Physical and Psychological Health Issues in Puppy Mill and Hoarding Rescues – conference recording

so what I’m going to talk about is focused on the work I do which is research looking at the animals that have been through trauma of some sort or another and of course the topic for today will be the puppy mill and the hoarding rescue of animals okay so we’re gonna look at the physical and the psychological effects of these different kinds of situations that these animals have to live through and of course we’ll start here with puppy mills first just by name commercial breeding establishment that’s the name we chose to use for the paper we published on this but also there’s other names high-volume breeder large-scale breeding facility they call themselves everything but puppy mills for obvious reasons professional kennels is another one you hear a lot but they’re all puppy mills and just to be clear my definition of puppy mill Jack’s it isn’t exactly the same as best friends but this is the better one so any dog breeding facility to keep so many dogs that the needs of the breeding dogs and puppies are not met sufficiently to provide a reasonably decent quality of life for all the animals and what this avoids of course is that difficult problem of how many animals how many dogs does it require by number to be a puppy mill and this by this definition you could have you know ten animals and be a puppy mill okay so who gets hurt out of this whole thing these are the they already know this but there’s three groups of dogs the breeding dogs the puppies and the shelter dogs I don’t have to tell you why shelter dogs are hurt by this we’re only gonna be talking about the breeding dogs today but I will mention that we recently published or no I’m sorry we’ve recently finished our study on the puppies that are sold through pet stores compared with dogs bought elsewhere and it was accepted by JAMA for publication but they lost some editors so I guess that whole process is gonna take forever so it’ll be forever before you see the paper but but anyway so we were able to document that dogs bought through pet stores have serious problems compared to other dogs from other sources when they grow up to be adults so it’ll be sort of a double whammy on on getting these puppy mill facilities either rectified or shut down so let’s look at the breeding dogs first of all the obvious thing how are they harmed well physical and psychological I’m going to skip the physical because I don’t really have time for it but you kind of all know what that is they have everything from ravaging skin diseases to the worst problem they have is dental disease some of the some of the dogs come out and they lose all their teeth but some lose more than that some lose half their jaw and roads through and it’s really really ugly and these poor dogs have to live with it because the breathers generally don’t care as long as they’re pumping out the puppies same goes for skin they come out heavily matted the ones with long hair and it’s really a terrible mess I’m sure you’ve all seen what it’s like to trim down a dog with that much hair coat on it you just lift that whole shell right off them and and of course it’s not just ugly but underneath horrendous things happen the pyoderma x’ and even just having an itch that they can’t scratch the other thing is as you probably all know the more hair mats the more things get glued together so these dogs very often have their limbs glued to their body they can’t move them and then it’ll cover the anus sometimes so that they can’t even push out a bowel movement it’s really messy but anyway I think you all know that so what I want to do is talk about where my focus has been and that is the psychological harm of of the puppy mills when I came to best friends there were a few things that I posed as questions to myself that didn’t have answers first of all what are the psychological and behavioral characteristics of dogs who have been confined in puppy mills how many of the dogs show abnormalities this is related to the issue in people that when a hundred people go through the same trauma only a certain percentage and it’s usually around 15 to 20 percent suffer long-term psychological scars now that can be combat warfare it can be living through Katrina it can be 9/11 all of them have about the same the only thing that the only one that’s different is sexual assault on women where it’s more around 50% carried lifelong scars and that doesn’t mean that the ones that aren’t

scarred don’t remember it obviously if you do and it’s very unpleasant but it doesn’t affect day-to-day function in a really bad way how severe are the abnormalities how long-lasting are they are they reversible how many dogs self recover and how many need rehabilitative treatment what are the most effective treatments and then real importantly for us and I’m sure all of you is how does the harm that they suffer affect the adoption relationship and success and of course what I’m talking about is if they are psychologically scarred which I will show you they are does that impact their success in their adoptive households and I have the answer to that that we’ll talk about actually that’ll be the third talk so this is the title of the study which then became the title of the paper we looked at eleven hundred and sixty nine dogs that have been rescued from being breeders in puppy mills that had gotten out one way or another and we used James Serpa land and Deb Duffy and James Circle up both at the University of Pennsylvania we use James C bark which is as you may know a extensive psychological behavioral questionnaire for dogs here’s all the breeds that we dealt with in the study just real quickly I think you all know this most puppy mill dogs are small breeds you’ll see a few on that list if you can see that small lettering like golden retrievers where larger breeds sometimes have quite a few the Bichons 343 was about 10 times every other breed and that was because we had a lady in a rescue small paws rescue in Tulsa Oklahoma who just hounded no pun intended hounded the people that had adopted her dogs until they just you couldn’t put it off anymore and so they had to enter so the Bichon so far over-represented as far as puppy mill dogs okay so one important thing that I want to mention before I give you what we found is how long were these dogs in their adoptive households this is critical because of course if we did the study one week after they’d all landed in their adoptive households they’re all going to be terrified like any new dog in a new household so well this question we asked and of course those are the multiple choices on the left and this is the answers that we got back the vast majority were 1 to 2 2 to 3 3 to 5 years in that household and the mean was 2 years in that household and I’ll probably reiterate this as I go through because it’s real important that what I’m going to show you is a snapshot of the dogs at roughly two years into their house plenty of time in other words to adjust and their actual personalities to emerge so the first thing that we found is fear levels dramatic in in comparison to non-pom female dogs and the pet dogs that we compared them to is the data bank that James Circle has collected at the sea bark site which is about 15,000 dogs over the last 15 years or so so we matched them for everything from sex to breathe and everything like that but the point is these are normal whatever that word means pet dogs compared to puppy mill dogs so fear of unfamiliar people this is of course when you have one of these adoptive pets and your dogs in your house and you invite a neighbor or friend Ian that’s an unfamiliar person or stranger so oops backwards sorry so pet dogs showed and by the way that all the scales go up to 4 but as you may know if you work PowerPoint when you make a graph it always scales it down to the top value so it’s 2.5 anyway so pet dogs have a very low level and this is what we found in puppy mill dogs at 215 percent increase which is astronomical and let me reiterate or iterate before I reiterate iterate the fact that what we’re looking at is a group of dogs for example and the reason that’s important is that not every dog has that level of fear some has much higher some have much lower this is the average of course and it’s like if you looked at a hundred combat soldiers that came back and judge their psychological makeup compared with the normal population they would have very high levels of certain things too but of course we all know some of those soldiers are perfectly fine and others are devastated so we’re looking at an average of the groups here so fear of other dogs this was interesting I wanted to know what this was because as you may know puppy mill dogs are almost always housed in groups it saves the operators a lot of money that way but they’re usually small breeds which are very profitable when

