Pittcon 2012 – Waters Symposium – Abstract 1

oh ok well I think you may have noticed that this is the first conference first of all at Vogue before I begin let me thank Jays water is in particular he’s not here when I hope he watches the rebroadcast of this symposium thank you for for supporting this this really quite remarkable set of symposia it’s the first of the 22 others that takes a laboratory equipment and brings it to the point of use that’s increasing that that trend is increasing and I think there’ll be more that’s symposia so let me begin o night on well I’ve nitron come from the Terry to shine from the Greek it’s another name for radon its symbol was NT it’s obsolete as of 1922 but my wife who’s a crossword puzzle maven gave us the name I started a student-run project at MIT to test the homes of the MIT community radon and it was a liquid scintillation counting technique I found that old scintillation counter when I was walking through the chemistry building they were throwing out I took it to my lab star this project we did about 2,600 Holmes wrote a report project ended my telephone kept on ringing and in a fit of whatever i founded night on in 1987 to commercialize the radon testing by absorbing the radon in charcoal and measuring the amount of radon from the emissions into liquid scintillation the first present was my son Hal who was here he began I believe I haven’t checked to them but I believe there were two more employees uh business was not brisk and he left for san francisco in august of 1988 and my sister Ethel garage his Rome comes to take over we’re a bootstrapped company oh and in bootstrap companies i continued that necessity Trump’s nepotism well she had wide-ranging experience none of it was technical but she is an accomplished problem solver and successful New York City executive and she came a Monday September the 12 2088 2000 and I thought I’d corrected that three judges 19 I hope I have the right i satisfied you the well the next day the very next day the use of a headlines in the New York Times of the Boston Globe radon is a serious problem in the holes of the people in the United States and in particular in Massachusetts where is the little pointer and that goes on so here’s Massachusetts for those who come from abroad anyway they the Boston Globe has a similar headline which says 60 or 70 people per year expect to dive right

on and as my sister FL says we were extremely fortunate because this is a very slow news day and this was the only news fit to print so here is Ethel and even with all of the qualities that she had it is better to be lucky right well the business was successful at really grew very rapidly at that particular point but it was definitely low-tech and so I’ve been playing with ideas for a monitor a real-time monitor of radon and I thought that I had invented a wonderful technique it doc didn’t it wasn’t being used by anybody of the various radiology texts that were out the market this particular method seems to be absent so I started to apply a patent what I realized it was very well known probably by Madame Curie I mean it was it was a very old technique but two people Steven Chesky and Charles partnered parses modernized it with modern techniques and we had a business in the active continuous monitoring well here is Steve chefs key he was a straight-a student at MIT his senior thesis with me decide not to go to graduate school and of course I grabbed him and said how about coming tonight on he did and he’s still at the company a Charles Parsons he died tragically in a parachute accident 2001 but he was the polymath of my large hi Aditi nuclear physics group at MIT it was large about 20 people lots of students and he was a go-to guy to do everything he consulted 494 night town well a graduate student and he joined us after his PhD in 1992 it here is this the night on rad7 Quebec de here’s a picture of Steve chef ski as Steve and Chuck made the rad7 more accurate more versatile never had to be that’s the theme of this talk in fact they didn’t have to make this good they did as a consequence it is still being sold there are some hundreds of 200 of these sold every year it has a different name and has the name do bridge if you could look at that but it looks exactly the same it’s its qualities of such that as we knew it could measure radar and a curvaceous orem which is a different isotope of the element eighty six which is called the idea degree the Elbert’s called radar but we think of radon only in terms of radiant radar radar 222 which is the one you that’s a dangerous work but that spectrum which is the kind of spectrum that you get is laboratory grade as a consequence this is we use throughout the world for radon testing for water technical quality testing of water research using radar nestorian well we were now part of the community of home inspectors and the EPA and that group and they says our request for proposals in 1991 are you the EPA for the two FBI are the ir awards to develop and they both won second and third phases both made successful commercial products in fact we and our md divided the market for lead paint inspection the RM DS k shell analyzer was by far the best k shell analyzer around and everyone else’s besides us with a k show but they couldn’t develop it any further being a case shell analyzer it was an instrument was said there was led to comply there was led that didn’t comply and that was it night hugs n l show analyzer that led quite directly to this symposium well

