The Connection Between the U.S.Independence and the Hispanic American Independence Movement

from the Library of Congress in Washington DC you just to give you all a flavor of this man’s incredible background and breadth of his career he obtained his law degree summa laude from the Central University of Venezuela and just a few years after being conferred the degree he became a tenured professor of administrative law at his alma mater he served as the director of the Public Law Institute the chair of administrative law and public law departments and since 1980 has actually been the director of the Public Law Journal of Venezuela in 1981 professor Breuer received the National Sciences Prize of Venezuela for his achievements in law he is a member of the Venezuelan National Academy of political and social sciences and served as the president of that Academy from 1997 until 1999 in earlier political times in terms of his home country he was the head of the Presidential Commission on administrative reform was a senator for the federal district and Minister for decentralization and was elected as an independent member of the National Constituent Assembly in 1999 so that is his public service career this man with this incredible achievement has also had a very distinguished career as an academic serving as a visiting professor or professor at a number of universities including Cambridge University in the UK the Universidad Japan in France and the University of Missouri oh and universidad extra na doe in colombia and more recently at the american colombian university law school he has served as the vice president of the international academy of comparative law and is a member of the board of directors of the inter-american Institute of Human Rights the breadth of his writing includes everything from constitutional law an administrative law to urban history and he is published in Spanish English French and Portuguese among other languages the Library of Congress alone holds 174 of his publications and that the conclusion of today’s event I’m actually going to ask you to inscribe the first book we received of yours in the early 1960s professor Brewers talk today will focus on a very topical and interesting area which is the connections between the founding documents of America’s independence and constitution and those of Latin American nations this topic is also timely because we’ll be celebrating the bicentennial of the 1812 publication in London of a book entitled quote interesting official documents relating to the u.s. provident provinces the United Provinces excuse me of Caracas and in addition in 2012 we celebrate the 200th anniversary of the Spanish constitution of Cadiz which was applied in the territories of current American States Arizona California Florida Nevada New Mexico Texas Utah and parts of Colorado Kansas Oklahoma and Wyoming so you see that the breadth of influence of this kind of law on America is often broader than we at first think of in terms of just a few states before bringing Professor brewer to the podium however I must take this opportunity to thank two organizations or entities that have joined us this afternoon in making this event possible and the first is the Washington College of Law Penn’s Law Library and American University and today a Dean post our who’s in our audience a Dean will you give the Queen’s wave thank you is representing pence and the second and unfortunately we do not have a representative due to a sudden but clearly not serious illness this morning but the DC bars international law section also has joined us the law library in sponsoring this event

and making Professor Brewers speech and participation with us today possible we’ll start the afternoon with a formal presentation followed by questions and answers and then if you’ll please join us for more informal conversation in the in the area just outside the Mumford room we would be delighted to continue the conversation for as long as you would like this afternoon so without further ado it is truly an honor to ask professor brewer to come to the podium thank you very much dear Miss Schaefer and perhaps if you move it will be nice to see you thank you so much for your presentation I am the one who is really honored is myself to be here in this Law Library of Congress and in the law library of congress that we have to recognize his deity the world the world repository of mind kind written production that is here in this building I thank you for opening the law library to this important topic and discussion related to the independence of America and when I say America is not only North America but also Spanish America particularly in this year of the bicentennial of the independence of South America and of course sign thanks to you again for inviting me also to Dante Figueroa who managed to think and organize some of these event invited me to participate as I mentioned in the in this discussion and this link that we have between history independence political events and constitutional law of all Latin American countries when as well I was the first to declare its independence from Spain in 1811 200 years ago subsequently establish a new federal state the first of its kind after the one stablish three decades before here in the United States it was established by uniting seven of the ninth former Spanish colonial provinces forming the general captaincy of Venezuela this general captaincy was a division commonly used in colonial times for the organization of the less important provinces outside the jurisdictions of the big vice royalties in which were included on the contrary the rich and more important provinces so Latin American Revolution spread not in the opulent cup capitals of the of device by royalties but in these poor and marginal provinces particularly the one called province of Caracas the capital of the captaincy the revolution started with a civic in Ciroc insurrection or a good day time as we will call it today against the colonial authorities that took place the 19 April 18 to 10 when the Municipal Council or the adult amento of Caracas depose the governor and general captain of the province and stablish a new autonomous government da UN Tammy ento transformed itself incorporating new members representative of the people into the Hunta in which it was transformed the board or hunters it was called at the time we call a hunter for the Conservancy of the rights of