they sell them so in their in their life with other dogs if we’re worried about dogs being socialized with other dogs you can’t get any more socialized than spending your whole life with other dogs so when they come out are they more or less fearful of other dogs and this is what we found they’re actually more fearful than than your standard dog of other dogs and what apparently explains this is that if you look at your household and you have like ten dogs or whatever and then two of them get into a fight and another one’s real nervous about that that third one can run off and escape or either two in the fight can run off an escape in a puppy mill they have nowhere to go so what happens is under any conflict tension anything they are stuck there and I was kind of joke here that if I were to leave here lock the doors come back in two years and let you guys out he probably wouldn’t be all that friendly with other people you know that’s just the way it is you you have no way to defuse situations so that’s probably what we’re looking at here non social fear is all the fear of non social meaning inanimate type objects a bicycle going by noises all that so it’s pretty much all of life except for the other living bodies around you and we found this likewise astronomically elevated in puppy mill dogs and once again I won’t say there’s too many times but I just want to stress this is two years into their household they’ve had more than enough time to adapt to everything going on okay so in the comments section I found a lot of words repeating themselves by the way those are all multiple-choice were they rate of fear levels in their dogs but we leave a comment section and I found a lot of repetitive words that you’ll all recognize real quickly skittish was the most common startles easily always on alert on edge on guard or hyper alert I group some of these that are similar overly reactive jumpy easily unnerved frightened scared spooked or panicked frightened by sudden or quick movements or sounds and then the really sad ones frightened of everything or almost everything and frightened all the time under any circumstances these are the real tragic cases that just live in this state of fear that they cannot escape from no matter what we tear at what we try to do this is a Boomer just one example of one of these dogs and what happens to them when they’re in the mill since adoptions six months earlier than that I say six months earlier than when I went to his house to take this photo he stays in the far corner of the backyard runs away from all humans including his adoptive parents barks constantly urinates freely in the house is the wife told me I can’t get near enough em to housebreak him which when you think about it is difficult if you can’t get within 12 feet of the dog you can neither praise them nor discourage them because if you try to use a loud voice as I’ll show you it just terrifies them more and in fact the husband tried to offer a treat by tossing a treat and what’d he go I quoted him you’d have thought he was being pelted by rocks that’s how terrified he was of anything like that and hasn’t formed any bond with any person in six months and this is as close as I could get with a zoom lens if I walked any closer he would try to run past me into the next room where he could hide so obviously I didn’t do that to him but he was just living in this constant state of terror terror sensitivity to touch that means being touched by human hands or picked up held hugged on the lap all of those things and we found that it compared to pet dogs puppy mill dogs are much more sensitive and I’ll read you some of the descriptions by people who describe this but it’s a it’s pretty difficult um you you know we all have the inclination of wanting to just hug and love these animals and make them feel better but it’s terrifying cognitive abilities and mental focus the one that demonstrates some changes here is the staring at nothing which people in the Dadaab puppy mill dogs have described in many ways blank stare dazed look zoned out lights on nobody’s home all of those things that you’ve heard before and it was no surprise that they show that as significantly more than pet dogs trainability this is the one you can all guess and the fact that this is no surprise I should just mention the only surprise here it’s not lower than that in terms of less being less trainable than normal pet dogs here’s some written in descriptions about certain cognitive functions that these dogs have always

seems like she’s in another world we’ll put his front feet on the wall and stare at the wall attention span of a flea not aggressive not friendly just there at times she seems to regress into unknown fears she has doggy dementia gets disoriented seldom shows any emotion at all she’s very stoic has unprovoked and unexplained temper tantrums and if he were human he would be autistic and we’ll come back to that autistic comment a little bit later now a lot of stereotypical behavior follows these dogs out and can stay with them for years this didn’t categorize anything in particular in terms of unusual stereotyped behavior but we found to no surprise that they are above normal dogs and this particular dog here does one of the common things she’s a circular and that’s what she’ll do all day long sometimes they’ll do wide circles like she’s doing here other times they’ll do tight little circles the way they would do them if they were still in their cage we call them spinners not because it’s a cutesy name but because it really describes them but but the real troubling thing of course is that when you have one of these dogs and it’s spinning or circling most often you can’t stop that and that’s very frustrating for the adoptive owners to want to comfort the dog and make them stop doing this but they very often can’t and we know some from some recent research on repetitive and compulsive type behaviors is that there’s a beneficial brain effect to certain stereotypical with OCD you actually can put your mind at ease it’ll release endorphins so actually trying to stop this sounds like the logical thing to do but we may not want to they may actually be getting benefit and ease their own anxiety I here’s some written descriptions for the repetitive type behaviors and they’re quite diverse creates imaginary line that he won’t cross obsessively runs back and forth in the yard until worn out jumps and rolls on the floor and slams body on floor moves four legs in a stepping position while standing in the same spot sometimes rips her own hair out her toys must be in order she will count them and pace if one is gone self mutilates licks the air often sucks on cotton fabrics towels blankets and throws his body into walls so you can see there’s just a wide array of abnormality abnormal behaviors that come out what about aggression well this is where things get interesting this is I already showed you here the fear of the dogs of other dogs is elevated compared to normal pet dogs what about aggression towards other dogs well here’s what we found it’s only about half as much they’re not nearly as aggressive as just your standard typical dog by the way that’s a little misleading because as I mentioned the scales in PowerPoint are scaled down that’s a scale that goes up to 4 so don’t look at that like all these dogs are vicious attacking everybody that’s actually not that high but the comparison is what we’re interested in compared to puppy mill dogs how about this we saw that the elevation of fear of unfamiliar people is a sky-high what about their aggression towards unfamiliar people well very similar it’s about half as much as you find in just standard pet dogs and what about owner directed aggression and once again we’ve got also less of that in a rescued puppy mill dogs than we have in standard pet dogs so I group them all together here just so you can see a very interesting finding and I don’t know how interesting it is because we’d need to do more studies but it’s the aggression level for every possible level of aggression that we tested for was almost exactly half of what it was whatever it was for people or for normal pet dogs just a couple of comments here in the comment section does your dog show any aggression towards strangers no aggression she just runs away and hides this puppy mill dog has fear instead of aggression she’s afraid not aggressive she’s in total fear this dog is afraid of her own shadow she only wants to get away so what what we’re looking at here is if you look at the normal dog and it for that matter it could be normal mammal us included and that is under threat there’s a fight-or-flight response that’s fairly balanced but what these dogs come out of puppy mills like is this incredible bias of a bias