let’s go through the outer shell method to tell you how that happened to tompa well the l x rays are a 10.5 and 12.6 kv they’re easily absorbed that therefore it was believed that out of compliance led that’s led more than one milligram per square centimeter buried between layers of lead-free paint cannot be this thing wish from compliant led near the surface mathematically there are only two measurements they allow for the albedo and there are three unknowns the lead concentration the thickness of the covering layers and let it be banned for paid for some years by this time and the chemistry of the covering layers and how can you solve for the leg concentration but the fact is that a calibrated detective calibrated on a known amount of lead like one milligram per square centimeter provided by this allows you to do this with only two unknowns the leg concentration in milligrams per square centimeter and the relative absorption of the l alpha and l beta x rays measure the ratio of the intensities and the absolute intensities of one of them determine the absolute concentration of lid i obtained several patents on this idea and i should mention that it rests of the fact that the compton scattering is negligible for low energy x-rays that’s what you have to put into the mathematics make this thing work well you’ve got to measure the absolute intensity and the relative intensity of two peaks well we introduce the silicon pin diode as a detector of those the initial resolutions about 900 EV let me pause a moment just to save it one of the gifts that comes free with being a professor at MIT is that you’re really connected with a very wide community of forefront research and there I was in high energy work research I dabbled in synchrotron radiation I was very Versant with the x-ray astronomy group at MIT very familiar with what’s going on in concern in other laboratories and we knew that the pin diode was used for measuring particles why not when you looked at the numbers why not use of this we tried it at work and I’m now going to show this next slide several times that shows the detector resolution that we an mtech obtained in 1991 and improvements that amptek read a low Hoover made over the next decade Alan will be given the talk a bit later those improvements are a central reason why this we have this conference today the sexual reason why laboratory XRF is being replaced in large part by hand held mixer well this is a really a allen’s results smooth and attitude as here is the year of 1990 all the way to 2010 here’s the full width half maximum in electron volts I believe he’s going to show you what he Kate’s the noise i simply convoluted the statistical fanno factors into it to get this curve we were in that in that era we’re in region a that’s noise dominated all peaks have the same full width at half maximum terrible 900 you can’t use that for looking at multi elements you can’t use that for edx irf but you can use it for this problem for the light playing problem here the two peaks there’s 10.5 12.6 2200 EV a thousand of 900 EV resolution gives you peace of this kind you could make sure the ratio is especially absolute etsy you could measure the leg cuts treasure beneath layers of paint which do not have lent

you and so we had a load page instrument Charles possibly do though but he insisted that we start using the latest technology being used in physics namely digital processing throughout I think we would digitizer 25 megahertz but i can’t i have no nothing but my memory which is three lousy and continue to go on the full energy inspector was displayed that which was of no interest to a Ledge inspector oh my goodness what is that we buried it ok the DSP the digital ciliates people processing was much more powerful than it had to be and here is a picture of chuck and here is the prototype that’s what it looked like you can see and just to show you that it is real here is a 1.5 card instrument you can carry in your pocket which I’ve been doing all day there’s no radioactive element in it but the shutter is closed and the was really had a better resolution at with you in one the rd 100 award we put in a multi-source instruments so that there was not only monochromatic x rays coming out of 22 kilovolts but we also had iron 55 5.8 kilovolt we had and we had several we had up to three sources in there and by the 1994 our resolution of 350 EV gave us these kinds of results for led much better than before good enough because the the gap between the k energy and say iron in decay energy of Kobol the next one over is 500 EV we have 350 good enough for not so very sensitive measurements and so now we’re in the alloy sorting business and you see where we are I’ve given you now the Wiz for the 5.9 kv line of manganese here it is as a function of of allen’s results and I’ve also given what you would get for the for the Kaline of silicon at 1.7 m EV that’s for the future well Ethel transitions to hell after was president from nineteen ninety eight to nineteen ninety-six superb leader resourceful always optimistic grew the company through good and not-so-good times how joining leave behind a highly successful brokerage position in New York City he said once analyzer market he became convinced the handheld XRF insulin had huge potentials in the broad metal alloy community and there’s a picture of house who’s here today well what were his goals I have to tell you that when I say no it was gold he never stopped pushing me about getting those of reaching those goals and I just assumed that he never stopped pushing anybody else one of them was the brick had to go what kind of a ergonomics is it has to be a gun type has to be radioactive sources these analysis will grow but there’s a limit we can’t get beyond this number because radioactive source require licensing you will name it disposal all the various things that’s going to limit our growth we must develop a handheld system using an x-ray tube and I was going all around the country trying to find people who could make a nice day too and he going with the in going separately the energy resolution is central to our growth we must work with antich allen is pushing the envelope and we have to be part of that we have to work with the speed of testing is critical we must have the fastest signal processing I was the Jordan and analysis these safety the SDS is the future but we knew about it