1397 who at the time was the king of pain and was as we know kidnapped by Napoleon that winter was formally organized two months later in June 1810 following the general patterns of similar hunters that since 1808 had been established in Spain during the war of independence against the French invasion independence Ola but in the case of Venezuela contrary to the Spanish model these hunters were established with additional inspirations in the republican principles based on the service sovereignty of the people and political representation derived from the North American and French Revolution occurred just a few the case before the first acts was assumed by the Caracas hunter was to promote the revolution among the other provinces of America asking the respective municipal authorities to follow the same process or the example given by characters as one of the phrase of the or national anthem says the immediate success of the spreading of the Revolution ideas provoked the design of a second task by that ball or hunt of Caracas which was to establish a well constituted central power by uniting the provinces for such purpose the Hunter approved at the same the same year in June 1810 a general regulation for the popular election of Representative to the Thai general Congress from all the provinces such regulation the first electoral status of Hispanic America even before the odd a few months after sorry of the same regulation adopted in Spain in order to elect the representatives to the Cortes of Calais that approved the 1812 Constitution the result was that the representative of the seven of these nine provinces were elected during the months of 1810 and once the Congress was installed in March 18 11 between July and December of 8:11 the that Congress sanction it first on 1st July 18 11 a very comprehensive bill of right all in that case declaration of the right of the people not of the citizens and men like France but of the right of the people and this is a direct influence of the wording of the United States the content was French but the sense was American of that first Bill of Rights second the 5th of July 1811 the Congress declared the formal declaration of the independence of the provinces from Spain following for that declaration the patents of the North American Declaration of Independence and third on December 21st 1811 design the Congress and the Federal Constitution of the United Provinces of Venezuela also influenced by the North American and French modern constitutional principles this being a very comprehensive constitutional text of 228 articles that since then in one way or another have influences all the Constitution of Venezuela also the provinces declared themselves as sovereign states having each also adopted their own provincial constitution or form of government under the same principle of modern constitutionalism with all these events after the political and constitutional revolution that a few decades before had taken place in North America and France this was the first time in that a Republican Republican constitutional process of this kind had occurred in modern history a process that occurred even before dissension sanctioning of the constitution of the Spanish monarchy of Cadiz of March 1812 that also followed the general principles of modern constitutional is the most important written testimony of that Venezuelan 1811 constitutional process was a book a real master

masterpiece edition reflecting the independent process by containing all a collection of all the most important official constitutional documents and other political papers produced during such year 1811 a book published in 1812 this is the original copy of the 1812 book I have found that the library has a copy also it’s a very rare book because there’s not common to have it in libraries I have saw also that this edition is slight better than the one in the library is more complete but it is important to have it this book was not published in Caracas it was published in London and more important it was published in a bilingual Spanish English edition titled interesting official documents relating to the United Provinces of Venezuela it is an extraordinary book in a very beautiful edition intended to explain in English and Spanish when the facts were occurring the reasons and motives of the political action that has taken place in Caracas for the independence of Venezuela that had initiated the independence of all Spanish America the book has no authorship being basically a collection of documents official document us why the name written and approved by the representative of the people to secure the constitutional foundation of the new state it was preceded by a preliminary remarks without on outer authorship and also contained in addition of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence a manifest made to the world by the Confederation of Venezuela in South America dated thirty of July 18 eleven explaining in that manifest the reasons on which she has founded her absolute independence of Spain and every other foreign power whatsoever these documents all dated between the first of July and the 21st of December 18 eleven were sent by the new government to London in the first month of 1812 and in a very expeditious way without internet and without jet just transportation by sea they were translated edited and published in this bilingual edition in in London just a few months later but life’s not always follows the path designed by men and books do not always get out of print or of the printing press as planet by authors and editors in this case these marvels book conceived as the written explanation of the independent process of Venezuela due to the political events that occur in the new state while the book was in the process of being edited and printed resulted in a tragic sort of post mortem official publication beginning to be available only in London only when the newly born Republic has already crumbled and was disappearing as a consequence of a military invasion of the provinces made by the Spanish army as a reaction it was the first big reaction against the independence the beginning of the independence of any provision in Venezuela this only happens in the case of Venezuela no other country received a huge expedition of invasion like the one we had in 1818 12 presses precisely when the book was published so it can be said that the book only began to circulate after the signing of the capitulation between Francisco Miranda the head of