towards flight as opposed to fight and you know it’s hard to tell exactly why this is but it probably relates to the fact that when you are aggressive there’s always got to be a way out if you start something aggressive there’s got to be a way to escape if things go out of control and therefore if you learn real quick that you can never escape retaliation then you are probably going to shut down your aggression mode well as we know from puppy mill dogs they can’t escape anything so if they attack their cage mate they have nowhere to go if that cage mate strikes back or if every dog in the in the group their piles on so they come out or they would develop less tendency than to be aggressive and that’s just a theory I can’t prove it of course but but it’s probably what’s happening all right this one not that relevant but it is by far the biggest abnormality and that is their reluctance to use stairs it’s not always the same from dog to dog interestingly enough some dogs won’t get near stairs no matter what others will go up but not down others will go down but not up so it’s quite different and the only relevance really is when these are large breed dogs that come out of the puppy mills because obviously the little breed dogs are pretty easy to carry in and out of a house or something like that but when you’ve got a Great Dane that’s a reluctant to use stairs and you have just three stairs to get out your back door it can be a problem all right now other than aggression they score better than normal pet dogs in two areas one is chasing and this can be chasing anything of a bicycle or a ball or anything like that they only do it at about half the level now this is pretty easy to speculate why this would be – there’s two reasons one is that it requires a certain sense of confidence to chase something in other words if you’re fearful and you just want to scare something off but you don’t go run run run and so these animals come or these dogs come out in general with sky-high fear levels so their ability to chase is diminish because of that the other one is probably the more obvious and that is they don’t have any concept of chasing they’ve never chased anything they’ve been in this little tiny box with other dogs as they could run circles around there but the concept of throwing a ball and the dog chasing it is completely foreign to them so they don’t chase much which is good but for a bad reason likewise pulling on a leash they don’t pull on a leash as much as normal pet dogs and this is also relatively easy to figure out they’ve never been on a leash and although it seems obvious to us that all you need to do is hook up a dog to a leash and they just walk along the problem with pulling on a leash is that we take for granted that a collar and you pulling with your neck against something is natural but if you’ve never done it in your life and all of a sudden somebody expects you to use your neck to pull something you’re probably not going to do it and that’s why these dogs probably don’t pull against the leash so that was a very very fast run-through of a part of the paper that we wrote what I found though is that a lot of people that filled out that lengthy questionnaire emailed me and said you know I just filled out your long questionnaire but you didn’t ask a single question about my dog and what it turns out is that the sea bark being designed to kind of collect all information about all dogs does not focus on any one type of dog and that’s the way James designed it so that it would reach a lot of pet owners but just like people with certain psychological abnormalities if everybody with every psychiatric problem took the same test some would be more informative than others anyway long story short what I did then is I devised an entirely different second questionnaire and asked people if they’d be willing to fill it out and out of the 1169 original dogs we got eight hundred and seventy eight dogs entered in the second one and this is where I focused a lot more on the problems that were specific for puppy mill dogs there’s question five dogs like people have different desires and abilities to socialize with others please check the choice that comes closest to describing your dog’s sociability when when he or she arrived in your household and I gave them a number of choice sociable and friendly towards people and dogs sociable and friendly toward people but not dogs sociable and friendly towards dogs but not people not sociable or friendly to either very selectively in the people but very friendly to other dogs and very selectively to the people and not friendly to other dogs and this is what

we got back the large majority are selective in the people and very friendly towards other dogs luckily some of the bad ones like unfriendly towards people but not dogs were low but the other ones have problems and that is being selective for or against dogs or people and and you know you’ll see that in some of the upcoming slides too the other thing that a lot of people told us on the questionnaire is that he only bonded to meat or he only bonded to me and my husband and no one else so on the second questionnaire I asked them to please describe the bonding emotional attachment your dog is made with people and then he or she has bonded with and those are the choices only one person only two more than two which is what we want no humans but dogs no humans and not dogs and this is what we got for that is that it is real common for them to bond with just one or two people that is what we want them all to be able to do but a lot of them do that now I have to admit some stupidity on my part here because a lot of people that answered this question in the comments section mentioned that they broke down they’re the only bonded with one person but I’m the only one in the house and it didn’t dawn on me that that would happen so that only one person or even only two people might be a little bit more elevated than the dog would choose if they had more choices but from the comments that we got it’s clear that these dogs are very likely to bond with just a few people Oh in fact I left some comments on here she is bonded with my husband and myself and with the other dogs in the house but not with my adult children or strangers she’s not bonded in any sense of a normal pet in her own way she accepts as her caregiver but does not show any form of feelings for me I have no doubt that she loves me but in her own abnormal way she does not come to me when I approach her to pick her up and and she backs up powers down like I’m going to hit or hurt her I’m the only person on earth and her eyes she’s definitely dependent on me and shows her appreciation of me I am her world he isn’t bonded to either of us but he will now lay on the couch next to us and allow us to stroke or scratch him it took me two months to be able to touch apricot and now after almost eight years I’m still the only one who can touch her she screams when anyone else tries to approach her or pick her up she poops when they try to pick her up – so these dogs that go through this trauma um and this is true for people – very often have difficulties coping with just standard change in life so in this question I just asked them how do well does your dog cope with change and this this is not very surprising not very many very well quite a few moderately and quite a few not very and then very poorly was the was the third most common choice so it kind of confirms what I’d expected to find on that dog show a wide range of trust in humans how would you rate your dogs trust of humans very trusting moderately trusting a little trusting not at all trusting and selective in who he or who he or she trusts and this is also not that surprising especially based on the other questionnaires that we had and that is the large majority were very selective in who they would trust and the rest of them formed is pretty much a bell-shaped curve in the range of of trust ability of humans a lot of people told us that my dog hates men or hates the womb well a few hate women and so that came so repeatedly that I decided okay let’s ask does your dog show any difference in his or her response toward people based on the person’s sex and this is the breakdown about half of them show no difference towards male or female but of the other half the vast majority show negative more negativity towards males than females but there are a certain segments that actually are more negative towards females than males now this cannot be attributed to being mistreated by men in the puppy mill in all cases certainly because a lot of puppy mills they’re both owned and operated by women and in fact in the Amish community where they’re pretty rampant a lot of girls work the mills to sew the hands on are not always men and in fact it may be just the opposite that they’ve never really encountered men before so men give off obviously much more vibes or much different vibes some more vine one more anyway so they’re they’re scared of men in that respect

