES TO MAKE THIS COUNTRY BETTER AND I HAVE TO SAY ON BEHALF OF A LOT OF PEOPLE WHO WERE MY AGE WHO WEREN’T INVOLVED IN THE MOVEMENT, BUT WHO WENT THROUGH THOSE DOORS AND WINDOWS THAT YOU OPENED, THANK YOU AND FOR THOSE OF US HERE, THANK YOU SO MUCH [APPLAUSE]

Resurrecting a 1951 Nash Deliveryman | Barn Find Hunter – Ep. 64

(upbeat rock music) – Well, added another state to the Barn Find Hunter list We’re in Bozeman, Montana It’s fabulous out there Mountains, clouds, sun, rain, hail, tornadoes, warm weather, cold weather, all like within an hour It’s amazing I was here two years ago for a car event and visited my friends Dan and Martha Case (laughs) And they gave me directions to their house, and I said, “Oh my God! There’s a guy around the corner “with a whole yard full of cars!” So, I went and knocked on the door, told the guy who I was I said, “I’m gonna come back here “and shoot a Barn Find Hunter episode in the near future “So, let’s put this conversation on hold “I don’t wanna see your cars, “I wanna see them when we come back with a camera team.” So here we are, driving there right now Can’t wait to see what he’s got (upbeat guitar music) (car door opening) – Thanks for keeping everything in place I told you, “Don’t straighten everything out.” And you didn’t touch a thing – Not a thing – So, Marty has the most eclectic collection of cars that I’ve seen in a long time But I haven’t seen anything more than what we see right here So I asked Marty if we could walk around, and he could just tell me the stories of interesting cars Because right here I’m looking at a Sunbeam, right? – Mm hmm – A Comet convertible, a Cadillac convertible, a 327 Impala wagon, a Jaguar XJ6, and then a field of stuff over there I love it, I love it, I love it – I’ve never met a car I didn’t like (laughing) – [Tom] And this is your collection You don’t buy and sell – [Marty] No, this is just a hobby They didn’t give me any toys when I was a kid, so I collect cars now (upbeat guitar music) – So here, right up my alley, an MG 1100 – [Marty] Yes, that’s right – [Tom] So, vintage plates Do you drive this car? – [Marty] This car is drivable, yes – [Tom] Does this have a hydro suspension? – [Marty] It does That’s why it’s sitting so low – [Tom] So these cars didn’t have traditional shock absorbers They had a hydropneumatic suspension, which is a continuous circuit around the car of hydraulics that keep it up in the air And if that pipe breaks, the car goes down – [Marty] The fellow that had it before me autocrossed it and so he has it lowered as much as it reasonably could be lowered and still drivable – [Tom] A Honda 600? – [Marty] Yes – [Tom] From Oklahoma How did– – [Marty] That’s where I bought that car, and I haven’t run it for years, but I have several of these The coupe, they made the sedan and the coupe ’68 to ’72, and this is a coupe I just have a soft spot in my heart for those cars My first real car, I guess you’d say, that I bought in 1972, was a yellow one of these It’s over in the shed now – You have it! – I have it still, and whenever I have a chance, if I can pick one of these up, I will Suzuki Jeeps that you don’t see anymore I’ve put a Datsun engine into that one – [Tom} Did You Really? – [Marty] Yes – [Tom] A Datsun what? 1200? – [Marty] A Datsun 1200 – [Tom] 1200 have a V210 or a 1200 engine? – [Marty] Right – No kidding Now, that panel delivery we just walked by and ignored, what’s the story of that? – [Marty] I just ended up with that My wife kinda likes the looks of that thing, so I sort of promised her that someday I’d put a Jaguar six engine into that Would that be sacrilegious? – No, I love it! – Would that be okay? – Cause you’d take out a straight six, put in a straight six – Yeah – You know, and right now, I gotta tell ya, the look of that truck with that paint job, that’s where the whole hot rod world is going, to that look – [Tom] Oh, rotary pickups Wow, man, I haven’t seen one of these in 20 years (cheerful country music) – Now here’s a car that doesn’t get a lot of, I don’t know Fans, publicity, it’s an Ambassador Custom Nash Now, I happen to love the style of this Very art deco, huge car, powered by a Nash engine, which I believe had seven main bearings, a straight six cylinder overhead valve, that actually powered a Le Mans car that didn’t win Le Mans, but it did really well Seven main bearing, it was in a Nash-Healey The seats could all be folded down into a bed, so you could take this car camping You fold the front seat backs down and there you go, or the ultimate driving car for teenagers, I guess – [Marty] (laughs) – So, Mini Cooper So these cars came with 850cc engines, 998, 1071, 1275, and 1300 cc’s Over the course from 1959 to the last cars that were produced, probably in the 2000s And it was supposed to be an 80/20 car The 80/20 is, it’s a 10 foot long car

80% of it, from here to here, was passenger, and 20% of it was engine So therefore, the engine was put in sideways, transverse, and it powered the front wheels And so, the front end, the engine was up here, these wheels powered the car, it steered the car, the major braking was done in the front, so really these cars handled amazingly The back went where the front was pointed, and so they were called flying shoe boxes And if you’ve ever watched on YouTube, some of the races from Goodwood, England, you’ll see these racing against 427 Ford Galaxies What the Ford lacks in handling it makes up on the straightaways, but these guys, if there’s a lot of turns, can beat a Ford So, very interesting Now, I saw something over here that got my attention This chassis So this is an early Ford chassis, and the thing that intrigues me, I would have walked by if it didn’t have these heads probably But it’s a flathead Ford V8 It’s got Offenhauser high-compression finned aluminum heads They were a racing accessory It’s got an aluminum intake manifold as well, but that’s a Ford item If it had dual carbs, or three carbs, or four carbs, it would have been a racing piece Oh, the key is still in the ignition, look at that I wonder if it starts I’m gonna tell Marty what year this is Okay. (clears throat) With those wheels, it can only be ’36, ’37, ’38 or ’39 Is this the original motor or has this been changed? – [Marty] That I don’t know but I don’t think it’s been changed But that’s not your giveaway – [Tom] Well– – [Marty] Should I give you a hint? – [Tom] No – [Marty] No – [Tom] The serial number’s right here, and if I knew my stuff I’d be able to identify the serial number – [Marty] No, no – [Tom] Let’s see – [Marty] Your hint is more obvious – [Tom] Is that a truck transmission? – [Marty] It is – [Tom] Is that a truck frame? – [Marty] It is – [Tom] Okay, so we’ve narrowed it down to that, – [Marty] Pickup – [Tom] ’cause it’s got these reinforcing rods up here I’m saying ’37 – [Marty] May I give him a hint? – (laughs) – [Marty] I’m gonna give you a hint. (taps metal) – [Tom] (laughs) A ’39 – [Marty] Right – [Tom] And you know what he pointed at? The hydraulic brakes You know what? I’ve been away from these cars too long – [Marty] That’s okay – Hydraulic brakes First year for Ford hydraulic brakes was 1939 ’38 and prior were mechanical brakes with rods and levers and springs All right, I have to look at that wagon over here too We just dragged a ’62 Ford Country sedan out of a yard in Midland, Texas – [Marty] This has had a tough life, but a very long life – [Tom] What motor’s in there? – [Marty] 352 – [Tom] So was this a driver, did you ever drive it? – [Marty] I drove it a lot actually – [Tom] Did you really? – [Marty] I did When I really left home, the folks didn’t want it cluttering up around the house, so I took it down to the creek bottom and it suffered badly down there but– – [Tom] Hah! – [Marty] It’s crowding 300,000 miles on that car – [Tom] You had this when you were a kid? – [Marty] I got it when it had about 180,000 on it, and I drove it all over the country – [Tom] So it’s an old friend – It is I can’t just let that go to the crusher, I have to do something with that – [Tom] Yup, yup, yup – [Marty] Yeah – So we just made a deal with Marty It’s windy, you can probably hear it on the mic, even though I changed this shirt, the collar didn’t straighten it out much I think rain is in our future, so we’re gonna come back tomorrow morning Hopefully it’ll be sunny and maybe a little more still, and we’ll do round two of Marty’s cool yard here, so stay tuned (upbeat rock music) – Yes, we’re back at Marty’s house It’s relatively clear skies, sun’s out, no rain, and no wind So you can hear me probably a lot better now than you could yesterday So let’s pick up where we left off Oh, there they are back there (speaking in background) – Oh, look, they got that Model A truck running Do you believe that? (laughs) Yesterday, on the other side of the barn, there was a Model A stake bed truck, and I said, “Does this run?” I’m asking, like, quizzically “Oh, yeah “I use it to haul around a big barrel of water for plants.” Okay, maybe 10 years ago Well, here we come to Marty’s house today, and the truck’s driving Amazing (engine whirring) – [Marty] Oh my God – [Tom] It’s purring like a kitten! (engine drowns out voices speaking) – [Marty] You guys were looking at it yesterday like, “Yeah, yeah, it’ll never run.” – [Tom] (laughs) – [Marty] That’s the way a lot of the things are around here (vehicle door opening) (engine humming) (engine whirring) (intense country music) – [Tom] Always in these programs, people say, “Oh, you concentrated on that, but you didn’t talk about–” There’s gonna be lots of cars here we’re not gonna have time to talk about, I have to let you know up front (intense country music) – But, okay, here’s a clean looking Karmann Ghia, and I saw a couple other ones you have

Rust spots on these cars are the areas you can’t see, the battery box, under the hood Is it pretty clean? – [Marty] You know what? I just drove it across the street and parked it here and this is it – [Tom] Well that could be a real nice car That could be buffed up – [Marty] It’s pretty straight – [Tom] I’m looking at the bumpers on that– – [Marty] The bumper, she backed in, or somebody hit her, I don’t know, but the bumper is creased there But, really, you see a lot of ’em a lot worse than that one – Man So yesterday, Marty told me he’s building this train track They’re one foot apa–one foot apart? – [Marty] One foot between the rails – And he’s building a locomotive so he can ride back and forth from his house to his shop And you know, you hear, “Oh, sure, yeah “You’re building a locomotive. Right.” Well, here’s a locomotive So, tell me, did you build that tank, or you started out with a tank? – [Marty] I had a friend build that for me That’s actually a code boiler, but the wheels, frame, tender, all this has been built I made the patterns for the wheels and the cylinders – And you– – Casted – Cast your own wheels – Right – [Tom] So you made your own little leaf spring here? – [Marty] Yes – [Tom] So, is this copied off of something? – [Marty] It’s copied off a– This is called a consolidation engine 2-8-0 arrangement that was very commonly used on the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad – [Tom] If you get this done, I wanna know about it, ’cause I want a ride So, in the shed here, what do we have, a Fiat 600 – [Marty] And you’re gonna ask me what year it is I don’t know – [Tom] Yeah – [Marty] Help me out Would it be about a ’59? – [Tom] I was gonna say, probably a ’59 It looks very solid – [Marty] I think so – [Tom] And look at this paint Holy mackerel I’m glad you have this in the building. (clears throat) – [Marty] Yes. I am too – [Tom] 31,000 miles So if you look inside these doorjambs, original paint looks brand new Door panels, this thing could be cleaned up real nice Look how clean this is – [Marty] I think I’m gonna put a set of Honda pistons and rods into the Fiat engine – [Tom] I don’t know what they use for a transaxle, Fiat, or put the Volkswagen one in – [Marty] Well, find out and let me know – [Tom] (chuckles) So look how original this car is Not only is the original paint in here, the engine compartment, so clean, here’s the original decal “Do not remove fuel pump and repellent line “unless outlet pipe on tank first has been removed.” Wow – [Marty] (chuckles) You can never be too careful – [Tom] This is a neat car (trunk shutting) (speaking in background) – [Tom] A Stanley A Stanley steamer, holy mackerel Wow Jay Leno would freak out over this It’s a Phaeton, I guess (metal clanking) Four door convertible So look at that engine (metal clanking) – [Tom] I’m not quite sure how these work Is this a condenser? – [Marty] That is the boiler – [Tom] The boiler, okay – The radiator– they made this to look like a conventional car The radiator, per se, is the condenser, and the engine is slung under the body and hooked to the rear axle – [Tom] How many cylinders is that? – Two – [Tom] Two cylinders – Two-cylinder double-acting – [Tom] Have you driven this? – I have – [Tom] And those fenders– I mean, you gotta do this to one of the Mazdas out there So thin, this is thick – [Marty] It is thick, and I believe that those fenders are steel but the body’s aluminum – [Tom] Really – [Marty] I believe so (knocking) – [Tom] Yeah, that definitely–wow So how long has this been parked here? – [Marty] I ran this about six years ago That’s a sliding door back behind it that I take it out through – [Tom] So these never die I mean, they can always be brought back, right? – [Marty] Absolutely – Yeah – [Marty] Yeah – [Tom] Steam Automobile Club of America, Incorporated – If we wanna get technical about it, this would have been a steam vehicle car, steam vehicle bought from Stanley I’m not sure what year, but just in the last few years of the Stanley production And this would be a steam vehicle car, and it had a Stanley engine put in it when the steam vehicle engine failed The boiler was incomplete at the time One of the first things he said was, “How old are you?” And I told him my age and he said, “Aw, you’re young enough, you’ll get that boiler fixed.” – [Tom] (laughs) – Anyway – [Tom] And you got it fixed? – Oh, yeah. That’s the boiler that’s in it now – [Tom] Now, to see these run down the road is just a miracle, it’s wonderful This body seems in amazing shape – [Marty] It’s in very original condition [Tom] Man [Marty] I took the doors off just ’cause it’s so much easier to climb in and out, and giving rides and so forth,