the Patriot Army and the commander of the Spanish army Domingo mentality which capitulation which put an end to that first Republic and this was signed in July 25th 1812 no mention is made in the book about this fact so we have to suppose that the book appear before without mentioning Miranda by that time was by far the most important person in the world related to Spanish American independent process he was identified by William Spencer Robinson his most important biographer us and I called Pross precursor night heron and promoter of spanish-american Liberty he was the first cultured South American to take a tool of either the United States or Europe his life has a unique interest because he was the only person of his time to participate in the struggle for the independence of the 13 colonies here in the state the French Revolution where he was marshal head of the army of the north and the world of liberation of South America so it was a unique individual his seal in the process of Venezuelan independence is of course indelible even imprinted in the process of publication of this London book although Miranda was in Caracas from December 18 10 until to light until 12 when he was imprisoned precisely during the process of writing of the documents containing the book and during the editing process of the book the publication of this book in London was only possible due to the solid and tight set of political and editorial relations and contacts that he has established during his years of residence in London particularly since 1799 until the 1810 when he went back to Caracas all the interesting documents contained in the London define the constitutional framework of a new state and those documents were conceived and written by a formidable team of Venezuelan lawyers who at that time in addition of being fluent in English and French and with access to all the books that managed to get int it into the provinces were the principal actors personally participating in the process of Independence in a very active ways since the beginning in April 1918 ten among them it must be mentioned Hwang Hermann Rocio an experienced colored Pardo he worked for : that time attorney and tourist who was one of the representative of the people that was called to be incorporated in the hunt of April 1810 he quickly became secretary of state of the new hunter and editor of The Gazette of Caracas the first journal service in the country he was the government Jordan but of course the main source of information of the country from those position he maintained close relations with Andres value who was the first editor of The Gazette are the Caracas and worked with him in the Department of Foreign Affairs until where he was sent to London in 1810 as his secretary of the commissioners sent by the hunt of Caracas to seek for the support of the British government various we all know was a prolific writer he began to write really almost being sixties so it’s incredible to to see how people can write at any moment and he has been considered the most prominent intellectual or the first humanist in Spanish America who never went back to Caracas and developed his main activities in Chile where he

settled decades after the commissioners all those were Simon Bolivar who went was vo and with low payments and believers we know the liberator of Venezuela Colombia Ecuador Peru unbelieva Rosa Rosa was a very close friend of value not only supervised to him the addition of this interesting efficient document but he himself was perhaps the main code drafters of the documents contained in the book that means the Declaration of Independence the manifest to the world and the constitution of 1811 and even he was the writer of the regulation on the election of the Congress the other Co drafters of this interesting document that means the official papers produced for the Congress were Francisco Xavier stories Francisco is nerdy and Miguel Jose signs all active members of the general Congress in Caracas and all of them considered by Monteverde Spanish and invasor in 1812 after the capitulation signed by Miranda as the monsters of America they were called adapt responsibles of all the evils of the former colonies they were captured by Monteverde after the capitulation Miranda and Rocio were sent to Cadiz Miranda resulted to be the most prominent victim of betrayal by his own people and subordinates particularly by Simon Bolivar Manuel Mariela Casas a Miguel Pina that were the head of the commanding of the commanding group in the port of La Guaira after such a rent as we know Bolivar obtain a passport from Monteverde and managed to escape possible and future persecution and went to Cartagena of all Miranda the precursor this extraordinary individual resulted to be the most prominent victim of the new rule of conquest imposed by the new spanish conqueror in the provinces precisely at the same time that the london book this precious book has been available in london as a testimony of something that was already almost matter of the past miranda never got to see the book after being detained in Puerto Cabello and later in San Felipe a more oppression in Puerto Rico he died in Cadiz in 1812 16 without even being subject to any sort of track Rosso rocío managed to escape from Calais in 1815 and came immediately to the state and he published in Philadelphia a very important book called el triunfo de la libertad fot the completest de Triomphe of freedom of our despot ease in the confession of a repentant sinner from his political mistakes and dedicated to make amendment in this part of the offended religion with the system of stearin ii this is the complete title in spanish is the book published in philadelphia in 1870 so this system of tyranny edward by rosa was no other than the one developed by Spain after the independence of Venezuela in order to achieve the pacification of those provinces purpose the Hunta Suprema that was established in spain government governing Spain and later the Council of Regency that substituted the hunter supreme’ in Spain reacted in a very aggressively way against independence process assigning the pacification of the provinces to a military task located in Puerto Rico where the Spanish commander Monteverde sail to Venezuela arriving in the in February of 1812 one month later Monteverde Monteverde abandoned in the interior of the country and a terrible earthquake to place the

