Telugu language

the Dravidian language telugu is native to india it stands alongside Hindi English and Bengali is one of the only languages which predominate in more than one Indian state it is the primary language in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana as well as in the town of Yanam where it is also an official language it is also spoken by significant minorities in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands chattisgarh Karnataka Maharashtra Odisha Tamil Nadu and Puducherry and by the sri lankan gypsy people it is one of six languages designated a classical language of India by the Government of India Telugu ranks second by the number of native speakers in India 15 in the ethnologue list of most spoken languages worldwide and is the most widely spoken Dravidian language it is one of the twenty-two sheduled languages of the Republic of India in loans from Sanskrit Telugu retains some of the features that have subsequently been lost in some of Sanskrit daughter languages such as Hindi in Bengali especially in the pronunciation of some vowels and consonants etymology the etymology of Telugu is not known for certain it is thought to have been derived from trilinga as in trilinga desa the country of the three lingers according to a Hindu legend Shiva descended as a linger on three mountains kaleswara moon Telangana stro Salem in Rayalaseema in Burma swaram in coastal Andhra in the legend these marked the boundaries of the Telugu country history according to the Russian linguist and Renova Telugu split from proto Dravidian languages between fifteen hundred to one thousand BC earliest records inscriptions with Telugu words dating back to 400 BC to 100 BC have been discovered in Bharti Prelude in the Gunter district the english translation of one inscription reads gift of the slab by venerable mideco lanka postage Warka period the period from 570 five ad to 1022 ad corresponds to the second phase of Telugu history after the andhra ikshvakus this is evidenced by the first inscription that is entirely in Telugu dated 575 ad which was found in the Rayalaseema region and is attributed to their own Aarti colace who broke with the prevailing custom of using Sanskrit and began writing royal proclamations in the local language during the next fifty years telugu inscriptions appeared in ananthapuram and other neighboring regions telugu was more influenced by Sanskrit and prakrit during this period which corresponded to the advent of Telugu literature Telugu literature was initially found in inscriptions and poetry in the courts of the rulers and later in written works such as Nan ayahs mahabharatam during the time of Nanaia the literary language diverged from the popular language it was also a period of phonetic changes in the spoken language Middle Ages the third phase is marked by further stylization and sophistication of the literary language during this period the split of the Telugu and Kannada alphabets took place tick kana wrote his works in this script Vijayanagara Empire the Vijayanagara Empire gained dominance from 1336 to the late 17th century reaching its peak during the rule of krishna Dever Iyer in the 16th century when Telugu literature experienced what is considered its Golden Age Delhi Sultanate and mogul influence with the exception of coastal Andhra a distinct dialect developed in the Telangana state and the parts of Rayalaseema region due to Persian Arabic influence Sultanate rule under the tough luck dynasty had been established earlier in the northern Deccan during the 14th century in the latter half of the 17th century Mughal rule extended further south culminating in the establishment of the princely state of Hyderabad by the Asaf Jah dynasty in 1720 for this Herald era of Persian Arabic influence on the Telugu language especially among the people of Hyderabad the effect is also evident in the prose of the early 19th century as in the Chi Fiats in the princely state of nism androgynous Sangam was started in 1921 with the main intention of promoting Telugu language literature it’s books and historical research lead by Maddock pati Hanumantha Rao Kamaraju venkata Lakshman Rao