when we drive it around here – So there was a gap here between the running board and the fender originally, no? – [Marty] Yes, there should be one on each side It allows you to get into the burner – [Tom] So you can see the motor back here, two-cylinder, and those are the rods that power it to the rear end Well, this is the engine Actually, the engine’s right there, you can’t quite see it, and it’s powering these rods The pistons are powering these rods that are in turn turning the rear end, the ring and pinion gear, to power the car to go down the road The fuel tank’s in the back, so there’s kerosene on one side and gasoline on the other – Marty, could this be original paint? – [Marty] Well, I certainly think it is – [Tom] That’s an amazing car (upbeat guitar music) – [Tom] That’s a T? – [Marty] That is proudly the oldest thing on the place It does not have provision for an electric starter, so you know your T’s Would that place it 1915 or earlier? – [Tom] I’m thinking ’15, ’16 So, crank start only Neat car, man – You’re in touch with your environment when you’re driving one of those – My butt sat in one of those seats for 15 days We drove it across the United States – That would be quite a trip – [Tom] The car we drove was a ’26, I think it had one gauge Just the ammeter gauge This doesn’t seem to have any gauges, hmm Model T also had one door, so the problem is, when the driver has to go to the bathroom, the passenger has to get out and the driver has to go to the bathroom Which I experienced many times over that 15-day trip (car door shutting) – Huh, neat car How long has that been sitting under the roof here? – [Marty] About 20 years More than that, yeah – [Tom] Well thank God it’s under the roof, that’s neat This is a car that I really relate to, a BMW This 1600 or 2002? – [Marty] 2002 – [Tom] So it’s got the hubcap and the trim ring, so it’s a real old one – It is My dad bought this brand new, we waited in Minneapolis It was the first shipment There were three 2002s that came into the country on the boat And 2 of them stayed in New York and this one went to Minneapolis, where my dad took delivery of it – It’s got 90,000 miles – [Marty] That would be original – Four-speed, a big old steering wheel. (closes door) So it’s got a dented left fender, but otherwise how’s the body on it? – [Marty] Not too bad – So this has got the early rims Doesn’t have any slots or anything, just a steel rim, 13 inch It sounds like it could be the third one in the United States Prior to this, they had 1600s, and it was big news when they came out with the 2002 You’re a two-liter car This is a real early one, she’s got round taillights, small bumpers, it’s got wheels with no slots in ’em And that one doesn’t have the hubcap, but the one in the front has a hubcap and a trim ring, which you don’t see very often ’cause most people who have cars like this have put Panna supports on ’em or something But that’s an original wheel hubcap and trim ring The interior looks amazingly sound No rips in the seats Real clean Says 90,000 miles You can see the little four-speed pattern on the dashboard It had a big, kind of a cumbersome steering wheel, but I’m not seeing rust in any of the places that BMWs have rust: Behind the rear wheel, over the top, the fender lip down here in the doorjamb (shuts car door) Okay, here we go (opens door) This is that door clunk This is a 51 year old car Here we have a Nash, last on the road ’94 25 years ago Look at the paint on the dash, the gauges, 26,000 miles on the odometer, steering wheel, the chrome, clock What a neat car (shuts car door) Would you like to see this car run? I would love to see this car run Marty’s just offered something that– I can’t tell you how happy I am – [Marty] I made a claim that I hope I can live up to – Or you (murmurs)– – I said we can have this running this afternoon, and I believe, because I parked it here– Unless the gods are really turned against me, I don’t see a problem – So, BMW, a Nash, a Ford flathead engine, and a Honda 600 That’s gotta be the most eclectic lineup we’ve ever seen – [Marty] Well, we’ll put them on the list

for this afternoon – [Tom] So this is intriguing NSU NSU convertible What kind of motor’s in this? – [Marty] That’s a rotary A Wankel engine – [Tom] So weren’t they the first company to get the patent to build them into cars? – [Marty] I believe they were – [Tom] So it’s a rear-engine rotary Last driven in Oregon in 1979 It’s pretty straight body, too – [Marty] I imagine if that rotary were running right it would perform pretty well – [Tom] NSU Spider. Hmm – [Marty] And, I’m embarrassed, I’m not even sure what year it is – [Tom] Well– – [Marty] I’d have to check the title – We’ve been doing this Barn Find Hunting stuff for four years now That’s the first NSU we’ve found, and probably in my life, it’s the first NSU I’ve found – Really? – Yeah, I mean you see them at a show and they’re all cleaned up Oh my God look at this – [Marty] Guy gets tired just looking at it, doesn’t he? (intense guitar music) – You know, there’s dozens of cars, but this one jumps out at me, because this was my era This is a Mazda RX-3, which was a rotary engine, and it’s the SP model So this one had a rear spoiler, somehow I think it had a front spoiler, though this one doesn’t have it It’s got these boy racer graphics, it had trim rings you could buy and really race right from the showroom This is a neat car This is one that I could see restoring This is a Datsun 1200 It was the baby brother to the Datsun 510 The 510 had a 1600 engine with an overhead cam engine, this was a pushrod 1200 engine, so in racing, this would run in D Sedan, and the Datsun 510 would run in B Sedan But they were economical cars, they were cheap to buy, this was probably $1900 Got good gas mileage, they lasted a long time (upbeat rock music) – [Tom] We’ve seen the meat of your collection without touching every single car – [Marty] I think you have – But now, part two is, that Nash wagon – [Marty] Okay– – (laughs) – How do you want to work that? Do you wanna film it being pulled out– – Yeah – And then leave me with an hour or two to get it running? – Just an hour or two? – Well, that’s my guess but – Yeah, we’d like to film it being pulled out (chains rattling) (heavy rock music) – [Tom] Look at this (shuffles papers) Let’s see what year it is (shuffles paper) 1951 Green Nash Rambler station wagon Washburn Ash Motors Company That thing’s been on there since the 50s, man! Look at the condition of this little tailgate (knocks on metal) This is a no-brainer to get this car mechanically– brakes, electrical, maybe rebuild the motor, and just clean the heck out of it Man (upbeat rock music) (air hose popping) [Tom] Do a DNA search on these and we’ll see who smoked these cigarettes (door closing) (metal clicking) (talking in background) – [Tom] Look how simple this is This is the windshield wiper motor that goes to a cable system with pulleys This one goes to the passenger’s side, there’s another one that goes to the driver’s side, flipped back and forth, all operated by this, kind of a push-me pull-you system (can hissing) (coughing) – [Marty] Okay (engine turning) (can hissing) – [Marty] Try again (engine turning) – So we have the car turning over, it turns over nicely I think we have a spark There’s a fuel delivery problem, we don’t have– (metal clanking) – Ether, so we’re using carburetor cleaner But we’re going out to get some ether right now and some fresh fuel So we’re gonna come back either later today or tomorrow and Martin said this car will be running by then (engine revving) – [Boy] Well, of course, when I left– (laughing) – [Tom] What’d you do? – We just–what did we do? We filed the points We filed the points and put in a six-volt battery and gave it some juice and it went So (mumbles) is making sure we’re getting good fuel You know, from the tank, and getting ready to drive it – [Tom] You wanna do it one more time? – (laughs) I don’t know – [Boy] I smell some exhaust, was it running? – Yeah – [Boy] Oh yeah, okay, I’ll go

(engine cranking) (engine whirring) (engine revving) (cheerful music) (engine cranking) – [Tom] Oh, man Holy mackerel! (engine whirring) – [Marty] Pretty sweet (engine whirring) – This is my favorite car of this whole lot, – (laughs) – And so they pulled it out with a tractor and it’s running right now This engine’s running right now The oil pressure’s 40, temperature’s exactly in the center on the gauge, it’s perfect This is (knocks on door) a great car, and you can see the body’s starting to buff down a little just to show that this car could, and hopefully will, after we leave, look like that While you guys were futzing around over there and before, I went around and looked at all the cars you’ve got and counted up the cylinders you’ve got – Really? – Imagine what this guy’s cylinder count is? (laughs) – So, the big number is 842 cylinders on this property, and I counted your tractors I think I might have missed a push mower or two, they had some push mowers back there which we (mumbles) You have 842 cylinders on the property That includes trucks, that bulldozer And an amazing thing about that is that you have 34 Mazdas which, have no cylinders, that equals 68 rotors You have an NSU rotary which is one cylinder which is 69 rotors, and you have a steam car, a Stanley steamer So, nobody on the face of this earth has that many cylinders and rotors and steam powered cars – (laughs) – So thanks for letting us be a part of your life – It’s been a pleasure – To you and– – [Boy] Yeah, yeah and to me, – Nico – And Andrea, who is in there making dinner and I’m holding you guys up It’s been an amazing couple of days – Thank you (relaxing country music) (engine whirring)