earthquakes of 26 March 1812 that literally devastated the province producing also a devastating effect in the institution of the new state the result of this physical and institutional destruction of the provinces originated the terrible political and social crisis that later conducted to the whole destruction of the Republic with the Republic or than eliminated and after the capitulation sign by Monteverde and Miranda the Federal Constitution of 1811 a marvel text was substituted by the military rule of conquest with this name used by Monteverde not by the constitution of Calais that was already approved it was not applied in the provinces but by the rule of conquest which produce among other things the destruction of everything and including the historical memory of the Republic the archives of the provinces were sucked provoking the disappearances of the original manuscript of the whole text of documents that were at that moment being editing in London and the documents in a certain way were precisely saved because they were included in the London book so the book the documents constitutional documents were published at the same time that they were disappearing the originals in character in the particular case of the original manuscript of the Declaration of Independence of 8th of July 5th 1811 after the Spanish invasion of 1812 they remain disappear for almost a hundred years to the point that in 1903 George in the time of the preparation for the centenary of the independence the Venezuelan government in the absence of the original manuscript text officially declared that the only real and authentic copy of the Declaration of Independence was precisely the one published in the London book that’s why the historical importance of this particular book for such purpose the Academy of the history gave a formal very substantive opinion which was followed by a decree of the government establishing that this were the authentic document of the Declaration of independent order in then the publication of this book only a copy was in Venezuela and has remained only a copy in the library of Venezuela and the texts were were published but only the Spanish texts so the English States has never been republished except here and it was only four years after that date eighteen three in eighteen seven and after the decision official decision of the country that the lost manuscript of the original in the Declaration of Independence and all the manuscript published in the book were casually discovered in the big in two big binding volumes containing all the minutes minutes of the session of the Congress as I mentioned they were found by chance chance as almost all discoveries occur in the city of Valencia not in Caracas that’s why they were saved because the capital city was transferred for the centralization process from Caracas to balance in that city those two big volumes containing such precious document had to remain for a century in private hands nobody knows