too I here’s some comments on that particular question she’s scared to death of men she only trusts my husband and that’s only 50% of the time she’ll growl at new men when new men she encounters the groomers reported that she doesn’t like when men come into the shop I know the puppy mill was run by a woman many will show less fear towards a male in my house and will calm down quicker if it is a male coming into the house Missy will rarely enter a room if my husband or son are in it she’s more afraid of women she will approach men who come into the house we had a house sitter who brought her boyfriend with her Sadie was very sociable with him when the house sitter comes without him she will not come into the room and stays in the back by the back door alone she wouldn’t let my husband touch her for four years she barks and runs away from any males coming in the house still we have one male friend that’s very quiet and unassuming that she seems to have accepted as okay but she still keeps her eye on him okay so here’s a biggie that you probably all know really well and is actually not well described in the first part of the questionnaire the C bark and that is how straining so I asked people to rate it please check the level of house training the going outside to urinate have bowel movements do your business your dog is now showing and those are the choices I gave them fully house-trained which means they do all their business out side and then I defined mostly as 3/4 outside some what is 1/2 poorly as 1/4 outside and then I made this choice not at all no recognition or difference between inside and outside and this is what we got back 37% fully house-trained 42% mostly which I guess is good that’s better than the bad ones down here but also keep in mind that I worded the question specifically your dog is now showing so this is the picture of the dogs being two years into the household that they’re in now all of you work in shelters know that when people are asking about house training they aren’t gonna ask you is he gonna be 3/4 house trained or 1/2 or 1/4 they want to know will he be house trained or not so I group these together to tell us what the answer is and that is that about two years after you’ve adopted a puppy mill dog the likelihood of him being house trained is about 1/3 and the likelihood of him still having accidents or her is about 2/3 now that sounds bad people don’t generally want to adopt animals that aren’t house trained but I’ll tell you that the people that adopt these dogs are the most loving and forgiving dogs you are people you can imagine they taught they tell me on and on about how they buy lots of pedal pads they’ve gotten real good with diapers and they’ve gotten extra good at cleaning but it’s almost always done in a very positive note because of a lot of them after describing all those issues will then say at the end but he’s a puppy mill dog what do you expect so they’re very forgiving and it’s just a wonderful thing now don’t get me wrong they don’t like the non house training because I did ask another question that I didn’t put on here and that is if there’s one thing you could change about your dog now what would it be house training number one so it’s not like they love it but they’re very forgiving of the people that adopt these dogs now a lot of dogs coming out of puppy mills and you may know this don’t play they don’t get toys in puppy mills they don’t get any opportunity to play unless they little games and their little tiny enclosures so I asked people does your dog play yes or no and this is what we got back about two-thirds of them do play but about a third of them don’t play and I think I put the comment section yeah I left some comments on here because even the ones that play play in different ways does your dog play absolutely not ever sad she will run and play with other dogs but no interest in toys loves to play loves her toys will scamper with joy she’ll have a happy outburst while playing with the toys that’s of course what we want she learned how to play by watching our other two dogs then she learned by interacting with them now she plays with other dogs and with toys initiates play with our other dog but never with humans baby only plays alone she loves stuffed toys and will drag them all over sometimes she throws them in the air she doesn’t seem to know what to do when you throw the toys for her to catch she tries to play but is unsure how to do it for the first three years she was here Jilly did not know how to play now she loves little squeaky toys and will toss them up and try to keep them away from other dogs so a lot of the dogs that have to play impairment so to speak will actually learn to play but a lot of them unfortunately decide well I wouldn’t say decide they just don’t play I contact a lot of people would say my dog won’t make eye contact with me so I asked him

on the second questionnaire how frequently does your dog make eye contact and maintain it for at least a few seconds and that is very frequently fairly occasionally and never and this is what we got back here very frequently no hesitation is the plurality of the dogs here fairly frequently cajon aliy and never are significant now this sounds academic but I’m going to get back in in the third talk as to why it’s not I’ll give you just a little clue now and that is eye contact is perceived by people I should say by all social animals including humans as a positive interaction unless it’s a menacing type with you know ears and all that but it’s a positive thing so when your adopted dog will not look you in the face whether you’re consciously thinking of it or not you’re perceiving that as rejection by your dog and that can’t be done with puppy mill dogs you cannot hold them to the same standard of behavior as other normal dogs and therefore the people that call you back after six months or a year and say this is obviously not working he hates me he won’t look me in the eye we know from doing these studies now that this is actually very normal and it doesn’t mean your dog hates you it’s just the way they are wired to maintain Conte eye contact is very different than typical dogs so it’s a really important thing it’s not just like I say academic interest I wanted to focus a little more on their cognitive abilities and their mental focus so I asked them on this question to check off anything that your dog has done more than once and I put here all kinds of things that you’d normally put no memory loss confusion loss of focus irritability that blank stare that we picked up on the first questionnaire gets lost sudden bursts of behavior and this is what we got back for that and it shows that confusion is shows up pretty commonly this confirms what we got on the first questionnaire and that is that blank dazed look that these dogs will often show where you don’t know what they’re thinking or how their brain is dissociated or whatever and by the way I should point out this dazed look is not constant it’s just that they will adopt it at many parts of a day and maintain it for several minutes or longer shows very little emotion that also showed up pretty well and if you look at the last answer my dog has show none of the above 43% that leaves 57% do show some kind of cognitive dysfunction sleep disturbances I wanted to know about this because as you may know in people with post-traumatic stress disorder sleep disturbances are quite common and I wanted to know more about what goes on with the recovered dogs so I asked them to check off anything here that applied that they see more than more than once or more than once a month on this one howling whimpering sudden waking physical activity like paddling legs bad dreams and of course that’s presumed nightmares frequent waking up all that kind of a thing and this is what we got back here most of them didn’t seem to show any but a lot of them did show evidence which people were interpreting as nightmares and disturbed sleep because they would wake up in the middle of howling or something like that and and so it’s it’s obviously a lot of speculation here on what those mean but it does seem to follow the the pattern that humans that go through psychological trauma do also here’s another example this is honey girl adopted fifteen months prior to me visiting her in her home slowly bonded with the wife but not her husband still won’t let the husband touch her hides whenever guests come to visit that’s her right there she would have stayed in that back corner as I stood in this corner with the door until I asked the wife to pick her up and bring her toward me and this is over the wife shoulder you can still see honey girl just arching back to get away from me like I’m terrifying and the wife told me quote reminds me of an autistic child a lot like which made me along with our first questionnaire I want to know more about autistic type things so I asked them on this question considering your dog’s behavior have you considered that to resemble any of the following human conditions and I gave them a whole bunch of choices Alzheimer’s attention deficit autism dementia mental retardation senility and by the way of course a lot of these overlap dimensions senility for example but I just want to know how people responded to this and this is what we got back fortunately none of them are too high but the one does confirm my main suspicion and that is