Properties Of Alkenes Part 2 – IIT JEE Main and Advanced Chemistry Video Lecture

i’ma Honda I did my aunt akram the lady I worked as a scientist he throws three Hakata and one of the others of the Academy question Bank chemistry book published by under the Dutch government now we’ll continue with the properties of alkenes now addition of halogens especially addition of bromine bromine reddish-brown liquid its color will be decolorized so it is a test for unsaturation it is used to distinguish between saturated and unsaturated the alkanes and alkenes alkynes can be distinguished tests to foreign saturation because it is a color test although of chlorine and all will be given but chlorine is a gas bromine is a liquid the reddish brown liquid a bromine color will be little raised first foreign saturation how the bromine will be added it is a very sensational during those days for scientists reason each mirror and all because there is a CH place it is added br br it is a non-polar how it is added and leads to the formation CCL for solving carbon tetrachloride nonpolar solvent and you are going to get a want to die bromo eaten if you go for mechanical part the III will do ethylene donate the PI cloud to this bromine and this non-polar bromine to this is called polarization and make the bromine to become BR minus and BR plus they make it a non polar bromine molecule by donating a PI cloud this is called polarization because a non polar between a polar by donating this this is the interesting research done during those days and the ch2 ch2 by forming a made them to separate as a this has a BR plus and BR minus we’ll be separated by donating the spy cloud this by donating what you are going to get this will form a not a free bromine cyclic bromonium ion this will donate and bromine lone pair again donate to this and this Paul to touch will be that is for example faster this PI cloud donates it is going to be BR plus and BR minus this plus and minus charges will be cancelled and here now bromine contain three lone pairs one lone pair will be donated to this and leads to the formation of and acquire a fall to charge on the bromine this is large size of bromine it can form a cyclic bromonium ion we thought read this one of the sensational research during those days next now BR minus will be added to this it can open up now BR minus cannot add from what time it will add only from the top either in both the ways if it attacks like this means it will go like this and form our BR minus can be attacked this way means it open up this way but both includes to the formation of CH 2 BR c has to be R or it can be the other way that is ch 2 here she has to be R this a a let us think of a compound BR and this BR this is a this is a B Y B R comes like this you will get both r12 dibromo either via cyclic bromonium ion as an intermediate how do you prove that it is going to break in the Parma of this BR + + BR – scientists tried with the other compounds that is this in presence of rod bromine CCL 4 alone this bromine CCL 4 in presence of fact was NaCl first it form a cyclic bromonium ion ion at the tag place means water nucleophile available at the same time CL – nucleophile available so there is a chance of not only BR – attacking in the last step there is a chance for water nucleophile because you are taking a quest media NaCl CL – also they observed all the products that is ch2 ch2 BR and Wu hitch bromo hydric when water as a nucleophile and also they observed this product BR and Cl there is a that a bromo chloro

ethane that clearly shows that first step is a slow step and rate determining forming a formation of cyclic bromonium an next to page a faster so it can be attacked by either by BR – all by CL – or water and all the products are observed this is one of the evidence for this forming a cyclic bromonium an and this reaction not only interest in this point of view and also it is a stereospecific can steer your selecting it specifically as to the dal born in aunty manner and also selectively it will give one stereoisomer as a product if you take optically active compounds let us see the other case of stereospecific of it will be added by a cyclic bromonium ion and opened and a br we are added in this way an tamanna one we are down because this BR open up in this way means on the top another BR is coming this V R and B are in anti banner that is a trans manner ah it is opening with the other way this end is this is also transmitted this BR one and another BR here the addition will take place in a trans manner now this can be further because this being a 3 you cannot observe that stereo specificity specifically it form only one product because of the trans addition you are going to get by taking a and interesting example of this sis 2 butene and trans 2-butene will go for an ester specific example of this – butane trans 2-butene to learn about stereo specificity and stereo selectivity now let us go for addition of bromine to switch to butene and trans 2-butene sis to butene if you take both will be in the system beauty hitch and you are getting a ch3 in the same direction and RCS 3 this is what you are taking in the Varna face this 2-butene and a bromine to this bromine C sell for and first it form a cyclic bromonium ion by bromine polarization cyclic bromonium ion you are going to get this is a cyclic bromonium ion cs3 H hey Chanda this is the slow step now next step it will will open up in any way and farm AVR – can come this way or that way and this way it is coming at a data means it will open up in this way this way it is coming and attacking means it will open up this way you are going to get ahead both the products if you are going to watch carefully you are going to get the interesting compounds of chirality that is what you are going to observe that is here let us say this is e this is B this a direction if it is got to coming at at acting at is opening in this way then what is the possibility you are going to get it this behaviour comes here and obviously so open up this let us see this C and B R has come and this is H and this is what cs3 now you got it that this this you got a br and here you are having a cs3 and here you are going to get a hitch if it is open up they say a way and open up in the B way that is here BR will come is that attacking here here H ch3 here if you take it so it is attacking from this direction this open and this attached B are here and you are going to get a ch3 here and H here so this how you got the two products where you are going to get this is a what you are going to watch these two interesting compounds what you are going to get back sis addition that is both are chiral and both are going to be one is a this and this both are going to be you are going to get a equal molar possibility of opening this way this way it leads to the formation of a racemic

mixture if you take this is because both BR will be add only in a trans manner it leads to one is a RR compound that is nothing but a at explore the other one leave or equal probability of both and you are going to get a equal mixture of both leads to the array Simek mixture if you take a trans 2-butene this this is 2 butene if you take Proms to beauty and you are taking a cs3 here this is a cs3 and hit this is trans 2-butene and if you add a bromine ccl4 to this it form a cyclic bromonium ion in the same way by polarizing bromine and getting this this leads to a CH similar way here this is ch3 we are going to get hinge now BR – come and attack in this way and open up this this a a and we are – can come and attack this way and it can open up in this way here also you will get a two products and here you are going to get a br – here and you got a h here and ch3 here this is a man are opening and now here what this is attacking and this coming here and this will be open up and you are going to get a br here and here ch3 here you are going to get a but that hit and here ch3 if you open up in a BBA there is a this is nothing but a b b Ari’s comes and attack here this is dr and then this is cs3 and this is H now I would open up it attached to be are here and this is cs3 and this is H so if you observe a plane of symmetry will observe brbr opposite HH opposite ch3 since the opposite here also HH opposite brbr opposite ch3 this is called plane asymmetry he plane asymmetry is there it is called me so both will found similar type of compound should lead to me so Mesa is called optically inactive this race me teacher 50% extra 50% level here you are going to get specifically me so compound which is having a plane of symmetry and each molecule optically inactive so selectively one isomer farming is called the stereoselective this is due to trans manner addition bromine there are two evidences for this one it did form a cyclic bromonium and open up in it only in a trance manner the addition it taking place that’s why in case of sis to butane you end up with the race Bashar whereas in case of trans 2-butene the both bro means are added in a trans manner already HH opposite ch3 ch3 opposite now BRB are also opposite leads to a plane of symmetry and like our body you see plane asymmetry if you can’t exactly in a center you are going to two equal halves these rotates left to right that rotates left to right to left this plane of symmetry made them to be optically net too that’s why you will face if you see in the mirror as if it is not changed but if you see your pocket only you can able to change the left side pocket become a right side you are going to observe in the mirror this leads to me so compound this leads to the formation of this mixture this is a a support for the formation of stereo specificity and stereo selectivity of the selectively one compound for being is called stereo selectivity this is a major evidence for the formation of cyclic bromonium ion now we will go for another important addition that is nothing but the addition of halogen water that is either bromine or chlorine water you want to add to this for how the product will be found not bromine ccl4 you want add protein bromine in water media what will live take place first blow me in the excess bromine you have taken and added little water not in ccl4 C cell for each a non-polar and it is a only act as a solvent but water can act as even a nucleophile that’s why first to step as usual it will try to form a cyclic bromonium ion by polarizing bromine you will get a cyclic bromonium ion this by polarizing bromine by

donating PI cloud next step there is a transfer to nucleophiles to attack one is br- the other one water nucleophile so which direction to prefer till he to open this way means you’d form a more stable carbocation that’s why water nucleophile if you added excess this water attacks a nucleophile and adds to this so it leads to the formation of our interesting compound of ch3cho h2 plus afterwards should eliminate H+ and led to the formation of bromo hydrate this minus h place it will give H and this this way HBR is called bromo hydrant propene bromo hydrant that the propane bromo hydron propane bromo hydrant 1 1 Bravo to propanol what we used to call it as he BR minus comes and attack it forms a as usual that is want to die bromo propane but here bromine water this is the major product they observed so what is the other way of thinking this bromine and water will form h2o BR o H minus and we are place then what how it will be added this will you will get a native this positive first electrophile will go and attack this and which – here that’s we are getting a product of ch3cho h CH 2 BR but actually bromine will first it will add and form cyclic bromonium and followed by it opens only this way to form a more stable carbocation this is the product the observed not the other way BR here and o hitch there this is the importance of halogen water addition in a trance manner this opening is taking place and leads to the formation of hallow hydrants in the similar way if we are going to take a chlorine water chlorine water also what will happen chlorine and water heat form a to ocl you have to think as a voltage – and Cl place but actually chlorine cycle chlorine yeah man and then what rection but now it bends in CL minus CL plus means what you are going to get CS 3c hit CH 2 CL hero H what you are going to get it a propene chlorohydrin common name this is propylene chlorohydrin and all but ie pet name is that one chloro 2-propanol this ow hallow had information take place by addition of halogen water earlier one is a halogen in a CCL 4 now we will go over next reaction addition of water to alkane will take place in three ways of course water directly will not add to the alkene because alkene is a nucleophile water is also nucleophile that’s my addition of water will take place only in presence of h plus h plus acts as a electrophile first attack now let us see this is 3 methyl 1 beauty this if you add a water in presence of h plus he’d follow marcona cough roll with rearrangement the same water if you add influence of mercury k-state add water if you add followed by reduction nabh4 this is called marconi competition without rearrangement this is got oxymercuration de mere creation o MDM this method is a Marconi cough addition without rearrangement whereas here this is bark on accommodation but with rearrangement similar to hydrogen halide that’s the third type of addition is that is nothing but a be 2a6 diborane and THF tetrahydrofuran as a solvent this e tetrahydrofuran as a solvent followed by his – o – o hit – this is God hydroboration oxidation this method is a aunty Mark Annika of addition of

water hydroboration followed by oxidation simply people will call it as H bebo hydroboration oxidation this is anti markovnikov addition of water this were done by brown that’s why this is called Brown’s hydroboration Brown is a very famous scientist even he received an old price because by adding a water to this in a reverse manner than the regular edition it leads to the especially play important role in the preparation now some important drugs cholesterol steroids and all in the formation this plays a key role and Browns hydroboration oxidation is a very popular by using a dye brain now how the products here retrieved this way first we will see this it for me h+ will come and attack to this and form this carbo cadion once the carbo cadion forms at intermediate under body arrangement because this is a secondary carbo cadion either forever gone structures hydride will shift and you will get a this is one two hydrogen shift and you will get more stable parish any carbo cadion with eight hypertonic structures now water will add to this and of a lose H+ and you will get alcohol this this is marcona cough addition with three arrangement you got alcohol here not overage here directly because it under on the air and you got this now this product name is nothing but a 2 methyl 2 butanol this is the major product you know taste and this is a mark on accommodation with rearrangement now you go for a this oxymercuration what is the electrophile here AGOA see Kalitta JZ means H tail AG whoa COCs 3 plus and remaining war COCs 3 minus this will split like this this acts as our profile and add to this then what is the interesting thing that happen in this case why they have taken this mercury compound a large size of mercury and what you are going to get here is CH plus and here CH 2 AG was he was history this hedgy mercury it donates its electrons into this and acquire a power to charge and led to the formation of cyclic like cyclic bromonium ion it does not allow it to form a free carbo cation this is the one which will form here AG hicimos history and get a past which are similar to our cyclic bromonium ion this form a cyclic pike cloud will be held by mercury that is the most important and interesting thing here because there is no free carbo cation it cannot undergo rearrangement unlike the first one now water will come and add to this how water will be added from the top like all bromine addition it is going to come and add this lone pair and off stem will add and lose each place and you will get alcohol here so here directly what happened here you got alcohol here only without any rearrangement why this rearrangement is not taking place in this case because of like similar to grow monomer and cyclically that is the importance of this in the next step what you have to do any a be h4x as a reduction reducing agent you reduce here and here and you will get a bill curry will be removed and you are going to get alcohol ch ch3 and you are going to plus mercury plus mystic acid this is the oxy methylation the immigration how the water will be added in an anti manner because the here you got hit and whoa heads can come because of the cyclic mercury can attack only from the top this water will be added only from the top it will be added and because of the cyclic mercury ion there is no free carbo cadion or rearrangement that’s right is the mark or de capital without rearrangement now I will go for the third one this B to A six will be broken into BH 3 in th f tetrahydrofuran solvent this were this lone pair it donates to this these electrophile and form like this it stabilized this means 3 acting an electrophile electronic sheet and it acts as a low profile and add to that our bond here BH 3 will be added now let us see the last one now BH 3 our profile which is a neutral electrophile does not have any charge