the content they were used up on a piano bench in order for small boys to hire to play the piano in any case the documents published two hundred years ago in this very important London book were and still are the most important documents ever published in English regarding the process of independent of Spanish America you won’t find any other book containing not only a constitution we have some examples of texts with constitutions but in addition to the Constitution the Declaration of Independence the Bill of Rights are Manifest manifesto to inform the world on the kosis of in the Cosa zone of in the independence but the importance of the book in addition to its editorial option down is that the documents containing it are the most conspicuous evidence of the effective impact of the modern principle of constitutionalism derived from the American Revolution and also the French produce in the Constitution making process of Venezuela and of Hispanic American America in 1811 for the first time in history they were conjunct Lee applied Venezuela was the experimental field of this principle to be applied in this document according to those principles two hundred years ago a new constitutional state was created in Venezuela following the general trends of the constitutional process of the United States we had a general Congress integrated by elected representative of the United Provinces of the former General Capitan C which declared not only the independence but also science unit a Federal Constitution of the United State of Venezuela B in Venezuela the first country in modern constitutional history to adopt the federal form of state that was an invention of the American Constitution Venezuela was also after the United State the first country to follow all the general principles of badr Constitution lives constitutionalist in its constitution namely constitutional supremacy sovereignty of the people political representation and republicanism declaration of fundamental rights for Bill of right organization of the state according to the principle of separation of power with a system of check and balance and the superiority of the law as an expression of the general will following different trends the establishment of a presidential system of government an elected representative to a Senate and a chamber of Representatives the organization within a Federation of a complete local government and the provision of judicial powers integrated by judges impart in justice in the name of the nation with even with judicial review powers in 1811 declaring in the text of the Constitution what only eight years before in the decision mud will marberry versus madison was written that loss contrary quantity to the Constitution are null and void and this is not the result of an interpretation but the text of that same 1811 Constitution the main question related to this inspiration of course refer to the way to which all those ideas and principles of the American Revolution managed to enter into the provinces and pass to the strict Spanish colonial control of the Inquisition tribunal and how come those idea managed to enter and to influence the elite of the country and be used and be invited in documents such as these constitutional documents that we can find in this book the fact is that during the Spanish colonial time as it happens nowadays in any authoritarian system of government books as well as pen and pencils are considered dangerous weapons and could not spread freely through the provinces this was and is particularly true about books related to ideas such as liberty freedom rights of the people political representation and people’s sovereignty

separation of power of control of political power at the beginning of the nineteenth century those books were considered very dangerous and forbidden in hispanic america and their introduction trafficking and possession were persecuted by the inquisition tribunal both us always happened with books and in spite of prohibition they managed to be available available us was also the casein in such time despite the inquisition despite the prohibition but also with the consequences of the clandestine diffusion that were persecution and punishment this was the case for instance of books and pamphlet related to the french revolution and to the french Declaration of Rights of Man and citizen they were formally prohibited by the Inquisition tribunal of Cartagena de Indias as well as D Viceroy of Perumal pannier Santa Fe by the present of the audience II of Quito does he why despite the prohibition and having spread to the provinces of Venezuela at the end of the 18th century the general captain informed the crown about the fact that I read principles of liberty and independence so dangerous to to the sovereignty of Spain are beginning to brew in the head of the American this was written in 1787 the text of differential declaration was even published in clandestine ways in our colonies as was the case of the translation made by Antonio Moreno in Santa Fe de volta in 1792 that was a grave crime to the point that in 1794 it originated a very famous judicial process in which the Inquisition tribunal condemned Moreno to ten years in prison in addition to the complication of all his property his perpetual expulsion from the Americas and the burning by the hand of the executioner of the book containing the right of man that he has translated and polish in those same days the secretary of the royal supreme council of cartagena also directed the note to the captain General of Venezuela in 1993 asking him to be aware of the intention of the French government and some French revolutionaries as well as some promoters of Subarus subversion in the Spanish domains in the new world that it was says send their books and document damaging the purity of the religion the public peace and the use of Orden a turn of the colonies but it was a casual fact that occurred in Spain in 1796 which would be the one that was going to have the most important impact independent process of the provinces of Venezuela a conspiracy called the conspiracy of some blasts was supposed to take place in Madrid that same year in order to establish a republic instead of the monarchy in the sense of difference revolution the conspiration failed it frequently happens also that they fail but the conspirators by Cornell de comedia and Cortez a camper marry after being condemned to death penalty they were because of the intervention of the French agent the signed a sentence was commuted for life imprisonment but life in prison in D unweld unhealthy dungeons of Puerto Rico of Puerto Cabello Porto Bello and Panama and they were sent to the Caribbean for that purpose but transitory ly the ship stopped in the wider the main port of penance rail in the way to these prisons there deconsecrated managed to escape the following year in 1797 and began to get in touch with local conspirator elite of