11% of people look at the behavior they’re the puppy mill rescue dogs show as autistic like and here are some comments that give you a real good description of this I work with autistic children and is pacing in circles avoidance of human contact avoidance of eye contact have seemed autistic like she seems like a catatonic schizophrenic turning our back on people she’s afraid of open space a agoraphobic if I had to make an analogy I’d say she most resembles someone with PTSD sudden and severe startle response need to isolate to diminish outside stimulation staring at walls great fear of new situations by the way this is this is what I study the most and I stupidly forgot to put it on the questionnaire this particular person just added it in his comment section so I feel like an idiot therapy but um sometimes she seems like an empty shell with no emotion other times she can seem happy and seemed to enjoy life to the best of her ability and we call her our little autistic girl she doesn’t take in the world the way a normal happy go-lucky dog does everything is totally new to her and every experience is a first so she’s sort of in a world of her own this is Joey and Joey’s owner wrote me a letter and I just wanted to read it to you which gives you a basic overall description of the damage that puppy mills will cause there was something about Joey that just didn’t work it was when Tinker Bell came to me in July of this year that I knew what Joey’s problem was Joey’s brain did not develop properly he tried to become all the dog he could be with the help of my other animal companions but he could only get so far and then as he got older he seemed to regress when Tinkerbell came I saw the difference she’s playful and full of life and is becoming a real dog she does all the normal things that dogs do such as groom scratch an itch bark run and jump get the ball Joey did none of these things in the three years he was with me I never saw him scratch one inch I realized that all this time he was just existing in his safe place that I created for him it was a lot like what we see in humans as Alzheimer’s Joey did not live a life he just existed and if that’s not depressing enough here’s Frieda who’s a collie I adopted Frieda adopted a collie this is the man who adopt obviously I adopted a collie that had been rescued from a puppy mill some three months before once rescued she’d been kept in a kennel at a vet’s office with some free time outside in a fenced yard with other rescue dogs I loved Collies but how shocked and I’m prepared I was when I got this dog home and no one told me what to expect at first she was afraid to go into the house once I got her in the door she made herself an invisible cage on a five by seven foot rug I had in my foyer and did not move from there for hours I finally coaxed her into the living room living area of the house she was afraid of everything the TV the ceiling fan the porcelain dog dish the bathroom the kitchen etc she retreated into a dark corner of my house she’s afraid of people and will shy away when she sees anyone in the street she gets carsick if we are outside on a day where there’s garbage collection in my neighborhood and hears the noises of people taking out the trash cans opening their garage doors etc she’ll start to salivate from sheer nervousness and try to run home what is even most sad is that she has none of the collie instincts she was robbed of those no instinct to heard to protect to bark nothing she hardly ever wags her tail and does not know how to play with toys my heart breaks that I cannot get through to her she loves being brushed when I bring out the brush we spend our best times together this is the one time in the day that she actually seems to relax in my company I do work Monday through Friday some 10 hours a day I have another well socialized dog at home but even though he tries to get her to play she usually just lies down and ignores him so I don’t need to tell all you this but when I give this lecture and present these cases to people who aren’t really in the know I just point out that if you buy a puppy from a pet store this is what you’re helping to create it’s just horribly horribly tragic pictures of puppy mills you’ve all seen these but I transpose these with pictures that I took out of a catalog of a kennel professional kennel supplier and the reason I did this is that a lot of people that run these puppy mills have these real clean shiny facilities and they will not they will say look come out in my place isn’t a puppy mill this place is sparkling clean and I’ve walked through these places and they are clean but the problem is is if you walk down that particular hallway it’s like walking down the middle hallway of a shelter you’ve got dogs howling on both sides of you just to come over and give them some attention because they’re so starved for

affection and so the reason I put this up here is to illustrate that it doesn’t matter that the puppy mill is dirty or clean the psychological damage can be just as traumatizing because it comes from other things than just feces on the floor okay so let’s switch over to hoarding and talk about them which we don’t have as much research data on but I’ll give you what we’ve been able to start to collect by the way illustrations here that’s the classic sometimes they’re kept in vehicles sometimes they’re kept in cages in the house or barn or whatever and then sometimes they’re hoard it outside so hoarding environments can actually be quite variable oh one little note here I just want to point out how unique hoarding is and there’s no other type of abuse or neglect where there’s a wider gulf between the intent to benefit the animal and the harm inflicted on the animal so I made this little chart here this is harm inflicted on the animal and this is the intent to help the animal and there’s a number of things that go right up here with the high degree of harm low degree of intent to help and that is abuse puppy mills dog fighting factory farming they all go up there on the other side is this which is a high intent to help with a very low degree of harm inflicted and that’s veterinary care animal rescue and shelters and this is where hoarding sits right up there and that is that the self-proclaimed intent to help is as high as it can get in most of these hoarders but also the harm is as high as that can get because in over half the cases dead animals are found you can’t get any worse than that so this is a very unique situation of which as you all know is just starting to be just do it better species hoarded you probably all know this dogs and cats of course the most common also rabbits are fairly common this is this comes from photo we helped the rescue in Reno Nevada of hundreds I forget exactly of rabbits pigs are also hoarded and birds and this is really sad because birds as you all know especially the parents can live 60 70 years and when we fret that that dogs live seven eight years of their breeding life in a puppy mill it is it’s bad but when you’re stuck if for seventy years in a in a parent mill I can’t even imagine what that’s like and as you all know parents are very intelligent and need a lot of stimulation and it’s just a horrible horrible thing that just doesn’t get near enough press okay relevant to what we see when these animals come out of the horican situation is how did they get there and there’s a number of ways you probably all know these things from neighbors and the general public who want or need to relinquish their pets but don’t want to take them to the shelter people who bring homeless animals to them and both of these are very often used as sort of a guys to draw animals in the people running the hoarding place a say that they are a shelter or a sanctuary and very often they’re not obtained as strays through free the good home ads may be housed pets that were stolen or rescued there are people that do go out in individual yards and steal animals to bring them back to their hoarding facility because in their mind they can take better care than the animal sitting in the yard there and then lastly the animals breed among themselves in the hoarding environment that’s one of the more obvious ones okay so harm to the animals it comes just a couple comments here in humans and this sort of reiterates the puppy mills situation it’s well established it in a group of individuals all its all going through the same stress there’s a wide or what wide array of responses not just the numbers that I told you have ongoing effects but the why the different kinds responses are very different and that’s what we see in hoarded animals and as I just showed you in puppy mill animals and after the rescue some of the animals interact with people and behave as if nothing unpleasant ever happened while others show severe and persistent adverse psychological and physical effects by the way that’s true for puppy mills too you probably all know this that right after rescue some of these dogs will bounce up to you with tails wagging and you could never imagine they were in any kind of bad situation and others of course are just petrified and won’t come near you and are just trembling like you’re going to kill them Garrard Potomac found that 80 percent of hoarding cases were in 80 percent animals were found dead or in poor condition very malnourished obviously disease or injury and he found that 59 percent had actual deceased animals there’s just one story there of a