but electron deficit 6 this will go and add to this because of this what you got to that you are going to get a negative charge here because you are adding positive positive negative cancel but here you are adding a neutral error profile that’s why this BH 3 will get an A 2 charge then what this BH 3 will do by getting an idea charge heat transfer side ride in a syn manner in the same direction it ships and leads to the formation of CH 3 CH ch3 ch2 here hitch was hydride was shifted and you got CH 2 bh 2 and again this can acts and electrophile and add to another alkyl like this it can form a trial Kyle this also become an alkyne like the above one and this also it had done twice because two hydrates had consumed this on oxidation with h2o 2 and voyage – history window will oxidize this to war first and this to war and this whoa and this will be further afterwards with the Watchmen and they will break down to convert it to alcohol now you are going to get what alcohol here ch3 ch ch3 this hitch here and alcohol you are going to get here whether this be war it is going to become actually be this what you got in between that what you are going to get it is going to convert into we will hit you thrice boric acid of course depending upon if it’s on your means we were any a price so you got H here and over here opposite to mark on a phantom Arcana cough addition you got alcohol here you see there are three products in first case this were transferred and you got a alcohol here this is the first case two methyl to be at all in second case there you got the alcohol Marconi cap addition here hitch here would without any rearrangement because of cyclic mercury this is nothing but a what you got he say the interesting hero hit you got so one two three four three methyl to Vietnam go for the last one you got directly and people cough H here and oh he’s here because of that you got that one two three three methyl 1-butanol these are the products three different ways of addition of water three mechanisms this is a normal mechanism what rates in presage place this is a what is the use of the Spiritist at the pharmacist I click like cyclic halonium ion not for Winfrey carbo cadion to not to rearrange and form this there are decades the addition bh3 added here and h- shifted both are added as seen manner here both will be added in sin whereas here that cycle mercury what retired from the top so what radiation anti-memory taking place here here it will take place in a same manner that with a carbo cadion with rearrangement these are the three ways of attention now we will go for another interesting reaction oxidation of alkenes first we will go for cold alkaline kmno4 this reagent is called bears reagent first toda raba bear in the hana himming we are calling it as a bears reagent we know the pavement of our color is a pink color it will be decolorized in this reaction that’s why it is imported color reaction pink color get decolorized that’s why this also can be used as a test the fur unsaturation first already you have seen bromine ccl4 the reddish brown color B color ages that is a test for unsaturation another important there the addition is in a anti banner stereospecific and serious elective here it will be added in a sin manner let us see any you have taken propene add cold alpha and K mana for this mno4 minus if you take this is the mno4 minus this camera for add to the doll bond in a syn manner they break the despy bond and form this amend all bond oh oh – this hand in a sin manner this on hydrolysis you are going to get a sin Maynard I own these dials are called want to propane and this will take place in a scene manner this is also specifically you are going to the product only Nessen manner if you take ethylene you will get ethylene glycol same cold alpha and K

mana for you are going to end up with a ethylene glycol these vicinal dials are called glycols this both were it will be a Dinesen manner and what happened to the seminal 4 – convert into MN go to pgj a black color they received your fine particles you are going to get that’s why I came enough for pink color D color white is fully that’s why it is used as a test firm unsaturation Bears reagent similar to cold alkane camana for even we can make use of osmium tetroxide next one scene hydroxylation only that is has seen the old formation by make use of osmium tetroxide you will get the same product in the same way osmium tetroxide is the one with the highest oxidation state in the period table it is one among them voice woe for +8 ruthenium osmium and Jinan +8 oxidation states now you see this propane if you add ostium tetroxide OAS whoa for down bond world all bond were double bond world all bundle this ha spend a trough said add to the dal barn this will break up end it break the PI bond and add similar to our cold all concave metaphor and leads to the formation of this also adds in a same manner is the way it is going to attack this afterwards in presence of either yin-yang to ESPO 3 or any HS bo3 osmotic Ashtar we used to call it as heat undergo hydrolysis sodium bisulfite or sodium sulfide and this will be break down to give and a water you are going to get a seen manner diodes similar to cold alkane Camana for syn addition and farm diodes propane one today all procedural die all these are called glycols are propene like Al will contest but people are not preferring this a spam tetroxide husband being a poisonous now people are using mostly with a cold out and gamma no for rather than husband get outside you are going to get the same compound similar to the top kmno4 but the aspirin being a poisonous people are not preferring this now we will see one more example this is a cyclohexane and you add a cold oven camera for how you are going to get both will be added a name sin manner so these are an oxidation what we are going to get easier both whoa he should be added in a hitch here is about the stereochemistry of the syn addition this is sis cyclohexane 1/2 diode you are going to get as a product now we will go far oxidation rate pair acids peroxyacid mesh to type oxidation width peroxy acids what is the use of but this oxidation with a peroxy acids what is the advantage you are going to get this Paris in what is called Paris it ch3coo here see warhead CJ you know the district as it c wu o which is guard peroxy istic acid this is called their arc cystic this acts as a good oxygen agent that is whatever you take for example this a propane this can be done with a either this / acids the oxalic acid or perhaps a benzoic acid if this is benzoic acid if you put this is called peroxo van Dijk acid are UN you will get an au lait – this is the best agent metal chloro / benzoic acid this is called mcpba meta chloro pear benzoic acid what they will firm use any of these reagents or even of silver in Bridget’s officer and 250 degree centigrade it form a fox ID the

cycle Gators are called if oxides one two you foxy propane this they will fall or even use any one of these reagents one two three one or two or three what they will do they’ll break and do the oxygen and convert this into F oxide and that become acids metal or Avenger cache bit of matter pleura van joy Cassatt bourbon GI cache become this become perhaps HTS to become istic acid and perhaps of any attached with this this form an acid the / acids become assets what are the use of this to form a cyclic ether Cardiff oxide one two you foxy propane or what is the other name for this methyl obscene common name now like our cyclic bromonium ion you got a cyclic ether this cyclic later if you take and add water what will happen if you add water to this in presence of each place add water in presence of h place first h+ will be added to this the cyclic will have a ring strain this will donate and form a this this acts as a base and donate the h blast and lead to the now it will open up in this way to form a more stable carbocation to which the water will be added and in what manner anti manner it cannot come and attack from the down so it can add an attack from the top you are going to get voyage to class here see his to voyage now it will lose its place and it leads to the formation off he gained a diodes only but what type of ions you got aunty the importance of oxidation of the peroxide is first it form a fox ID the deepak side followed by hydrolysis you’ll get prawns diodes this additional trans manner propane one today all you got but what is the difference between cold alkane came and offer and this this if you had a cold all kind came and for you are going to get a sister holes whereas by farming epoxide this comes out at AG to work and oxen will go and attack two moles of Ag and oxygen to 50 degree centigrade if you heat it you will get this are otherwise use per se cold out containment of our lid to the formation of C’s the holes where as farm a Fox ID followed by water niche place you are going to get a prongs diodes this is the importance of trans day all formation for example let us take that cyclic see in earlier you added cold lava and came on of all you got a since they all you want to read it ranch they all first form F oxide then make use of this for example this cold our pen camera for already heard written it forms a since day on because cold oven camera for ads in Isis manner whereas you want to get a trance they all first what you want to use use meta chloro turbines I guess it and get a side mcpba meta claw repair van Dijk acid and get up oxide or cyclic ether now this influence of water at its place now how this addition will take place this will donate and form this this open in any way because similar asymmetry and water will come and add from the opposite way and afterwards would you lose each place and it leads to the formation of trans diodes you see this this will come and this voltage is coming and attacking in a this manner whereas this open in a this manner it leads to the formation of a trance diodes this is cyclohexane sis one two-day-old where this is a trance i 2 xn 1 today all that is the importance of peroxy acids first forming epoxide then reopening with h 2 h plus leads to the formation of trans vales whereas the above one leads to the formation of cisneros next oxidation with hot acidified k mana for what it will do it leads to the cleavage and the double bond next one hot acidified came and of our heart is certified came Anna for lead to the plea base oxidation with heart a certified

Kaman of our it is a powerful oxidizing agent there plus 4 plus 7/2 plus 4 ha testified camera for goes from plus 7 till is a pleasure on oxygen state go 2+2 5 electron transfer and it is a more powerful oxidizing agent and it cleave the double bonds how it will cleave we will see this if you are going to take it into consideration without estimate K mana for it Cleaves here and it will break both Sigma and PI bond this will form a stone ketone will not be further oxidized but this one you will get a stern head that will be oxidized to convert it to acid ch3co void that means it will not formaldehyde you will get acid ketone will remain as it is now next we will see another they say to beauty you can find out where in the position and all but also through this you add a hard edge spell cam and a power it will be through here this will become h2 gas in this mechanistic acid you got to mole sophisticated means that all one should be present between both so obviously the CH 3 CH double bond C head she got a Esterly a stochastic acid so you are going to get 2 butene in the similar way you have taken as some alkene which lead to the formation of two moles of acetone then you can say it is a 2 3 dimethyl 2 butene because you will get a with the are destroyed camera for it cleaves here and you are going to get a 2 moles of h2 if you take propane and the hardest pair camera for what you will get this is no problem here you are going to get istic acid but what about this this will be oxidized to formic acid but formic acid contained aldehyde this is formic acid and nitric acid this will further oxidized this Holly head will get off state to acid see Bobo hitch and go hitch this is carbonic acid I li unstable this they converge to that co2 and water that’s why terminal dal bond CH 2 this will be ended with the co2 and water this you will get an acid you both are tetrasubstituted like this you are going to get with the ketones both are die substituted this aldair Dollard converted the acid one side this trisubstituted type this become a ketone this become acid if they are going to be three in what will happen you clean with a hard edge 2004 you’ll get here you’ll get both our fabric acids but again both will be get oxidized to this content early had authorized to carbonic acids this carbonic acid unstable and decompose to give to mall so co2 and to this to this this is na unsubstituted alkane this is the dissected alkane this is a mono substituted alkene there is a protein you got a stick acid and a co2 and water because Harvick has further access to carbonic acid co2 and water Demerol ch2 always convert into co2 and water because it form formic acid further occifer makers contain all the head it further oxidized to acid carbonic has run stable co2 and water these are the hottest applied camera for cleavage which is helpful detect pinda location and all burns by the product what they are far below if you take for example three hexane three hick seen on hardest by Kaman for what you’ll get three hick seen that albany yet between a third and fourth carbon and it is a die substituted what you’ll get the doctors here and you will get a two balls of proper no Cassie so if you get a two moles of proper I cast on treatment is the hottest weight came and a four it is a three heck see-through product you can find out the structure of alkyne through hottest very camera for you can able to find out the location of the doll burned through the products formed either ketones or acids or carbon dioxide

Land Cruiser Projects 2015

this video is a collection of work done in preparing for a 24-day mountain expedition a number of us worked on my 60 series Land Cruiser Al’s 4runner my Land Cruiser fj40 and a jeep projects included lift kits differential locks bumper builds tire carriers a powder coating oven brakes this is the video about how to do it remotely recording that was good you you you the FJ 60 alternator and AC compressor bracket broke it was made of aluminum I removed the AC and built a new alternator bracket you you in the mountains it was great having a lock differential when climbing really steep switchbacks that were wet with

melted snow and what about a sea crown but if you think it’s dead in that’s good yeah I know if there’s a spacer that hey y’all backward no it’s good you can let go got you in okay yeah it’s it’s basically done sure did you measure the gap yep it is I’m gonna measure it again it’s mostly 0.14 53.1 seven and I’m at point one four eight okay driver’s side on the ground passenger side words okay both tires off the ground words driver side down both tires off the ground passenger side forward passenger side on the ground you a bit of a side project here installing a 350 v8 in today’s boat you you

that’s half our problem it took three hot plates to this oven up to 350 degrees Fahrenheit and I had to disable the hot plate thermostats yeah all right this is a 1993 Toyota pickup Toyota 4runner actually really bad clutch very very very stinky and bad sleeping flights that we’re about to be plays right now Wow look at this it’s just all these clutch pieces are just dropping you back to the bumper build you you here Dave is using the drill press and a leg welding the bumper is tacked together later I weld all the seams then sand it down and

clean it for powder coating a month later I integrated a receiver hitch into the bumper you good to thank some free time okay there’s our have you been there we need a try but I am eternally safe – nope – wow we’re like a team guy over here yeah yeah look this guy back up and I’m gonna break yeah one of the spots is just you you okay check for parts falling off that’s it that looks like awkward