surah varam prata parody and others colonial period the sixteenth century Venetian explorer Niccolo de Conti who visited the Vijayanagara Empire found that the words in Telugu language end with vowels just like those in Italian and hence referred it is the Italian of the East are saying that has been widely repeated in the period of the late 19th in the early 20th century saw the influence of the English language and modern communication printing presses an effect of the British rule especially in the areas that were part of the madras presidency literature from this time had a mix of classical and modern traditions and included works by scholars like kandukuri veeresalingam guru sardar a pareo and panagon tai Lakshman aresome Hara since the 1930s what was considered an elite literary form of the Telugu language has now spread to the common people with the introduction of mass media like movies television radio and newspapers this form of the language is also taught in schools and colleges is a standard post-independence period telugu is one of the 22 official languages of India the andhra pradesh official language act in 1966 declares telugu the official language of the state that is currently divided into Telangana and Andhra Pradesh this enactment was implemented by gums number 420 in 2005 telugu also has official language status in the annum district of the union territory of arey Telugu along with Kannada was declared as one of the classical languages of India in the year 2008 the 4th world Telugu conference was organized into a party city in the last week of December 2012 and deliberated at length on issues related to Telugu development telugu is the second most spoken native language in India after Hindi and Bengali dialects what are Chang qu and man adora are all closely related to Telugu dialects of Telugu barad dis Airy Damara go Larry kamati contao kondareddy sale wery telling Ani war angle maja boob Nagar gadwall Narayana Pater Vijayawada firaga streaker Coulomb Visakhapatnam Tokido very posh emoji debris cannula Rayalaseema Nellore ooh Picasa gunther ooh Tirupati battery and unity in Karnataka the dialect sees more influence of Kannada and is a bit different than what is spoken in Andhra there are significant populations of Telugu speakers in the eastern districts of Karnataka is Bangalore urban Bangalore Rural Bellary cheap pelipper Cola nature and tunku in Tamil Nadu the Telugu dialect is classified into Salem core Umberto Vellore Tiruvannamalai in madras telugu dialects it is also spoken in pockets a variant naga tuticorin Tirunelveli madurai penny madras and thanjavur all districts geographic distribution telugu is mainly spoken in the states of Andhra Pradesh Telangana and Yanam districts of paccheri as well as in the neighboring states of Tamil Nadu paccheri Karnataka Maharashtra Odisha chattisgarh some parts are darkened in the Caraga region of West Bengal in India it is also spoken in the United States where the Telugu diaspora numbers more than 800,000 with the highest concentration in central New Jersey as well as in Australia New Zealand Bahrain Canada Fiji Malaysia Singapore Mauritius Island South Africa Trinidad and Tobago the United Arab Emirates United Kingdom as well as other Western European countries where there are also a considerable Telugu diaspora at 7.2 percent of the population Telugu is the third most spoken language in the Indian subcontinent after Hindi in Bengali in Karnataka 7.0 percent of the population speak Telugu and 5.6 percent in Tamil Nadu where it commonly known as telling you phonology Telugu words generally end in vowels in old telugu this was absolute in the modern language m/n y.w may end a word a typically for a Dravidian language voice consonants were distinctive even in the oldest recorded form of the language Sanskrit loans have introduced aspirated and murmured

consonants as well Telugu does not have contrasted stress and speakers vary on where they perceive stress most judge it to be on the penultimate or final syllable depending on word and vowel length vowels Telugu features a form of vowel harmony where in the second vowel in die syllabic noun an adjective roots alters according to whether the first vowel is tense or lax also if the second vowel is open then the first vowel will be more open and centralized Telugu words also have vowels in inflectional suffixes that are harmonized with the vowels of the preceding syllable a only occurs in loanwords telugu has to death on I and O consonants the table below illustrates the articulation of the consonants asterisk the aspirated and breathy voice consonants occur mostly in loanwords as do the fricatives apart from native per second grammar the Telugu grammar is called via Kara Nam the first treatise on Telugu grammar the Andrus Chintamani was written in Sanskrit by Nanaia considered the first telugu poet and translator in the 11th century AD this grammar followed the patterns which existed in grammatical treatises such as a sturdier and Valmer kiviak are UNAM but unlike panini Nanaia divided his work into five chapters covering sama sandy aged anta calendar and kriya every telugu grammatical rule is derived from pan Indian concepts in the 19th century Shania Suri wrote a simplified work on Telugu grammar called Bellavia kara nam burrowing concepts and ideas from nan Aya’s grammar this sentence can also be interpreted as remove will go to school depending on the context but it does not affect the sov order inflection telugu nouns are inflected for number gender and case gender telugu has three genders masculine feminine neuter pronouns telugu pronouns include personal pronouns indefinite pronouns relative pronouns and reciprocal or reflexive pronouns telugu uses the same forms for singular feminine and neuter gender the third person pronoun is used to refer to animals and objects the nominative case the object of the verb and the verb are somewhat in a sequence in Telugu sentence construction the bhakti and Prachi a are mulu depict the ancient nature and progression of the language the four back tees of telugu language do meu lulu etc are different from those in sanskrit and have been in use for a long time vocabulary sanskrit influenced Telugu of Andhra and Telangana regions for about 1,500 years however there is evidence that suggests an older influence during the period 1000 to 1100 AD nan ayahs rewriting of the Mahabharata in Telugu re-established its use and it dominated over the royal language Sanskrit Telugu absorbed tats amassed from Sanskrit the vocabulary of Telugu especially in Telangana state has a trove of Persian Arabic borrowings which have been modified to fit Telugu phonology this was due to centuries of Muslim rule in these regions such as the erstwhile kingdoms of NGO Condor and Hyderabad modern Telugu vocabulary can be said to constitute a day glassy air because the formal standardized version of the language is either lexically Sanskrit or heavily influenced by Sanskrit is taught in schools and is used by the government and Hindu religious institutions however every day Telugu varies depending upon region and social status writing system Telugu script is written from left to right and consists of sequences of simple and/or complex characters the script is syllabic in nature the basic units of writing a syllables since the number of possible syllables is very large syllables are composed of more basic units such as vowels and consonants consonants in consonant clusters take shapes that are very different from the shapes they take elsewhere consonants are presumed to be pure consonants that is without any vowel sound in him however it is traditional to write and read consonants with an implied vowel sound when consonants combined with other vowel signs the vowel part is indicated orthographically using signs known as vowel Marcus the shapes the vowel mattress are also very different from the shapes of