obviously real bad case of only two surviving out of I think 46 many animals and you all know this being recovered are in such bad condition that euthanasia is the only humane option physical and psychological harm we’ll look at the physical harm first okay doing good on time um the hoarding conditions that contribute to the physical harm are numerous one is the unsanitary bedding and flooring there’s prolonged exposure to the skin and the feet of that these animals have to a walk on and then of course they sleep on a lot of these surfaces to overcrowding whereas inadequate overcrowded housing creates physical injury from aggressive encounters as further aggravated in situations where there’s heavy competition for limited food which isn’t the case in all hoarding situations but in many insufficient drinkable water and edible food leads to dehydration chronic malnutrition or starvation which has an impairing effect on the immune function wound healing spread of infectious and parasitic diseases promoted by and you all know this close confinement and interaction accumulated fecal material rotting food and insects and rodents and then disrupted sleep large numbers of free-roaming animals are not conducive to proper rest in a healthy sleep this is not like an army barracks where ten o’clock everybody goes to bed and sleeps this is the situation where you’re trying to sleep but other animals decide it’s time to get up and move around so sleep is very impaired poor air quality this is of course mainly because of ammonia ammonia levels above 25 parts per million begin to cause irritation of the respiratory tract and levels over 150 have been found at document document it at a hoarding sites and then studies have shown that at less than a hundred parts per million it can have detrimental effects on appetite and weight gain in farm animals and so we may be seeing that some of the malnutrition hoarding rescues aren’t due to the unavailability of food but are due to the fact that they’ve got something impairing their appetite to where they just aren’t going to eat and then of course inadequate veterinary care lack of preventive veterinary care like vaccines and antiparasitics of course allow these animals to get ill and then of course when they’re ill the their number of times they’re taken to the vet are in this cool okay and then real quickly just through the different types of physical harm in a general level malnourished and starved parasites of all types roundworms coccidiosis Giardia heartworm and all the external parasites oral disease just like puppy mill rescues are horrendous dental disease with loss of many teeth and sometimes parts of the jaw gingivitis and stomatitis often severe and very common skin won’t go through all these but just ravaged eyes infections conjunctivitis corneal ulcers real common infections may be so severe that the eyes are blinded and may be lost altogether viral infections this is a no brainer FeLV and especially upper respiratory ears infections mites and genital urinary tracts infections and also trauma from forced matings among a lot of these animals that are just kind of wild animals so just some pictures of some hoarding rescues this is just an obvious skin problem this is scabies here and you’ve all seen this this is the really ugly situation of cats with upper respiratory that just devastate them that’s a paralyzed rabbit from the arena rabbit rescue just couldn’t get around and rats are hoarded too this is one that is suffering from a horrible skin disease and probably a lot of other things too by the way I should mention not that it’s relevant to anything but in the I forget which hoarding TV show there was one I think it was last season where the big finale was a rat hoarding situation does anybody see that they built it up all season you know like oh my god you’ll want to see this and and and it’s like it’s this guy that has like two three hundred rats maybe more I forget and and it was like considered the most horrible thing well I’m a rat lover and I look at that and I go wow that is so cool you know um but but it’s not cuz they’re sick and all that kind of thing but but having that many rats if they were

healthy and we’re well cared for would be so cool rats are so cool if you need a pet that’s just like a real small dog get a rat my rats run free in my house and they chase my cats so it’s kind of fun you have to get a Dustbuster though because they do leave their little poops around but they’re always hard so you know you just goop them up but it’s it’s pretty awesome and I know I’m sounding weird but rats are the coolest okay and then sadly this is from Melinda mercs textbook just a picture of cannibalism because things really get ugly in terms of food okay so let’s look at some of the ones we’ve dealt with that best friends I picked three different hoarding situations 164 dogs from in Canada 121 dogs from an Arkansas rescue and a rescue out of the Arizona desert of a hundred and one all of these are all dogs I’ll get two cats in just a second so here’s some here’s the five dogs or just to give you five of the 64 Winnipeg dogs and to show you the physical problems that we had with these guys Hammond all teeth very worn fractured teeth dental disease GI disease bloody mucus e diarrhea gdv overweight Zoroaster broken and missing teeth Veera Campylobacter GI disease dental disease Emery mammary cancer skin masses an abscess dental disease otitis externa hypertension overweight and Catalina GI disease now keep in mind because I’ll come back in just second keep in mind Emory here who had the worst physical problems of all these dogs the Arkansas rescue by the way the Winnipeg rescue was in a very small room with about I think 700 dogs in the entire operation so to speak and we got as I say that many of them but it was dark there were no windows and it was just a horrible horrible mess Arkansas the only information we got was that a terrible hoarding situation and and these dogs we got I would treated them all for scabies because some of them were positive for scabies but out of Arkansas you can probably imagine heartworm positive but also ehrlichia positive otitis externa Clostridium diarrhea just just a mess and that’s the kind of thing once again that comes out of a hoarding situation and then out of the Arizona desert this is 101 dogs with no shade and if you’ve ever been in Arizona having no shade is absolute torture I mean we’re in the southern part of Utah and our summers get up to like 107 108 and we’re at the high desert and that is devastating but Arizona’s worse but anyway what’s interesting oh and then also no clean water green slime with many dead mice and they’re only they were fed once or twice a week but look at this of the five dogs that we got out of that rescue only one of them had a physical problem and that was omega what that was heartworm positive but all the other ones actually had a normal physical exam and that is in a brutal environment for four dogs to be kept okay this is Pahrump Nevada which is in the desert on the west side of Nevada and we were called in here to help with a rescue of horded cats that numbered around 900 and this was one of those fake sanctuaries where the lady advertised herself as being a sanctuary for cats if you no longer could keep them way they come and we love them in fact she called herself flock which stood for for the love of cats and kittens and this is where they ended up and the cats ran free on the desert compound with a big fence around it they had some rooms to go in but they were sweltering hot and that’s sherry one of our behavior consultants at best friends but what was interesting about this is if you walked on to the compound here just like sherry demonstrates you were like a cat magnet these cats were so starved for attention because so many of them had been maybe all of them had been owned by somebody and and we’re very familiar with with people so if you walked in they would just be all over you and if you stoop down they would be on your shoulders and back I mean they were just starved for human attention they were sadly starved for food too but but I just found it dramatic and it was kind of interesting almost funny but not funny when I went in there and I was petting the cats I would I would have you know my hands petting one cat and then there’d be like 20 other cats all waiting to be petted and it was the first time in my life that I actually thought that God gave us too few arms