chop-chop style yeah Oh wasn’t you

EL SITIO INFORMATIVO (Lunes 1 de Julio del 2014)

el sitio informativo con las noticias en el lugar y momento en que estas se generan el sitio informativo hola qué tal amigos cómo están un placer que nos acompañe en una emisión más del sitio informativo hoy transmitiendo desde el kiosco de la plaza principal del municipio de ayala la plaza francisco ayala le invito a quedarse con nosotros tenemos mucha información que compartir con todos ustedes pero antes voy a saludar a mi compañero rosendo tantos merinos atento como tan bien gracias a dios gabi esperamos que también los amigos del auditorio pues estén muy bien después de esas torrenciales aguaceros que han estado afectando todo en la parte central de la república mexicana pero en especial la parte norte del estado morelos y que ha ocasionado problemas por las bajadas de las aguas por los caudales de los ríos tanto el cuautla incrementado poco su caudal pero el río amacuzac el río yautepec también es tenido grandes problemas que incluso el presidente municipal y el presidente del dif han tenido que actuar de este más estaremos comentando desde este lugar como ya lo apunta mi compañera gabi en el centro del corazón del municipio historia de ayala este municipio que adquiere el nombre pues porque el coronel francisco ayala precisamente uno de los redactores de el plan de ayala que fue promulgado un 28 noviembre de 1911 redactado según cuenta la historia por el profesor otilio y el mundo montaño sánchez quien fuera privado posteriormente de la vida y en uno de los campos de moyotepec aquí está en nuestras espaldas pues van a ver un poco más adelante las imágenes precisamente de francisco ayala y cuautla y una de las calles también está en el centro histórico de nuestra ciudad pero aquí fue donde se redactó aunque nadie allá fue donde se se promulgó es toda esta parte de la historia que tenemos aquí se llamaba anteriormente san jose mapas plan debido a la iglesia que tenemos nosotros y el santo patrono es el día 19 de marzo depor debido a sapos así es pues vámonos directamente con información vámonos con la información y miren ustedes aquí el municipio de ayala también resultó afectada a uno de los caminos vecinales que va de chinameca hacia él el aceptación es por el deslave de un cerro que hay por ahí afortunadamente las autoridades de protección civil por instrucciones del presidente municipal emmanuel tablas pimentel tomaron cartas en el asunto pero en donde la situación sí es grave el señor te pec así está el día de ayer como les adelantábamos y en la emisión pasada en la dirección municipal de yautepec confirmó los daños registrados en la ampliación las víboras de la colonia las paracas de aquella localidad donde son 30 viviendas las que resultaron afectadas tras la tras tras la granizada del pasado domingo en esta localidad las autoridades del dif municipal apoyado por la dirección municipal de protección civil habilitaron dos albergues en la zona para la protección de las familias que resultan dañadas sin embargo como sucede en estas situaciones de emergencia estas familias se negaron a ocupar estos albergues que fueron habilitados por el temor de abandonar sus pertenencias esto viene a reforzarnos una vez más qué ciudadanía que se encuentra en peligro en zonas de peligro no han mostrado renuencia a deshabilitar o a desalojar de forma temporal las zonas que habitan por temor a dejar su patrimonio y sus pertenencias en el caso de posta tenemos ya un censo realizado por la dirección municipal de protección civil en la que señala que son alrededor de 1200 familias que están en peligro de inundación ya estas familias son notificadas años con años para reubicarse únicamente durante la temporada de lluvias sin embargo pues el temor de ellas de abandonar su patrimonio los hace permanecer en el lugar pese al peligro a nivel estatal la comisión estatal del agua señala que son alrededor de 11.000 familias las que habitan en zonas propensas a inundación en las inmediaciones de ríos barrancas estas zonas que son puntos críticos en el estado de morelos y que tampoco son reubicados en el caso de yautepec las familias no quisieron irse sin embargo se ofreció el apoyo de colchonetas cobijas y alimentos calientes para las familias damnificadas tienes además hacen un llamado a las autoridades municipales para que los apoyen para que se reparen sus viviendas la mayoría se quedaron prácticamente sin techo para que les den el apoyo para poder rehabilitar sus viviendas la tarde de ayer el presidente del bid de esa municipalidad de yautepec agustín alonso gutiérrez estuvo entregando diferentes apoyos entre ellos los cobertores y también láminas de aluminio y galvanizadas para que también estarse protegiendo porque la temporada de lluvia continúa y hay que son lluvias active calcio no son de posible el

temporal de lluvias es normal ya que en la temporada lo que sucede es que nosotros también nos hemos contribuido a que este cambio climatológico se esté dando y que hemos invadido las áreas en donde naturales donde el agua corría si vemos un canal lo tapamos y vimos un reflejo le queremos cortar la circulación y entonces esto el agua tiene que buscar su cauce y ese es el problema y que además las autoridades de los municipios han permitido que se invadan zonas federales zonas donde bien mencionado son zonas donde pasa el agua de forma natural y ya tenemos el caso de guerrero que fue una situación lamentable el año pasado donde se permite la construcción de un fraccionamiento una unidad habitacional donde era paso de agua se inundó totalmente el año pasado ya tuvimos esta tragedia en aquella localidad en aquel estado donde resultaron afectadas miles de familias precisamente por estar invadiendo una zona donde ex pasto del agua este espacio natural del agua lo más grave aquí es que las autoridades municipales solapan que se cometan estos estos actos irregulares y los más afectados son las familias presentan afectadas y luego solicitan el apoyo de las autoridades para rehabilitar hacerlos las preparaciones a los desperfectos que se estacionaron y este este aumento la secretaría de educación pública da a conocer que existen deficientes centros educativos que están en riesgo no ha precisado la gravedad de la situación ni ha dado a conocer a detalle cuáles son los centros educativos que se encuentran en peligro para que precisamente para no tener la psicosis viene afortunadamente la temporada de vacaciones pero más vale prevenir que lamentar y en zacatepec también está difícil la situación con el problema del mercado no le han hecho caso a protección civil y desde cuando carlos ríos está haciendo el señalamiento de que está en peligro de caerse incluso el mercado municipal municipal de zacatepec que anteriormente era una iglesia la iglesia de san jose y que ahora pues ya está utilizándose como como mercado municipal pero bueno estamos con ustedes con muchísimo gusto desde el municipio de ayala gracias a las facilidades que nos han dado el ayuntamiento municipal de esta localidad cuando él le presentamos cual manuel tablas pimentel y gracias también al área de comunicación social a fernando baltasar a julio y lupita que también se está echando por renzo acompaña también que se dedica a andar laborando en los medios de comunicación vamos a hacer un corte desde el municipio histórico de ayala a trias no se vayan esto es el sitio informativo estamos de regreso en el 7 informativo en un momento continuamos quiero informarles con mucho agrado que estamos terminando ya una nueva área una nueva área que es la cuesta en donde vamos a tener un extraordinario servicio de masajes de tratamientos especiales para la cara piedras calientes etcétera un lugar de relajación de mente de cuerpo y espíritu en un ambiente minimalista extraordinarios acabados pisos de porcelanato muros de ticul tapones de estimular es la música ambiental un lugar extraordinario y lo mejor también al mejor precio el gobierno municipal de cuautla en conjunto con el gobierno del estado de morelos inician la construcción de la unidad deportiva zona norte en el fraccionamiento salvador esqueda beneficiando a la zona norte y metropolitana de esta ciudad con una inversión superior a 12 millones de pesos gobierno municipal de cuautla 2013 2015 decisiones que transforman estamos de regreso en el 7 informativo continuamos y continuamos con ustedes desde el municipio de ayala anteriormente conocida como villa de allanan pero desde 1976 fue declarada ya como ciudad la parte central del municipio y 1961 28 noviembre el municipio de ayala fue considerada y destinada como la capital por un solo día debido a que se promulgaba se cumplían 50 años de la promulgación del plan de ayala así que es importante este principio no temas el contrato pero resaltar la figura del también este luchador agrarista emiliano zapata natal que nació 18 de agosto de 1879 y que perdiera la vida a manos de disparos de arma de fuego de jesús guajardo de chinameca un 10 de abril de 1919 pero bueno conozco la información porque está acertado generando y también con estas nosotros formamos parte de la historia porque también somos una tibia comentar que continúan los conflictos por la instalación y el funcionamiento de la base de tacto de san miguel arcángel que representa marco antonio consiste en

tratar en esta tienda de autoservicios de la colonia plan de ayala y que me está echando más gasolina tanto la gerente como el ayudante municipal doctor y esperanza platicamos ayer forma cuando no nos detengan dar pero es continuo este problema ya estaba plantado ahí con el sitio que tengo legalmente autorizado por parte del ayuntamiento de cuautla y por parte de la secretaria del move de transportes empieza el conflicto por un grupo de taxistas que sitio rural excepto que ya habían venido los lugares cuando no tienen derecho el día viernes como a las ocho y media llegan los mismos taxistas que querían en pedir que nosotros apreciamos y de acuerdo con un ayudante de la plan de ayala y de acuerdo con la gerente general de dicha de empresas les permite el acceso al punto de reunión de dichos establecimientos puede ser llegó a protección civil y tránsito municipal pretendían clausurar las entradas porque eso no está permitido problemática que se presenta desde que para que podamos cargar un refrigerador ya que de nosotros o una grabadora tenemos que brincar lo que es un 20 porque no hay cómo sacar la mercancía y también nosotros no tenemos permitido la venta de ese servicio a la gente porque la gente nos corre y que tiene que resolver el problema podría los contados ayer no es la gerente ni es el gerente nacional son las autoridades municipales y evitar problemas como el que generó la instalación dentro de la ciudad donde hay un resolutivo así es y luego de que el senado del 18º sobre la mano un tiro de 19 esparcimiento ubicado en el centro la comisión ciudadana antiparquímetros entregó un documento para las autoridades municipales de cuautla en el que pide la publicación inmediata de estos 19 tipos sin embargo la comisión van más allá y ahora están nuevamente solicitando al presidente de cuautla jesús gonzález cordero revocar la concesión que se otorgó a favor de la empresa participó en esta concesión que fue otorgada por la administración municipal anterior durante el mandato de libre la comisión antiparquímetros de espera ya la pronta intervención de las autoridades municipales solicitan una sesión de cabildo exigieron además al ayuntamiento de cuautla que a veces la minuta de 2013 sentados creo que se llevó a cabo que implicaba el instituto nacional de asociaciones de historia la ubicación de la misma porque debió haber estado allí asegura la comisión durante en los meses de enero y febrero y que fuera tratada precisamente por esta el amparo que promueve el partido de spot y contaminación este problema esperamos los secretos del pueblo alma es porque no se socializan todas las obras todos tienen un beneficio aquí se vieron cuáles son los beneficios sin embargo la manera el manejo como yo creo que ahí viene el problema el problema está docente la termoeléctrica y pronto no serán beneficios a muchos las respuestas siendo la comisión federal de electricidad por haberle permitido la construcción y la instalación también del gasoducto están haciéndose obras que son en beneficio de la comunidad sin embargo el día de ayer sus representantes habitantes del municipio de mante presentan la casa de gobierno a la comisión ciudadana que se ha encargado de darle seguimiento para que estas obras se lleven a cabo y para que bajen más recursos al tema dice que ya se vendieron dice que están ocasionando muchos problemas y que dios de planos no están de acuerdo entre en funcionamiento la termoeléctrica que ya ha sido anunciado que será en este nuestro próximos días -juan estudio martínez el es el vocero y quien hizo este comentario de que no permitirán que funcione la termoeléctrica y que ya suspenda la construcción del gasoducto para que también se alerten y nos saquen provecho como lo está haciendo humberto sandoval zamora quien es el líder de la central campesina cardenista así las cosas los mismos no se socializó ya aquí también no se socializó adecuadamente a los de los partidos y esas las problemas y que hay que ser realistas en el proyecto integral modelos que incluye la construcción de esta termoeléctrica y el paso del gasoducto por por varios