the port encouraging the conspiracy headed by two very well-known historically manual well and Jose Maria spaniel considered to be that conspiration call of Wally spaniel the most serious liberation intent of Hispanic America before the Miranda’s invasion in 18-6 the conspiracy also failed in this case but the product resulting from the intent was a group of papers with an enormous importance in the constitutional process among them a book titled the rage of the hombre del Sur on right of man and citizen and a few words republican words and preliminary this speech to the Americans the book with the imprint of Guadalupe was for sure published in the wider and it was of course subsequently prohibited formally by the well LD Anjali was the high tribunal of Caracas in 1797 the tribunal considered that it had all the intention of corrupting the habit and the making and enough making hateful to roll the the royal name of his mercy and of his just government that for the purpose of corrupting the abbot its altar follow the rules of conduct covered by multitude of vices disfigure 18 a few humanitarian appearance in verses refer to the work of Mia P Cornell ago media the Spanish Skippy that was the translator of the French text after this conspiration of Walia spanner and despite its failure a fierce persecution follow against against those participating in that event but this was considered the direct antecedent of the Venezuelan independence before the disembarkment of Francisco Miranda in 1806 that is why as mentioned Miranda on his side has been considered the precursor of Independence his ideas materialized in the libertarian proclamation he wrote and published precisely in the printing press he bought in New York in eighteen six and took into his ship blender in 86 proposing the independence and the formation of a free municipal council Federation based on the North American principles and it was this first printing press that arrived to the coast of Venezuela in the end the first printed press to be entered into the provinces because not being a capital of a Viceroyalty there were no printing press in Venezuela until eighteen eight this precisely printing press that was took by Miranda in his expedition and after he failed he sold the press to the editor of the Trinidad weekly current and was using Trinidad and then two years later was brought by the colonial administration in Venezuela and then beta began to be the director of the casita de Caracas and also in that printing press in 1980 the first book police in Venezuela was precisely a book of pay oh and this value name resuming the leg story of Venezuela it was the first modern history of the country public in that press but there are not only printing press was introduced late in 1808 but the introduction was subject to censure being still in the colonial

times the and this was recorded in the opening remarks of the London book in which reference are made to the public print branded with danger and reprobation and in general to the fact that the colonial provinces says this book under the most severe severe treatment of punishment a political Inquisition with all his horrors was established against those who should read process or receive other papers not only foreign but even Spanish that were not produced by the Regency the Council of ridges nontheless and despite the prohibition the French and American revolutionaries ideas extensively spread in Latin America thanks to some books that were introduced in a clandestine way whose content is the only explanation that the basic principles that influences the constitution-making process of 11 of 1810 and 1811 included in these documents published in the London book were related to the North American principles of Liberty the ideas resulting from these two revolution the American and the French two books and the introduction in Venezuela in any case were not due to the work of North American citizens but to the work of a group of Venezuelan citizens residing here in the state in Philadelphia who translated and polish american texts or who serve as links for the publication in venezuela the first book that has to be mentioned is one policy in philadelphia by a venezuelan named joseph Manuel Villavicencio a native of characters containing the Spanish version of the Constitution of the United States perhaps the first Spanish translation of the Constitution of the United States published as I mentioned in Fedele Philadelphia and this book was widely distributed in Spanish America this despise the ban imposed by the Inquisition was republished in Bogota and even it was ripped it was published in Cadiz when the constitution of Cadiz was in the process of being sanctioned a second book to be mentioned all those books or some of them are in this play a second book also published in Philadelphia a very very important one contain the translation of the most important work of Thomas Paine among them commonsense his dissertation on the principle of government the first translation of pain were those contained in that book and also in that book you can find the translation into Spanish of the Declaration of Independence of the 4th July articles of the Confederation the text of the Constitution of the Constitution of the United States and the amendment did the first twelve amendment and also in Spanish the text of the constitution of Massachusetts New Year’s Eve Virginia Pennsylvania and Connecticut it was a work of another Venezuelan Manuel Garcia the sinner and was polish the title in Spanish was the independency independencia la costa Federman whose difficult or thomas paine train tunnels are the independence of the main line as justified by Thomas Paine thirty years ago in 1811 therefore these books published in Philadelphia in Spanish were conceived as instruments in order to explain to South American demeaning and scope of the American Revolution and its constitutional foundation he being used for the writing of several of these interesting documents published in our London book they are directly influenced by the American wording and ideas but is why among the first action of monteverde the Spanish invasion in 1812 in Caracas was too ordered precisely the sexual seizure of all copies of this very