we must be first you know the SDS to silica drift detector invented by cattelan and Renko back in the 80s was known to me bhai any feelings at position sensitive detectors we knew that the astrophysics community was going full-tilt making very largest yes is detective 4-inch diameter five-inch diameter coming use those for and and people were already catching them for the research community for x-rays could they make them commercially and we started way back well here is a picture i don’t know what– what they said but it’s clearly with fo and hal where it must be in the 1997 region 99 698 thank you well there’s a picture there’s a picture with ethyl is how steve is Chuck oh well there’s one of our speakers is coming up and I think you might recognize some of the others Jim passwords up there he’s here at the conference well there’s our pistol grip but there were many others how was pushing us to make do a better system well what would the applications many turns out first is led well there’s a lady in the wall but there’s also Saito sisters and other things there’s a metal hourish there’s the recyclers there’s fabrication there’s the mining exploration there’s the trace elements there’s environmental there’s the archaeometry let’s go through a few days here’s the metal alloy SS you mark I just want to show you some of these instruments we’re taking a thousand measurements a day or war here is the here is the positive identification of the actual alloy they measured in scituate here is a mineral exploration in morning let me pause and talk about this for just a moment this is the environmental market here you see them taking measurements of the lead the arsenic in soil up until this time the way people did this was to take samples from a large area and then go and take milligrams of it to get very high precision and accuracy on the milligram quantities but terrible results for the average value over the large acres of growth here you could take measurements a thousand measurements of the day with GPS you’d know exactly where you were with each measurement you have a fool you not only got the results in the same day but you got a much better set of results when you were finished so advantageous results in less time minutes not days no restrictions of the number of tests how much time go ahead you have about six minutes nice okay no restrictions on the number of tests point of views gives immediate results the procedures could be changed on the fly over sampling as negligible cost the states can be caught immediately corrected I have a list of the mall but the cost per test for the cost for Java dramatically reduced to the instrument usually pays for itself very quickly people in the in the recycling metals market in the junkyard would take these disciplines find that

some material thats a tons of material which might have might be worth tens of the palm or because they knew exactly what the elements were and they made back the cost of their instrument in one day on-site analysis becomes practical part of the material identification in existing equipment eco cleanliness of mechanic manufactured goods mining applications is in line walls themselves become practical scrap metal analysis can be done at the junkyard and opinions and driving that growth was the incremental improvement in the portable instruments opening up new applications and fighting markets within the laboratory equipment market and so now we’re at the silicon drift error which I’m not going to speak about except to say that we’re now at the point where a room-temperature device cool very too modest temperatures my pal ke ku would have resolutions which rival those of liquid nitrogen silly detectives have count rates of tenth of the fifth set higher and that’s true put count race I was getting 150,000 we know test and i did with these kinds of well what were the innovations there were lots and I just I’m not going to detail the the one-piece handheld they we what an RD award for the for the 309 about the element analysis bulking the multi a source of systems with the mining system the 35 kv x-ray system first with the x box tech barrack and charles will be speaking about those whoops and a new car newton scientific Bob click assign which supplied most of our exit they are x-ray to me you feel a ton i love that name I know who made it up but the the Infinity night i’m using an aberration source which lived hundreds of years not replaceable you could use it forever to do xrf oh we won the second are the award was a whole host of them including the X to the first x-ray to hear you purge and 50k easy and then we won the third party handheld energy dispersive xrf have attained the capabilities of all but the upper end of laboratory workers in numerous industries like rapid accurate sensor measurements with each gain the handheld xrf opens up new markets and coaches further into the domains of laboratory instruments and I believe that the handheld business has the potential to continue their growth thank you very much you