municipios de la zona oriente del estado y en su momento el inicio del proyecto el gobernador del estado no cancela esta esta obra que es de las más importantes de su gobierno ya me lo bajaron no está ya a punto de entregarse el proyecto ya está hecha la inversión ya están hechas las obras no creo que se vaya cancelando ya la obra se va a poner en funcionamiento y ahora lo que tendría que hacer el gobierno del estado es cumplir con todas estas promesas de obras con todas estas promesas de que la termoeléctrica y que el gasoducto van a general desarrollo económico para morelos van a generar empleo van a generar bienestar para las familias ahora lo que tendría que esperarse es que se cumplan con estas promesas para que la comunidad las comunidades que actualmente se dicen afectadas por este proyecto integral morelos vean los beneficios de estas obras y pues no va a ser un proceso que se lleve a cabo de la noche a la mañana tendrán que dar un espacio considerable para que la obra el proyecto de avance y de los resultados que tanto ha prometido así es miguel estudio martínez dice que ellos se sienten acosados perseguidos del estado pueblo haya hecho detenciones que aquí va por lo mismo no pasa nada yo creo que es cuestión de que se sienten que dialoguen y muchos de los líderes se sientan pero que también para sacar provecho no nada más porque si se van a estar tratando hacer un corte regresamos así es desde la plata francisco ya estoy estamos de regreso en el sitio informativo en un momento continuamos y seguimos invitándolos para que vengan y conozcan este nuevo ave de honda manantial extraordinario de diversión y salud desde aguas mineromedicinales van a encontrar un balneario renovado un balneario muy limpio un balneario seguro con nuevas atracciones tenemos canchas de fútbol de pasto sintético pista para correr tenemos áreas interesantes y muy bonitas como nuestros nuevos baños de vapor y sauna estamos mejorando la calidad de nuestros servicios pero siempre mejorando también nuestros precios a la baja así que los esperamos amigos de cuadros de la región de morelos de la ciudad de mexico para que vengan aquí a divertirse a este extraordinario manantial y pasárselo bien en acompañar a todas las familias bienvenidos el gobierno municipal de cuautla inaugura dos obras de pavimentación en las colonias francisco i madero y 5 de febrero alimentando las calles los pinos y moctezuma con una inversión superior a un millón cuatrocientos mil pesos beneficiando a todos los vecinos de estas zonas gobierno municipal de cuautla 2013 2015 decisiones que transforman estamos de regreso en el 7 informativo continuamos regresamos al sitio informativo y bueno tenemos como sede en la parte de nosotros el busto del coronel francisco ayala quien fueron vasos de apoyo muy importante para el general emiliano zapata salazar aquí en el municipio de ayala y el municipio de ayala clientes de los más grandes territorialmente del estado de morelos tiene 60 kilómetros aproximadamente es lo que se calcula 60 mil imagínense una gran gran cantidad de kilómetros está en la parte oriente colinda con el municipio de cuautla está también con el municipio del otro lado tenemos al anticipar tenemos a temático pero sea con linda con diferentes municipios del municipio de ayala entre unos lugares más más comunicados que tenemos al igual que volcán el parque industrial aquí también se encuentra asentado en el municipio de ayala aunque tiene el nombre de marc aquí son los días de cosas por estar en terrenos de arianna las comunidades son muchísimas las que mantenemos rodríguez en este banco en donde ya viene la efectividad es por 5 y 5 de julio hay diferentes festividades aquí hay en 3 de marzo 3 de mayo el día de la santa cruz el 19 de marzo día de san josé 16 muy fiesteros aquí en ciudad ayala y aquí en donde estamos anteriormente era un corral de toros y aquí fue donde se construyó este kiosco y aquí se llevaba a cabo en la tradicional corrida del toro de 11 que ahora ya desapareció razón pero de 11 de la noche para demostrar históricos y de los más importantes correcto bueno vamos a platicar más de la información porque pues los elementos de las corporaciones policiales se han estado capacitando porque si no ahora con entrar el mando único es una de las exigencias y también con la puesta en marcha de lo que la gente comúnmente como no sé como los vicios orales porque las evidencias que recojan los elementos de las corporaciones policiales preventiva manu micó cómo se llama

forman parte importantes para la integración de las carpetas de investigación estas entre carpetas de investigación que lleva a integra la fiscalía general del estado y que está en estas mesas han estado cambia y cambia de nombre pero bueno ahí están en el municipio de cuautla son cinco elementos que hasta el momento han recibido la capacitación pero que continuarán todos ellos dependiendo de la secretaría de seguridad pública y así unas preocupaciones de jesús gonzález pero el actual presidente municipal de cuautla que por cierto también se refiere con relación al índice la delincuencia como se ha estado tratado y que pues se coincide en parte con las declaraciones que jorge messeguer guillén que es el secretario general de gobierno el día de ayer en una rueda de prensa da a conocer así decir que el presidente de cuautla jesús gonzález otero admite que los delitos que se han registrado últimamente en el municipio de cortes los delitos de alto impacto son cometidos principalmente por gente por bandas delictivas que proviene de entidades cercanas a morelos como el distrito federal y viajeros en este sentido el alcalde coincide con las declaraciones hechas por el posición seguridad es morelos abierto para ella las cuales recientemente le dimos a conocer en emisiones anteriores de espacios informativos en el sentido de la urgencia de blindar las fronteras del estado ante el embate de las de los grupos delictivos provenientes de entidades ajenas el alcalde lamentó en el fallecimiento de la docente del municipio de ayala extra que perdiera la vida tras ser asaltada arias del municipio y señala que el mando único continuará operando en el municipio de juegos la espera el mando único y él dice se han dado sin embargo enseñada cuarto que son cometidos por bandas de música aprenda por el sol principalmente en estos momentos que están esperando no solamente a comprar sino a varios de la zona oriente y todos los funcionarios coinciden en que así es ya lo señaló el comisionado de seguridad pública lo que conoce el presidente de cuautla lo desconoce el secretario de gobierno brillante ya saben de dónde viene la delincuencia ya saben por dónde está entrando fue esperamos que con este informativo esperemos que sí porque ayer les da a conocer también su resultado la comisión nacional de seguridad pública y de el estado de morelos se tiene el primer lugar pero en delitos de extorsión los de alto impacto que está diciendo y por ello el gobierno del estado de morelos ya está implementando un programa para alertar prevenir para guiar a las personas qué hacer cuando se encuentren en este tipo de situaciones y que finalmente las investigaciones llevan a cabo con la detención de los responsables y adónde van a parar a las cárceles de jojutla de cuautla de cuernavaca pero bueno al despacho lo hay a éstas ya están saturadas que es lo que va a hacer el gobierno del estado morelos el día de ayer a nombrar a graco ramírez garrido abreu alucino hernández gutiérrez como nuevo director responsable del área de readaptación social de morelos y dice que se construirá en el oriente de morelos un centro una cárcel un centro penintenciario reclusorio como ustedes quieran llamarle a donde van a estar pagando sus penas sus pique y lavando sus culpas de estas personas será en el oriente del estado morelos que iniciará el próximo mes su construcción y que estará terminando en el año del año 2016 así que si se están tomando cartas en el asunto pero también nosotros debemos de tener cuidado con estas llamadas que ya con mayor frecuencia se hace es un asunto también de responsabilidad ciudadana ya tomar nosotros acciones de autoprotección en contra de la delincuencia las medidas preventivas es muy sencilla nada de información personal ni familiar evitar que los niños contesten el teléfono porque uruguay tenemos el peligro de que no un tipo de información también uno detrás del tipo de información que él el intendente los jóvenes a través del facebook de todas estas redes sociales que ya permiten que los delincuentes en el estado el éxito económico de las familias que tienen coches y viajan a donde están incluso hasta las pertenencias que tiene por las cosas que tuve el llamado muy sencillo es primar las precauciones en este sentido para evitar ser víctimas de la gente y en el caso de la tenemos las declaraciones de la comisión estatal de derechos humanos que señalan las cárceles de morelos ya están totalmente saturadas y devastadas y ya no cumplen con su tarea de readaptación social se han convertido puesto en universidades en escuelas del crimen donde ya en lugar

de los delincuentes ya salir adaptados como debería de ser salen a las calles y continúan delinquiendo y como nosotros también salimos a las calles lo más que madeline quisimos llevarles imágenes y el programa que hacemos el sitio informativo esta ocasión desde el municipio histórico de ciudad ayala cuyo presidente principal es manuel tablas pimentel y bueno le agradecerles desde luego tenemos unas notas pero quiero antes agradecer como siempre la participación de mis compañeros para manuel vivar días y de fernando franco que ellos son los responsables que lleguemos hasta su domicilio audio vídeo y las notas pues son de cintia chanona que en esta ocasión anda también cubriendo alguna información de mi compañera gabi martínez tenemos algo está bien tintero antes de despedirnos a consecuencia de las lluvias de los últimos días la comisión nacional del agua dio a conocer que la mayoría de las presas de la zona oriente del estado ya alcanzaron su máximo nivel de almacenaje solamente dos están entre el 40 y el 80 por ciento de su capacidad sin embargo el organismo descarta que esta situación represente algún riesgo de desbordamiento pues las presas cuentan con sistemas de liberación controlada del agua lo que sí es que vamos a tener agua suficiente para el próximo ciclo agrícola y lo que se verá reflejado en una mejor actividad productiva en la zona jueces aquí no padecemos de agua ahorita del tiempo aquí es en un ratito ya abrir a despejarse las nubes ya tener el sol pero si quieres pedirle a nadar pues tenemos diferentes balnearios aquí en el municipio de ayala tenemos en la su coche tenemos el colibrí unos lugares son naturales todavía y si quiere usted un poco más sofisticado pues vaya si usted a la mejor agua del mundo agua hedionda hay que dejar un lugar que ha sido remodelado recientemente días está fernando al spam recibir un masajito al sauna al vapor a nadar a hacerse una parrilla de ipad es usted el día y quiere disfrutar del fútbol también vaya usted a la plaza y porter al en alameda estas plazas que puso esas pantallas gigantes que puso el gobierno del estado morelos aquí en ayala bienes se hubieran puesto una porquería no están haciendo el panel o mis compañeros y se están dando cuenta que cada cantidad de actividad hay aquí en ayudar a las gentes que digan están ya en la música y no miren cuánta gente sube y / baja de la presidencia municipal así es ya nos vamos nosotros a nadar y pudiéramos nos iríamos a nadar ya disfrutar los torteros nosotros tenemos que continuar sola tenemos que continuar trabajada y saben quiénes quieren ser continuar trabajando por los señores diputados y van a buscar las presidencias municipales y ahora están felices y contentos porque desde el año 2011 tuvieron suerte los que están ahorita que aquella legislatura aprobar que ahora ya no tienen que separarse de su cargo los tres con 90 días de anticipación para las presidencias municipales porque anteriormente así decía el artículo 117 deben de separarse 90 días de su cargo aquellos funcionarios estatales municipales del poder ejecutivo legislativo ejecutivo judicial que pretende hacer incluso esto ayudante principal ahorita sólo se preocupen se les hagan ustedes su campaña a más que hay desventaja ellos están ocupando a una posición en donde tienen ciertos privilegios y estar bajando recursos hay un diputado de acá de ayala que ya está bajando recursos ayer tuvo una actividad por lo que no se aprovechan y esos son dineros de todos ya les estaremos dando les ayudamos gravita así es faltando un placer compartir los micrófonos son tres amigos los invitamos estar pendientes de una visión más del sitio informativo nos vemos mañana que tengan ustedes un excelente día y la transmisión se genera en la capital histórica del estado morelos a través de el sitio informativo puntocom pero estamos haciendo el programa en la capital en el municipio en el municipio histórico de ayala por el momento estás bien informado te esperamos en la próxima misión de el kit informativo el gobierno municipal de cuautla en conjunto con el gobierno federal y estatal llevan a cabo el programa huertos familiares dentro del marco de la cruzada nacional contra el hambre beneficiando a los adultos de la tercera edad y mujeres jefas de familia gobierno municipal de cuautla 2013 2015 decisiones que transforman