dangerous translation of the American works of pain and the text of the Constitution the fact is that despite all the prohibition and persecution all those papers hadn’t in fact an important impact in demand in Venezuela and generally in Latin America so at the time of the independence they were passing from hand to hand and even part of those works even of pain were published in The Gazette I characters which since 1812 resulted to be the most important source of information about the North North American system and particularly about the functioning of the federal government on the other hand and most important from 1810 10 until March 1812 a series of editorials and articles were regularly published in The Gazette on Caracas related to the functioning of the North American system constitutional system and precisely during the months of the constitution-making process in Venezuela and during the month months this documents were in the process of being writing almost all those articles and editorials were published under the name of a certain William book and now comes another aspect of the process William Burke who at that time eighteen twelve eighteen telepathy twelve had already out read during the previous year precisely between 1860 and 1883 books published in London two of them directly related to South American independence highlighting the role of Francisco Miranda and the role he needed to play in the process of Independence one of the in torreón and researchers who has most studied this personage William Burke and his relation with Miranda Mario Rodriguez says the following in his book about Duke and Miranda he says the first Venezuelan Republic per half perhaps more than any other Spanish American country had within its reach unquestionably more information on the United State model than others in South America thanks to the presence of William Burke Rodriguez concluded his assertion affirming that many of Burke’s ideas were reflected in the Constitution the Federal Constitution in 1811 his article in The Gazette I Caracas being the most important source of reflecting the influence of the North American continent principles in the new Venezuelan Republic but who was this very distinguished and prolific writer with a unique and straw ordinary encyclopedic knowledge who eventually was only know through his writings if you check in all the libraries of the world also in this one you will find William Burke 1805 1810 that’s all you can find about William Booth the dates refer to the books he publish 18 5 1810 there is an error in that reference because no mention is made to his last book published in Spanish in Caracas in 1812 I brought with me all the copies of works books over there anyway they who was this leopard and personage there are no exact answer to this question his existing is existence being nowadays matter of conjecture only one thing is absolutely certain about this extraordinary writer between 1860 and 1810 he offered books and articles published in England even in the Edinburgh review a very famous at that time precisely while Miranda was in London after Miranda travelled to Venezuela in 1810 up to 8 1812 pork supposedly also went to Caracas and all three articles and books but this time

in Spanish not in English and published exclusively in The Gazette our characters after the imprisonment of Miranda and ratio and Russia in 1812 or William Burke disappear vanish all these are without doubt element of suspicion nonetheless if you go to the Venezuelan historiography explained that William Burks arrived in Caracas supposedly in 1810 together with Miranda remaining in Venezuela until the 30 of July of 1812 that is up to the final day and the battle that occurred that night in the Whydah when Miranda was impression this William Berg has been identified always as an Englishman and initially in the first book talks in London as an late armed army surgeon and this was the first book on the campaign of the history of the campaign of 1805 in Germany Italy until a military book about the campaign of the European armies you can start Napali that was the first one there he was referred as a surgeon late army surgeon his second book south american independence or the emancipation of south america the glory and interests of England a completely different subject published in 1806 links the name with the previous one as it was used to be made at that those time by William Burke the author of the campaign of 1805 this William book as a real person didn’t exist is my conclusion you can find one William book 30 years before who wrote together with a cousin Edmund book that Dante knows very well he has written about a lot of Edmund Burke who wrote about the French Revolution and two cautions cousins they wrote a very well-known on the account of the European settlements in America North America and there is another book that died in 1829 very famous but not for books but for other matters he was a criminal he used to his supporters Tom’s and he was condemned Hank and his body was the object of a very famous autopsy before 2,000 students in Edinburgh and his skeleton exist in the Museum of Edinburgh so nothing to do with our book following the second book the third book book that was published by a book was one called additional reasons for our immediate emancipate in South America deducted from the new and extraordinary circumstance of the present crisis containing information regarding two important event this is the title both of when Osiris and characters and as well as with respect to the present disposition and views of the Spanish American being intended to supplement the South America independent is what the following year eighteen seven by William book author of that book so the link continued between the books this book related to two events the failed attempt of Miranda to invade Venezuela in eighteen six and the failed invasion of the general white john white Locke the commander-in-chief of the British forces in Rio de la Plata in Buenos Aires also