because every time I had to pet anew and I had to stop petting this one and I just felt like I need to be petting all these guys they were just so affectionate now some of them were terrified and and ran off to the back part of the calm and hid from us that’s why it was hard to get a an accurate count of how many were there here are just some of the cats that were there there’s another one that we had to net with a tumor and this is a one that we gave the name of covergirl because she became sort of our photographic image of the Pahrump hoarding rescue and she was as you can tell there about one breath away from dying week fel be positive and just a horrible horrible situation best friend study of psychological and physical health characteristics after your rescue adoption this is a look at the physical health of these cats and what we were able to do is get 94 of the adopters to answer a questionnaire and we compared them with a control group that I built of just people that I solicited with normal non traumatized cats and I have them fill out the same questionnaire and on the health issue oh and I should point out average 1.2 years after the rescue that we collected this information and so here’s what we got in the control cats the number of health problems were about 16% there but one point two years after rescue the hoarded cats of 53 percent of them were shows still showing significant health issues so those health issues that come out with the cats obviously some resolved but a lot don’t now I broke it down here and asked the people of course to tell me what the problems were and those are probably too small to read but everything from allergy to arthritis overweight that’s actually the biggest one among non hoarded cats and then FeLV heart disease lower urinary tract and that’s the control cats this is the Pahrump hoarded cats and what we’ve got of course is upper respiratory ocular disease dental disease oral non dental disease skin disease ear disease overweight interestingly although it wasn’t statistically significant was actually more in the hoarded cats 1.2 years after the rescue GI disease sky-high and miscellaneous so a lot of these were were very very very sky-high compared to normal some of them again statistical significance didn’t didn’t show them to be actually different but lower urinary tract disease much higher in the control cats than than the hoarded cats so this is covergirl and that’s covergirl after a year of being able to be saved as you all know in your shelter situation you don’t all have the facilities to keep every one of these borderline cats but we did and so she came she came through she only lives sadly about a year because of her leukemia virus but you can see she thrived really nicely so that was really great okay so that was the physical harm let’s look at the psychological harm first of all first of all there’s a difference between the psychological and the physical harm to hoarded animals the physical harm happens when they’re at the facility that’s where they are harmed they may carry some of that out with them but that’s where the harm occurs and that’s a little different than the psychological harm where you get harm while in the hoarding environment but also as they come out and I should point out this is actually true for puppy mill dogs too but there’s psychological harm in the move to a new environment too so the harm isn’t only what happens at the facility now the harm while at the hoarding facility comes from a lot of different stressors you know all these probably without me even mentioning overcrowding noise being picked on intimidated by stronger individuals with limited ability to escape competition for resources like food resting and sleeping areas deprivation of human companionship the degree of distress dependent on the socialization history of the animal of course because if they’re born in the environment they’re not socialized to humans then the deprivation of human companionship is not going to be as harm confinement for excessive periods or in extremely restricted space small cages of crates noxious environmental factors filth dampness heat cold hardness extreme boredom for the confined animals and unnatural light cycles excessive darkness or constant light are found

commonly in these hoarding facilities and one other note is that the effects of the emotional distress go over and cross over into the physical where we see immunosuppression decreased or increased susceptibility diseases and impaired healing and slowed recovery from disease and injury so the psychological harm can contribute to the animals physical harm okay so the psychological harm that animals experience after removal from the hoarding environment has two causes one is that the animals unfamiliar and that is not socialized or adapted to the stimuli and events encountered on the outside or in the normal pet environment and the animal experiences psychological harm and suffering as long as that stimuli and the events continue to be perceived as threatening which may or may not diminish over time and by the way this is also true for the puppy mill dogs – and that is that the things that they encounter in their life before getting out are very different than what they encounter when they get out now hoarded animals have some sense of what a house structure is in most cases and and some of the normal things in life but I should have pointed out when I was talking about puppy mill dogs there’s almost nothing in the world that a puppy mill dog coming out has ever seen before in their life other than human beings meaning that the things we take for granted like solid floors ceilings ceiling fans glass clear glass that you can’t walk through they’ve never seen that in their lives so everything is for and that’s why when I read you a Freda story she was scared of everything the ceiling fan the porcelain discs everything they’ve never seen this before it is a tremendous shock horny have a little more sense of some normalcy but the transition is still huge the other thing that can happen is that the behavior that the animal performed naturally in the hoarding environment and and considers normal is not always desired when they come out and so there’s a lot of frustration on the horror on the adopters part of trying to get them to stop doing certain things and those certain things are the obvious like urinating and defecating all over chewing up the furniture or having fights with the other dogs all those things are part of their normal life but it’s not what we want in their life so if you don’t have a good hearted adopter and they start to be punishing and that kind of a thing then they’re just making this poor animal suffer more human contact for horrid animals can vary a lot some do interact with the owners but some are kept indoors in cages and summer housed outdoor like the piranhas vada or backyard dogs and others are stacked cages and barns so when hoardings rescues are made it’s often difficult to know if they’ve ever had physical contact with a human being before because as we know some hoarders claim well they almost all claim to love their animals and some will live in that environment and interact with them so don’t need a whole lot of human interaction to become socialized to humans but the problem is there’s no measure of that when they come out so we don’t know how difficult the adjustment to being with humans is going to be with actually we know more about the puppy mills because they’re more standardized in terms of the minimal human contact the hoarding is the one that’s quite variable in how much the the humans interact major contributor post I already told you inadequate socialization with humans that applies to dogs cats and rabbits rescued animals frequently demonstrate fearful responses to humans even the gentlest handling may cause severe fear and stress may react with withdrawal escape attempts freezing shutting down manic frenzy of escape behavior or aggressive behavior and extreme fare reactions especially when involving aggression as you all know lessen the chances for adoption and increase the chance for euthanasia so behavioral assessments of groups of dogs from the same situation well let’s look at the same dogs we looked at the physical problems and that’s the Winnipeg 64 this is the behavior evaluation I did with them where I looked at friendliness excitability fearfulness calmness submissiveness and aggression and I actually was more focused on those three things friendliness excitability and fearfulness and if you want to or let’s break it down and look at the individual dogs for each trait we’ve got em friendliness we’ve got a range all the way up from as high as Zoroaster with the highest degree of friendliness down