BLOSSOMS – Plants and Environmental Resources (English Subtitles)

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marinatin been stuck DeMille benzene westerdam is a teaser a koala unless a yacht you I centum a nest of them is you Tina bhatia carajo de la boda mean any amor de Mirage Allah KU’s bahagia he’s an a-lister mel linen palette man de mucha at kam conatus near were holding hey a week min Auslan abbate if your car has a diesel engine it can run on biodiesel fuel usually without requiring any modifications while biodiesel and petroleum diesel are similar in energy efficiency and fuel economy biodiesel is more eco-friendly for starters it can be made from what would otherwise have been waste for example from vegetable oil of your local fast-food joint the restaurant simply discards it’s used fryer oil in a receptacle out back every few days a vacuum truck comes by to collect it in its current state the oil contains water and food particles making it unusable for biodiesel production so the truck transports it to a filtering plant there they pump the oil into a holding tank then heat it up to dry out the water once they drain the water the oil is ready to enter a multi-stage filtering process first the oil goes through a vibrating sieve which strains out the larger pieces of debris after this first filtering the oil is already visibly cleaner next it passes through a second vibrating sieve this one has a finer mesh therefore it catches smaller particles of debris after the second stage the oil looks clean but still contains microscopic debris so it enters the third and final filtering stage passing through 20 ultra fine filter cloths which trap any particles larger than 1 micron in size a micron is about 80 times smaller than the width of a human hair the captured debris leaves a muddy residue on the filters that vegetable oil which once deep-fried potatoes is now ready to cook up some diesel fuel another source of oil for making biodiesel is beef tallow oil derived from cow fat biodiesel producers typically buy tallow from facilities like this one which specialize in cleaning cow hides for leather tanneries sharp revolving blades shear off the fat from the back of the hide the fat drops onto a conveyor which moves it into a steam injection cook tank the tank heats the fat to a gentle boil extracting the oil everything else leaves the tank and drops into a waste container the oil moves onward passing through a two stage filtration process whether the raw material is vegetable oil or beef tallow the biodiesel producers refer to this main ingredient as feedstock when the feedstock arrives at the biodiesel plant it goes into a holding tank until production time this demonstration illustrates the production recipe they take the feedstock and combine it with methanol a type of wood alcohol as well as with a catalyst which triggers a chemical reaction a processing unit mixes everything thoroughly while applying heat and pressure the resulting chemical reaction produces a harmless by-product glycerin a common ingredient in soaps and cosmetics processing consumes much of the methanol then they remove even more leaving just a tiny percentage of it in the finished biodiesel to ensure their fuel meets international regulatory standards the plants quality-control lab test samples from each production run in this flammability test they heat the

fuel to 135 degrees Celsius then apply a flame to see whether the gases ignite if they do they have to remove more methanol to make the fuel safe if they don’t ignite the fuel meets international safety standards biodiesel costs more at the pump but omits significantly less carbon dioxide and monoxide and eighty-five percent fewer cancer-causing agents into the air we breathe you engelbert at mosman Lil D de Wet Dawa well report family you can toss Molina even you rockville ola attempted is artificial possible in kenya tell metell huh we operated monkey minus or will I Annette lein debated moose poppin to metod winter vaca rotted pallava hula headed and why in Abbott at the rock lasagna yo Phil Miralem la palabra IE naught minus beta mu t know where your story huh and cocoon Bob hwy her ear while okra Liliha EMF shannon has as yet ashish Adele cabot circus yet batavus orchid zurafa Julia wait until I met ala kulli ajma’in monopoly Samantha twin Roberto para bajar 80 sniffing about that has abstract leha alhaji rockfest alpha yo Phil Miralem massa moustaki my lady Ellyn hina at Mejia Mejia Kumu Nassib que estar de mahipal outfit and feedin Ishod Wair Oklahoma career feet and filled in a shot wha- hello luminous Vela tiene una toalla pallava fetus vital quita el mas bajo beat hell alain delon Massa Nigel aha actor sulabha so Malcolm Merlyn Pete Ashby his sock fill er bill masala tea Rafael khattab or robbed by Del Mar Vista be quality leather pileup l work for abba universal moral lim-napoles a minus a minus or innovator to moose mera mera naam par oscilla massillon mother you may use hadn’t diverted modelo can Jamie renovated our patent know enough samina Samar modelo engineer inverted laterally Tamar summer kimono a limber robbed banana-bot at wally de-orbit a kid you doin a job at pallava LOL hansa attempt to z AE not Lena bata tu mujhey fava metal mamiya Rashad na na ba ba ang helva wore socks off well Tim I want he is mad certain will acquire blatant feed in the shop so ma y para mula mala palabra at that oscilla reactive mother may refer to him bill a unit Helena who dolly he’ll shake a lion at lukla deck on health estudiantes rahecha same malaya natality tariff one rock facade sir IAM tosya allen admin ibatis of safa ll madrid what I one map motherly a club second to Sri wah wah wah wah wah Leda y él espera y como el limber robbed been a mocha winner novartis of soph were mad that hem the salicylic el modo de Phil experian mill canal park a silicate a li li modernist animal experian healthcare takuna & nell mental attitude Phil aspirin Mustafa jimena nava nava Hassan macrina tell Madonna Larry battle espeon let pterophyllum karina dia a la palabra third win hulas hotel esta vaina pallava cameroon kindle malam neta wasaaraha del stiff tail Island epochal madrasa Oh Alvin Hydra some mo muna cash at a mere dil wachovia Tina Lumia mental health per se llama to know where I hello papa a la oficina twin in Macarena Oh Monica

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Como hacer picos

picos nicaragüense claro que sí volví a hacer esta receta otra vez porque porque la que hicimos hace mucho tiempo hace como tres años no se miraba muy clarito así que siempre pueden volver a hacer los vídeos y así se aprovecha a comer estos deliciosos picos nicaragüense el cual hice a mi estilo totalmente diferente los de nicaragua pero yo creo que son un poco mejor porque están llenos de muchos cosas dulces así que vamos a comenzar aquí con un termómetro vamos a poner agua claro que sí vamos a usar primeramente una taza de agua la metemos al microondas o la pueden poner donde ustedes quieran en la estufa y que tenga por lo menos 100 por 100 franjas de caliente así que agua tibia caliente verdad una taza de leche leche regular también se mete dentro del microondas se calienta y por el momento llevamos una taza de agua y una taza de leche vamos a agregar aquí azúcar también claro que sí una cucharada vamos a ponerle una más son dos y este es algo muy importante este es levadura en granos no es en polvo la levadura en grano son bolitas pequeñitas que son diferentes a las que a la que el polvo para hornear así que se les voy a enseñar para que la miren bien porque algunas personas me han dicho que han hecho picos pero usan a polvo de hornear y no les no se les levanta y esta es la que se usa para hacer pizza el cual vamos a hacer un vídeo pronto aquí se lo estoy demostrando para que la miren en este plato y vamos a usar es el paquetito dentro de ahí por lo menos unas 3 o 4 cucharadas de de levadura dentro de allí y es importante dejar allí hay dicen cuántos gramos vienen 21 gramos así que 20 gramos de levadura se deja por lo menos unos 5 o 10 minutos que se comience a despertar la levadura porque estaba durmiendo así que el agua fría y la leche fría van a comenzar a que se comience a mezclar todo y comienza a despertarse y así es cuando se comienza a alimentar del azúcar que le agregamos ahí vamos a agregar aquí esta vez algo diferente a la receta original 48 onzas 4 y 4 son ocho de mantequilla o sino margarina se derrite también se mete dentro del microondas y vamos a ponerla ahí dentro de los otros también que hicimos y pueden ver este una taza lo que estoy usando el medidor para las para la azúcar perdón para seguir aquí tenemos la tasa de azúcar también que vamos a agregarle y llevamos 8 onzas verdad de mantequilla así que comenzamos a mezclar ahí bien porque como la mantequilla ya está caliente el azúcar se de se puede combinar muy bien así que comenzamos a mezclarlo así muy bien y toma su tiempo tomen su tiempo para hacer esta receta así como yo me tomo el tiempo explicándoles porque hay muchas personas que ya lo he hecho así que las nuevas personas que no lo han hecho vamos a agregarle dos huevos claro que sí dos huevos dentro de esta mezcla y a un lado ya tenemos la leche con el agua y la levadura a un lado y aquí estamos haciendo esto vamos a mezclar muy bien también y nicaragua los picos muy famosos pero los que venden allá es un muy realista y no llevan nada de dulce adentro y ahí no tiene nada de sabor ya tienen ahí en la venta como 34 días están todos sin sabor tan no no no me da ganas para hacerles un 0 así que comenzamos a mezclar muy bien ahí ahí pueden ver como la levadura comienza a despertar si se comienza a alimentar ahí y le agregamos aquí la mezcla que hicimos de la mantequilla que el azúcar y los huevos si ustedes saben que la levadura también se extensos en todos los lugares si ustedes dejan la leche afuera la levadura invisible que existe comienza también a fermentar se vamos a mezclar muy bien aquí ya todos con una cuchara y puedes ver qué fácil es verdad hacer esta receta así que ahora vamos a usar un batidor electrónico y vamos a mezclar muy bien estás bien esta receta la pueden hacer sin batidora electrónicos pero le va a costar mucho

tiempo así que van a ver que es fácil y todo eso y estos son muy baratos en las tiendas los venden bunning como 20 dólares a veces está este me costó 7 dólares imagínense comenzamos agregando una taza de harina para hacer pan harina blanca y aquí con el batidor electrónico comienzo a darle así para que comience a mezclarse todo muy bien aquí en una taza por el momento lleven la cuenta vamos dándole así paramos agarramos la otra taza de harina y se la vamos a agregar ahí ya llevamos 2 y le seguimos dando así y todo se va mezclando bien pueden ver que es fácil verdad de que todo esté dentro de un gran envase así como este que tengo usando piel de color blanco y rojo por fuera una pana grande y vamos a agregarle otra tasa de as de harina y pueden ver harina regular blanca está no hay necesidad de colar la porque la compra en el supermercado un día pero si ustedes quieren escolar la también llevamos 36 y vamos dándole así y dándole llevamos tres por el momento mientras tanto salud a toda la gente que miran los vídeos en todas partes del mundo en argentina chile paraguay uruguay bolivia argentina colombia venezuela y vamos dándole así llevamos 4 aquí y le seguimos agregando y pueden ver que como se va mezclando ahí todo bien así que yo me tomo mi tiempo de mostrándoles para que la gente se anime a hacerlo le damos 4 y le seguimos dando así todo se va mezclando muy bien aquí otra más son cinco tazas de harina esto es para una receta de muchos picos claro que sí ya cuando llegamos 5 tazas ya no se puede usar s a ese batidor porque es no es tan fuerte como los otros electrónicos grandes así que vamos a comenzar a mezclarla con una espátula o cuchillo de plástico y le comenzamos a dar así y así ya podemos comenzar a hacerlo le agregamos otra taza ya llevamos 6 y seguimos mezclando así muy bien en vez de hacer un gran hueco en medio de algo y ponerla como cemento algo así es para mí es mejor así hacerlo en la receta anterior si no estoy equivocado creo que usamos 6 tazas pero aquí vamos a agregar aquí ya les voy a decir que son 8 tazas de harina completa el secreto es que cuando ya la masa nuevo no se pensó sanos o en cualquier instrumento llevamos una masa y le vamos agregando poco a poco es el secreto que ya sabemos que la masa ya está lista verdad así que le voy dando ahí y pueden ver ustedes y qué tenemos que mezclar así muy bien voy a acomodarme aquí un poco mejor para la espalda y le seguimos agregando aquí así poco a poco la harina y esto va quedando maravilloso así que cuando vayan a ser picos tomen su tiempo que le ayude más gente también en sus familiares ya sea en ocho tazas de harina 811 de mantequilla dos huevos una taza de agua fría perdón agua caliente y una taza de leche también y el paquetito de levadura en granos bueno de soya comenzar a usar nuestras manos y comenzar a darle así como si seguirle agregando por que yo le digo que cuando tenga ya la masa no se le pegue en sus manos ese es el secreto ustedes pueden llegar a usar menos más harina pero el secreto van a ver ustedes que cuando ya no se le pegue la vamos a sacar de aquí ya después y ya comenzará a trabajar la masa en una tabla y si que saben que lo que es rico es comer el pan que acaba de salir del horno y ahora aquí en muchas partes y no sólo aquí los niños nacen sin saber que cuando los papás y las mamás nos tiempo delante le hacían eso y salía el pan ahí acabadito de salir del horno y se lo comía y uno dice que pan tan rico así que puede no ser su padre en su casa y le seguimos dando así así así que vamos a ver cómo va aquí toda la