failed and the the book was a resonant about the need to emancipate South America but without the invasion by British forces but through when to to the South American encouraging the support of Milan so it was this the third book was really a book saying Miranda is demand to go to Latin America to Spanish America and the British mouse support minute so this William Burke then went to Venezuela in a ten of course in the luggage of Madonna and particularly in the very very fresh previous archives of Piran very famous archives of Miranda he do during his years he recollected all over the world in for the world information about everything but now computers do he managed to have it in his archive forty trunks of document he take those document to an Israeli and mainly papers written by two very close friends in London Jones mill and Jeremy Benton the Philosopher’s and the books works were in fact works of mills and Bentham and Miranda and Rocio and all those who could publish using a name the courier sing and I must finish of this very very interesting history is that mill and archives went to Venezuela in when he went to Caracas in October 1810 in one ship named the Sapphire with his aides and his secretary the looks was called a French young man he knew and met in the libraries of London he spent with all his two main aides the years and a half in Caracas and the night of the thirty of July of 1812 when he was in prison he managed to order previously to his secretary LaHood’s to put the his archives in a British ship the first British ship it was precisely the same safar who was there so the archives managed to get out from Venezuela in that same ship and the the couriers aspect is that in the information the capital of the ship gave in Casa were the ship arrived from La Guaira the names of the passengers is possible to find one who came lieutenant book and one William board this is a fact it is in the document it was really a real person book work I insist in believing that no it was a name used for publishing books or publishing works and also book word use in order to allow people to live that night lovara under the name of pork because it was a prohibition to live after the imprisonment of Miranda no foreigner could live but except British and that’s why names of books appeared in that ship the loops for sure one was one of those book because he was the secretary of Miranda he could not go just by under his name so that name was for sure one of the loops the final aspect is that the papers of Miranda D archive shows millon de also disappeared when they arrived to cross out the remainder they were sent eventually in 1816 to England they were sent to him to the Secretary of War and colonies it remains in his office up to his retirement in 1830 and

as it was just useful use it was common in those time they were considered after 15 years personal property and he took all the archives of banana who – to his castle and they remainder very well kept the remainder until 1922 for one century where they were discovered precisely by the via biographer of Miranda Robertson who heard about the possibility and he went and recognized so we have then this situation of relation between the independence of North America and independence of South America through books not only published in the United States but this extraordinary way of books published in London and publishing characters by people who came from London but applying the ideas of North America and through them the North American principles developed in our country so we are we have now this extraordinary testimony of those original documents of a constitutional value of incredible because all the principles that are established 200 years ago are the same principles that we must in the future try to develop in our country again in any time thank you so much again for your attention thank you so much professor brewer for telling us about ideas and even perhaps people live in books that it always is important to look at other jurisdictions and how they’ve addressed problems to be able to address the issues of older times and even of modern times and thank you for acknowledging that libraries are the stewards of knowledge and continue to have that function and then finally for giving us that wonderful concept that books are in indeed WMDs weapons of mass democracy so thank you so much for all of those and we are all now challenged to find out who in fact or whose nom de plume William Burke really was as you suggest today in your talk or were there others who might have used that name as well as a kind of secret code for communication at this very interesting time in history I think what I will do is I’ll adjourn our meeting and I’ll ask all of you to meet with Professor brewer just outside and ask questions there we’re a small enough group I think that’s the positive aspect of it that we can still continue to have a nice intimate conversation and have coffee in some and dessert or whatever while we’re doing that so please join professor brewer outside of this room and thank you again for a fascinating story this has been a presentation of the Library of Congress visit us at