to winter now I should point out this is a difficulty with a assessing friendliness is very often people interpret no low friendliness as unfriendly that’s not the case being low on friendliness just simply means they didn’t express openly friendliness not that they were mean to me when I was doing the tests or anything like that so winter there just simply was very stoic not showing any degree of friendliness whereas Zoroaster was a tail wag II and quite responsive then on the excitability the lowest was Emory there and winter was the one that had the highest excitability in that of course was responsiveness to other sounds and things that were going on in the environment as we were doing the testing and then fearfulness lowest of Emory and the highest of winter so if you put these all together here’s what we’ve got Emory scored the the second highest on friendliness and lowest on the other values that we don’t want to score high whereas at the other end of the spectrum a winter very low on friendliness and unfortunately very high on excitability and fearfulness and the reason I told you to remember Emory is that for reasons I can’t explain Emory had the best psychological health but Emory was the one as I told you had the worst physical health of all the dogs so I don’t know what that means and it may be just a fluke in this situation but found it kind of interesting so the study that we just started with another of collaborative effort myself and Deb Duffy and James circle is a similar study on rescued hoarded dogs and we have very little information back yet this is actually just a summary from the first first few entries into the Survey Monkey site where I asked them what was the situated or your dog encountered when you adopted him and I just put this up here just to show that behavioral emotional psychological problems came out 88% but that’s a very low number of dogs that’s just the first 16 dogs in our study we’re up to about 150 now but I just don’t have the data yet for that here are some comments though rather than have the numbers that I don’t have I picked out some comments to give you some ideas about the dogs in the study and these of course are descriptions of the by the owners of their dogs extremely frightened and everything and everyone frightened to eat even if by herself feral by all counts he was so fearful that he would fall over and scream at anything different in his environment painfully shy eventually became aggressive with fear no socialization emotionally shut down had never been inside a home before all normal living experiences were foreign to her withdrawn from humans and animals afraid of moderate to loud noises refusal to go outside hid under furniture acted like he was constantly in trouble or danger very very scared wouldn’t stop trembling extremely afraid of people no confidence totally a total unfamiliarity with steps toys surroundings extremely frightened would not eat only enough to stay alive she was not social afraid of everything did not know how to walk on a leash when you tried to put a collar or leash on her she’d roll over and played she did not know how to play still is trying to figure it out when we first went to adopt her she was laying in the back of her cage facing the wall looking away from all the people all the other dogs were in the front of the cages barking as if to say picked me not her she wanted no part of the people or the process and then I found a number of ones related like we found with the puppy mill dogs that showed aversion to human touch fearful of human physical contact cannot be touched by human hands hypersensitive to being touched by human hands spins and bites his tail if touched by hands does not like to be handled clipped nails cleaning teeth ear clean so there seemed to be some similarities with certainly with the puppy mill of rescue dogs as we’re seeing in the hoarding dogs here’s prompt looking at the psychological aspects we used a feline sociability test it’s actually called the feline temperament profile but all it tests for is sociability so I just I’m calling it a sociability test this is where you do certain things and see what the animal’s reactions were this is just one that says after approaching the cat getting the cat to approach you extend your hand and check off the cat’s response and I only put this up here just to show how similar the horded and the control cats are there were no statistical significant differences in that particular group there and likewise

move away from the cat drag a piece of string along the floor to initiate play or toss a ball crumpled paper check off the response and this is play which unlike puppy mill dogs that don’t play the hoarded cats seem to respond to the drag string very similarly but here’s where differences showed up sit down and put and place the cat in your lap facing you stroked the cat and check off the cat’s response and look at what happened here the cats that jumped off and this is statistically significant the ones that jumped off were the control cats whereas the ones that didn’t jump off were far more likely to be the hoarding cats and on a similar note here placed the cat on the floor neck to the chair this is the step that comes after putting in the lap put the cat on the floor next to the chair call and beckon with your hands and check off the cat’s response and once again look at this the hoarded cats were the quickest wants to jump up also of course the the ones that least likely to stay on the floor and maintain eye contact but they would jump up at a statistically significant elevated incidence then cat then normal pet cats so I’ll get back to that in just second of responses to unfamiliar people now this is not part of the original profile I added some questions here and I put here then this was on the agree to disagree scale in response to encountering an unfamiliar person my cat approaches the person eagerly and with no hesitation and the number of strongly agree there is as you can see horded cats did it more than the control cats and that actually is statistically significant and then on this question my cat is extremely friendly toward unfamiliar people again the horded cats were more than the non hoarded normal pet cats so we found that hoarded cats are significant at least and I should specify this is the Pahrump Nevada desert ordered cats not every hoarded cat in every situation but the hoarded cats from this particular environment are significantly more friendly and to unfamiliar people than our non hoarded cats now that makes no sense except for this and that is the study by Irene Rock –let’s and her colleagues where they studied the effects of quarantine on cats and their owners when they went to the UK when they had the full quarantine in effect for the rabies quarantine and this is what they found three months after the cats left quarantine they were more affectionate than before quarantine and when they left quarantine and three months later the cats spent more time with their owners than before quarantine so I think there’s some resemblance here these are cats that are quarantined for six months and then are put back with their owners and they actually now show more affection more closeness and and then before the quarantine started so the cats that went through the the time at Pahrump where they left their owners and then were without human contact for any number of months or years may be showing that same effect of increased affection towards people because they do test out to be more affectionate towards unfamiliar people now how about two other cats in response to encountering another cat my cat will my cat approaches the other cat eagerly and with no hesitation horded cats more my cat is extremely friendly toward other cats hoarded cats actually much more so hoarded cats are soon you have significantly more friendly to other cats than our non hoarded cats at least the cats from Peru Nevada behavior problems I compared all these and actually a few more where I had people rate are they seeing this in their cats and these are all statistically non significant so we found that among the behavior problems that I chose to ask about at least there were no significant differences between the hoarded and non hoarded cats and then I asked them on a big list of things your cat might be fearful of to tell me if their cats were fearful or not of those and and also graded how fearful to and this is what we found out of all these the only ones with statistical significance are three these two showed more a fear in hoarded cats and that’s fear of loud noises and the vacuum cleaner but I give I made a last choice for them which was instead of anything specific I put seemingly everything and look at what happened here the ones that were non hoarded the control cats actually scored higher on the fearful of seemingly everything than the hoarded cats I don’t have an explanation for

that and then the last thing is this I just want to know because this kind of thing is kind of informative I asked them has your cat’s behavior demeanor ever caused any visitor to your home to comment on the unusual nature of what they’ve seen now of course that could be good or bad but most of them said no but of the ones that said yes I said what was said and this is a few of the comments that I picked out she doesn’t like people or doesn’t like to be petted that cat is sketchy I think they meant skittish but mostly cat goes under bed when someone comes to house house they come in and on how scared he is asked where is she and extremely timid then we have these knowing your background or not people comment on how friendly she is your cat is too lovable what’s wrong with him and your cat is a furred affection how do I get him to leave me alone she is insanely friendly and acts like a dog she’s so lovable and never stops purring rolling or kneading no one believes that she was once feral and I finished on time so I’m more than happy to OH if you’ve got any contacts with anybody who’s adopted hoarded dogs I just asked you if you could pass along the info on our study because the more dogs we get in our study of course the more accurate the ultimate results