mezcla hay que darle así a entregas en hacer algo personal sentir orgulloso de hacer su propio pan y en su casa este es un pan dulce pero muy rico también y hay que darle así con una mano y le seguimos agregando este vídeo no es para las personas que no les gustan los vídeos largos así que lo siento mucho para comprar su pana y el pan que venden que ya tiene 3 días de estar en allí en esa vitrina y no tiene nada el sabor yo ya no compro panes gracias a dios lo hago en mi casa y sabe rico lo comparto con la gente en aquí y todo mundo feliz así que bueno vamos a ver aquí cómo va ya le seguimos agregando más lo siento mucho por el vídeo extra largo pero no voy a disculpar muchas veces como la tortilla española bueno aquí tenemos una tabla vamos a agregar aquí harina claro que sí para poder trabajar la masa aquí tenemos la gran bola de masa y ahora lo que tenemos que hacer es comenzar a doblar la masa agarrar un pedazo para cada darle con la palma hacia adentro la volvemos a agarrar y le seguimos dando así porque aquí quiero porque hay lugares dentro de la masa que están todavía fresco y otros están secos tenemos que combinarlo aquí todo ahora hay algunas personas me dirían porque no te compras una máquina profesional de se que cuestan 300 dólares claro que sí lo puedo comprar pero cuántas personas van a ver este vídeo y van a tener esa masa ahora tener ese instrumento no así que estamos haciendo las cosas con el corazón con las manos y con la paciencia y la pasión que las máquinas esos son para restaurantes profesionales y le seguimos dando así aquí y así y ahí pueden ver que si se van a sus pantalones o camisas se le van a embarrar de pura harina pero es sólo bueno trabajar la harina el pan y le seguimos dando así así antes de jesucristo ante miles miles de años antes ya el pan ya se hacía en muchos países del mundo así que agarraban los granos de arroz y de otros granos y los unían y así en panes y de repente la gente hacía planes ahora los panes los hacen los supermercados la panadería grande y a la gente dejó de hacer sus planes en su casa le seguimos dando así aquí a la masa para que todo llegue a tener una firmeza muy buena y queremos darle así por lo menos son diez minutos o diez o doce minutos que tienen que trabajar la masa dándole así y esa máquina que cuesta mucho dinero ese se queman también porque la masa es fuerte y cuando le dan vuelta igual de igual está se queman los motores así que le seguimos dando ahí y ahí le estoy enseñando cómo se tiene que hacer pueden hacerlo mejor que yo no soy un panadero profesional pero se ha enfriado que la gente que es diseñado así no se hace nunca suben videos son algo egoísta porque no enseña yo por lo menos trate y hago las cosas así que le seguimos dando así ahí y ahí hace poco recibí un comentario de una persona nicaragüense dice así no se hacen los picos y dice yo fui yo hacía pico y si los tuyos no son buenos y le digo espero que me subes el vídeo y nos enseñes nunca volví a escuchar esa persona bueno le seguimos dando así a la masa así que miren qué bueno es hacer los panes en su casa y los niños mi hijo se comió un pico y dice dar y qué rico está claro que sí es el orgullo que cuando hacemos los panes y los hijos se lo comen uno se siente orgulloso y le damos dando así a la masa y ahí va quedando en nicaragua yo crecí yo iba a comprar el pago de los 100 una señora con su esposa a las 5 a la mañana comenzaban a hacer el pan y el pan era rico sacando aquel un horno de esos de ceniza wow cuando me vaya a vivir en mi cara o si dios quiere voy a creo quiero tener mi patio mi propio horno horno de ceniza para hacer pizzas panes vamos a agregar mantequilla aquí y vamos a poner la pelota de masa dentro de allí y vamos a taparla y dejar que se levante a la masa que crezca el doble por lo menos se tiene que guardar en un lugar que no esté muchos muy fríos sino algo caliente verdad de metano de bajo la cama el ropero de su abuelita donde sea fui a la tienda y comprar y no fui a la tienda y tenía ya media libra de queso chontaleño nicaragüense que esos ecos pueden agregarle ustedes queso parmesano también cualquier tipo

de queso el queso que vengan los supermercado es un queso parmesano claro que se pueden usar ese queso también tiene que hacer queso rallado así que vamos a usar aquí una licuadora pequeñita y vamos a licuar este este que eso solamente lo ponemos ahí y así se licúa rápidamente así en las noches bullet donde hacemos jugos ahí tenemos el queso rallado nicaragüense pueden ser queso salvadoreño cotiza 4 o de méxico con cualquier país del mundo y tenemos que eso ya está bien regado y lo vamos a poner ahí todo ese queso este queso es algo salado por eso no voy a usar nada de sal aquí y vamos a ver qué es lo que está ahí estaba será el relleno y vamos a agregarle aquí por lo menos una taza vamos a usar aquí por el momento para hacer estos picos pase haciendo picos dos días porque la demanda era muy muy grande todos mis amigos y amigas querían pico así que se acabaron ya dos días suficiente vamos a hacer pizza muy pronto bueno aquí voy a guardar una parte para el día siguiente el cual y ese queso ellos en base de crema agria y vamos a agregar aquí por lo menos media taza de azúcar una taza de queso rallado y media taza de azúcar y vamos a revolver muy bien todo esto este va a ser el rico relleno de los picos nicaragüenses en su país se hacen este pan así que no quiero pedirle una solicitud a la gente de nicaragua en cualquier parte del mundo que me miren quiero hacer el pan manjar no sé si te han escuchado sepan es un pan que es como cuadrado y por dentro llevo una cuna de una cosa que es como rosadita a italia pueden ver que ella ha salido ya se creció la pelota de pan y ahí pueden ver que si puedes dejarla crecer más tiempo pero no importa 12 horas suficientes este estaba haciendo mucho frío san francisco y a veces cuando el clima está muy frío cuesta que la masa se levante mucho de nicaragua esto crece rápido en 10 minutos por lo caliente allá pero aquí en lugares si ustedes viven en zonas frías como en canadá metal no enciende en el horno lo apagan y meten la levadura y después y eso se le va a levantar muy rápido son un secreto vamos a cortar seis trozos y si tienen balanzas pueden medir las sinónimo dos y como yo que no tengo balanza vamos a comenzar a poner los trozos así de la masa así hacer que la gente de nicaragua ese pan se llama lo venden más afuera de managua en los campos en las ciudades se llama pan de manjar el relleno necesita que me den la receta del relleno por favor díganme por favor porque es algo como rosadito no sesión atolillo rosado que lo que lleva frambuesa estoy ansioso de hacer esta receta que sólo con diga masachapa la comida o en los pueblos allá de afuera de nicaragua agarran un trozo aquí y comenzamos a a darle así como que estamos haciendo una pizza una tortilla que me estoy tomando el tiempo que despacio yo lo puedo hacer muy rápido pero les quiero enseñar que vamos a darle con el rolo hacia afuera para que se pueda expandir la masa porque si se le tiene que agregar un poco de harina también porque si no se le va a quedar pegado y hoy vamos dándole así y le seguimos dando a decir a la gente de nicaragüense esa receta del pan manjar el relleno por favor díganme cómo se hace para hacerlos si no me dicen nadie ni me lo va a tener que hacer a mi propio estilo yo me voy a tener que poner frambuesa harina azúcar y algo espeso ahí y le seguimos dando así y ahora lo que vamos a hacer es que vamos a agarrar la masa le vamos a agregar aquí el relleno verdad el queso y el azúcar no le pongan demasiado si no eso se va a derretir se puede tapar así y así este es una manera verdad después le voy a enseñar la otra simplemente vamos a un pico porque es como un décimo un pico es mejor hacerle así el relleno le vamos a dar aquí una vuelta después la otra encima aquí y después lo que vamos a hacer es que vamos a poner la otra encima así que ahí tenemos ya el primer pico en una bandeja vamos a poner papel y

pongan papel de envolver papel para para hornear para que no se le pegue se le agrega un poco de mantequilla si quieren o si no no hay necesidad y comenzamos a poner el primer pico y vamos a hacer una toma para que se fijen bien me encanta cuando la gente dice que lo bueno que te toma tu tiempo es no enseñar claro que sí tengo todo el tiempo en el mundo así lo hacen a mano le va a tomar mucho tiempo así que si tienen una botella de cerveza tequila la pueden usar como rolex solo le agregan un poco de harina y le va a funcionar también bien con una botella así que le comenzamos a dar así el rolo y estos son muy paradas de estos juegos aquí pronto vamos a hacer la receta de las donas también casi lleva el mismo el mismo estilo nuevo harina leche azúcar y se fríen y quedan muy ricas las donas le seguimos dando así y vamos a agregarle ahora la el queso con azúcar y miren fíjense enviar por favor como el que se tiene que hablar agarrar un trozo un pedazo lo doblan aquí le dan con la palma lo pone en el otro así ok y después en el otro y lo pones y encima se mira el pequeño pero no se engañen cuando lo metan al horno esto va a crecer y aquí tenemos el segundo pico nicaragüense parecen calzones pero algo de italia pero eso lleva a otras cosas y le ponen carne tal son leyes y vamos a poner un poco más aquí le damos así y le damos otro así y aquí estamos formando los picos así que contra el suficiente no creen y ahí está el pico nicaragüense rico es cuando esto sale del horno cuando están cocinando esto sabe un maravilloso piensen bien hay uno otro se llama así y otro encima las personas que están casados con nicaragüenses como las señoras o los señores de abc me mandan a decir yo le hice los picos a mi esposo a mi esposa y le queda y me quedaron felices el horno ya tiene que estar encendido a 350 fahrenheit y vamos a meterlo dentro de ahí y mientras tanto que tengo agua con azúcar una taza de agua y una taza de azúcar se derrite un sirope es muy fácil de hacer ahí tengo el vídeo de cómo hacer sirope que sólo vayan a youtube y ponen sirope cocinamos juntos así que miren lo que puede decir algo esto que dice aquí estos primeros picos por no voltearlo porque todos los hornos funcionan diferentes se me quemaron un poquito pero ahí van a ver después lo otro así que mi secreto es que 15 minutos a un lado y después lo abren y luego lo voltea siempre es bueno moverlos los postres cuando lo están cocinando porque es el horno solo está caliente en una parte y no en otra este fue el segundo que hice el día siguiente y aprendí así aprende uno haciendo errores a veces pero yo no quiero que te vayan a ser mis errores sino que les quede bien la primera vez por eso si lo ponen a uno a un lado quince minutos y como este horno es pequeño los sacan y después solo lo voltean y así se les va a cocinar todo a un nivel muy muy bueno le agregamos el agua con azúcar con una brocha de pintar pero que tiene que ser nueva por favor no le agarren a la de su papá porque si no va a llevar pintura compre una de esas que son baratas y le agregan el agua con azúcar calientita y ahí tenemos los picos nicaragüense ya solo lo dejan enfriar unos 5 minutos y lo observe en un plato y eso es volaron aunque no tenían alas y volaron porque se los comieron todo el relleno por dentro guau qué rico el queso con la super derretida no sé si le agregan miel otra gente pero esta es la receta que yo encontré hace mucho tiempo y es de la que me ha salido muy bien así que por eso compartir con ustedes está rica receta de picos nicaragüense a quién cocinemos un 3 punto con olviden de comentar y suscribirse en mi canal ahí tenemos muchas recetas