the corresponding vowels the overall pattern consists of 60 symbols of which 16 of vowels 3 vowel modifiers and 41 consonants spacers are used between words as words separators the sentence ends with either a single bar or a double bar traditionally in handwriting Telugu words were not separated by spaces modern punctuation were introduced with the advent of print there is a set of symbols for numerals though Arabic numbers are typically used Telugu is assigned unicode code points zero c OC 7f number system telugu has its own digits as shown below however these are not in common use script the Telugu script is an abugida consisting of sixty symbols 16 vowels three vowel modifiers and 41 consonants the Sanskrit and Telugu scripts are similar and exhibit one to one correspondence Telugu has a complete set of letters that follow a system to express sounds some are introduced to Express fine shades of difference in sounds Telugu has full zero half 0 and B serger to convey various shades of nasal sounds Lauren Lauren Rara differentiated Telugu has CH mj8 which are not represented in Sanskrit their pronunciation is similar to the s sound in the word treasure and Zed sound in zebra respectively secondly Telugu has s SH and KS h which are not found in Tamil the Telugu script can reproduce the full range of Sanskrit phonetics without losing any of the texts originality Telugu has made its letters expressive of all the sounds and hence it has to deal with significant borrowings from Sanskrit Tamil and Hindustani Telugu gun in talut literature telugu literature is generally divided into six periods in the telugu literature tikona was given a grey asana by many famous critics in the earliest period there were only inscriptions from 575 ad onwards nana is translation of the sanskrit mahabharata into telugu is the earliest piece of Telugu literature as yet discovered after the demise of Nanaia there was a kind of social and religious revolution in the Telugu country Tai Khanna and II era ProGuard are continued the translation of the Mahabharata started by nan aya telugu poetry also flourished in this period especially in the time of streen ATAR during this period some telugu poets translated sanskrit poems and dramas while others attempted original narrative poems the popular telugu literary form called the pre banter evolved during this period street nutella was the foremost poet who popularized this style of composition stre natha’s stirring R&I Shaddam is particularly well known the ramayana poets may also be referred in this context the earliest Ramayana in Telugu is generally known as the ranganatha Ramayana authored by the chief goner Buddha ready the works of Pathan ax jaqen are and Gowron are formed a canon of religious poetry during this period pada Kavitha pith hammer ha Anna Maya contributed many original telugu part aloo to the language the 16th and 17th centuries is regarded as the Golden Age of Telugu literature Krishna Deborah is a more the Mallee ardor and Puranas Manu korero regarded as Mahara of yas sri krishna deva raya stated disa Basilan do Telugu lesser meaning Telugu is the best among the languages of the nation telugu literature flourished in the South in the traditional Sam Stanners of southern literature such as Madurai and Tonya this age is often referred to as the southern period there were also an increasing number of poets in this period among the ruling class women and working class who popularized indigenous meters with the conquest of the Deccan by the moguls in 1687 telugu literature and today L tire garages compositions are some of the known works from this period then emerged the period of transition followed by a long period of Renaissance Europeans like CP Brown played an important role in the development of Telugu language and literature in common with the rest of India Telugu literature of this period was increasingly influenced by European literary forms like the novel short story prose and drama paravasu chin

Sorey is a well-known telugu writer who dedicated his entire life to the progress and promotion of Telugu language and literature shri Chania sori wrote the BAL of Yahara Nam in a new style after doing extensive research on Telugu grammar other well-known writings by Chennai asourian ether Chandrika soothe and riviera kara namu and Adar Tamila am nietzsche sangrahani kandukuri varus or Lingam is generally considered the father of modern Telugu literature his novel Rajasekhara teratoma was inspired by The Vicar of Wakefield his work marked the beginning of a dynamic of socially conscious telugu literature and its transition to the modern period which is also part of the wider literary Renaissance that took place in Indian culture during this period other prominent literary figures from this period a garage at her APPA rao viswanatha satyanarayana garam Joshua Rey Prelude Subba Rao develop Ali Krishna’s Austrian Street Iran stream devarsi Rao popularly known as Maha Kali sri sri sri sri was instrumental in popularizing free verse in spoken Telugu as opposed to the pure form of written Telugu used by several poets in his time developing Krishna Sastri is often referred to as the Shelley of Telugu literature because of his pioneering works in Telugu romantic poetry Viswanath is Satya Narayana one India’s national literary honour the Jim Pitts Award for his magnum opus Ramayana Kalpa rickshaw mu C Narayana ready won the Jinping Award in 1988 for his poetic work viz Ranbir au revoir abroad Waddell won the 3rd gen pistol Award for Telugu literature in 2013 for Parker dear aloo a graphic account of life behind the screen in film industry can you sulk am the first social play in Telugu by garage adder APPA rao was followed by the progressive movement the free verse movement in the die gambhira style of telugu verse other modern tell gooo novelists include an avalanche Mina raja’na moonless even cat Apsara Lou cadaver tag antique utam borrowin Bucky Babu