Soundscape Ecology: the new frontier in ecology – by Almo Farina – 10.06.14

first of all I’m really happy to be here and to present some idea about with landscape ecology but I will try to to speak slowly in my perfect Italian accent okay well what happened yeah okay I have approximately 40 minutes so I will try to stay and respect the time in order to to have question laughter first of all I have to declare that the soundscape concept is not coming from ecology but from human contests there is the Canadian school of soundscape ecology unfortunately such people has used the term acoustic ecology very appropriate at the time still inappropriate but nevertheless this is the story there are different project around the world since 16 16 by Schaffer for instance capturing the information in human area in remote villages so we suppose a project of anthropology like so the difference is between this way to interpret the sound and the ecological way to interpret of a sound is quite different but first of all I will try to introduce you very simple concepts about the sound you see here a fringe Ilitch alumns nothing happened no so what happened okay sorry it depends my me now is working very well before and now it doesn’t work this is spectra of the it doesn’t work okay okay wonderful too much too strong anyway you saw you know that sound is a big blessing the traveller crew hair or another medium at speed from free under 30 one meter per second in year and more in water is very depends the sound is represented at listening to way according apk envelop are and according a general or common spectrogram okay this is a general spectrogram in which you can see the amplitude of the sound here you have a frequencies and this is the peak envelop that describe the sound in the totality okay these are our tools but moving into details we are dealing with the acoustic information for an ecologist sound represent information and the information is represented as the changes in the status along a frequency along the time and the for instance you you can appreciate here a very complex situation this is high informative point here is very low informative point these are the patterns that we use to measuring the sound information of acoustic information in the field the patterns of the Sun is very different according to the species this

is a chicken us companion parrot Oriya from Borneo you can appreciate you on the spectrogram the complexity of harmonics that are repeated regularly and created this such incredible sound and this incredible Sun can be analyzed according a complex relatively complex index I don’t enter into details now but you can see here the distribution of the sound along the time and here the distribution of the sound according the frequencies I put another represent another example always from the Borneo this is helmet of helmet hornbill okay you see very regular but regular sound very simple in the low frequencies low frequency high frequency along the time some seconds but the Sun the sign the acoustic sign is increasing the fret the the relative frequency until finish with very accelerating way okay hey this is natural and this again the representation along the time the numerical representation and along the time along the frequencies but entering more into details you know we know that animals are singing all together and in order to avoid an overlap try to subdivide to partition in the acoustic space in specific areas we call such the acoustic niche hypothesis some species use the same the species that uses the same frequencies try to don’t overlap you can see different signs are different species that are divided according the frequency and this is the cartoon representation I mean that species a and species B are singing the same frequencies in order to don’t overlap each other they are singing at different time but contemporary species a species C species D can sing together because they don’t overlap according to the frequencies this is an interesting story we can see the high complexity of the sound in nature by elaborating the data that you have seen before and these are 2 3 3 D spectrogram from Borneo area in which you have a frequency beings and you have the time you can see this landscape learning like mountains like folds valley peaks edges etc are or is rate is related island that is a single species that is singing here to avoid to overlap with the others so just an example of course but coming back to more and the general idea of what means sound for for people you remember that rocket Carson present asylum in Silent Spring a very important book about the use of a pesticides that reduce the biodiversity denounce hurt degradation using sound or recently burning Krauss a an important record is worldwide record is celebrated biodiversity magnificence using sound and of course in this cartoon we can say that we are escalated we are competing the earth bit and this is an idea from Stuart gage a colleague from Michigan State University and some are really powerful proxies to escalate our world and to explore the relationship between people and nature is an extraordinary tool that is very under use until now has been used and the use until now but

we have to to explain that often people believe or confirmed confuse noise with sound what is noise noise is a simple and unwanted sound noise noise is noise is noise I’m speaking and I produced noise and he stood by you with this this is noise no he’s a sound this is a sound but people believe is noise in such in some conditions well oops noise people is producing noise yes unwanted unwanted sound and this is a take off a jet this is 120 decibel is a way to measure in sound and you can image how many you know how many do you know how many planes are contemporary taking in landing every day in every part of the world amazing we are moving everywhere low cost etc know so many men so this noise what is the hand of this noise over this energy is trash it is answered by by by who by people by trees by rocks and we receive an enormous amount of energy that can be must be dissolved and moving again in a city it’s normal and there are birds that asset or try to move away from these noises and there is a very interesting story because of some species like nest predators Corvinus etc try to avoid noise a some birds have advantages so we’ll have some birds in very noisy city because there are no predators and they are more resilient to noise but moving in more isolated area of the world like in Alaska like in Alaska you have such type of snowmobile I know I don’t know this just beginning it’s incredible noise and this produced problems to help moose they increase the stress of these animals large animals and can be measured so we have a big problem of human sonic intrusion in protected areas but we have also marine system that that are affected by noise and want and so on some sounds they this imager popular if the distribution of ship movements across around the world and the effect of ship noise is dramatic specifically on large finish and words you know that a simple in advertisement advertisement off of a ship okay this sound is on the hair but the diesel engine produce noise in the in the deep deep waters and you know that sound in water move faster five times that over here so there is a real sound pollution in the sea this is a major problem for all this group of animals so now a little of theory and epistemic information for you you know that existed landscape ecology exist the ecological acoustic by acoustics and now we have a soundscape ecology I try to focusing on the soundscape ecology that is strictly related with the landscape ecology and there are important component of a soundscape ecology that can be connected with the landscape but before I have to define

what is a soundscape the sounds can be defined as all songs producing a landscape and that represent the sonic environment for animal humans too so if you see the this image you have a caballo plane human voice bird wind waves etc so the soundscape is the results of processes strongly affected by structure a dynamic dynamics of Geographic landscape key channels get all people that we are we we wrote some years ago everywhere every location habitat territory etc ecosystem the landscape have a specific peculiar soundscape also in this room there is a peculiar soundscape in this moment is my voice your silence it’s exactly if I stay silent we can understand the the sound outside otherwise my voice is perceived by you differently according your position in this room so we have at least three type of sources of sound sources Giovanni by orphanage a anthrophony that I call techno furnace so Javanese the production of the wind waterfall etcetera by ofany is the voice of animals human true and tropical your techno phone is the noise verse also some to use by technical devices car airplanes etc set so some example for you this is the melting the melting the melting Heights the sound of a melting highs hair air bubbles of the smelting eyes so in the Arctic you have such a type of noise close the cost is it very important for animals but moving very more trivial area like maybe oops an area this is the noise of wind you see that this information for a soundscape ecologist is absolutely important because he is covering the voice of animals by moving in in the more rural and Yuma oriented area this is the sound of birds from this tower is exactly this tower is not an artifact this is sound from the rucola castle close to my to my home which I have here a recording system to collect information about the Swift’s Apple suppose that is breathing in these holes so this is not an artifact from Internet okay and this is another another noise this is a bee bee that is passing through okay my tummy’s people in Postum last year during a coffee break in a small room with 100 more 100 people there they sound not in image so Germany boys your voice too – and now Madagascar Chiklis and here other animal hahahahaha or other you know the disease chickadees

discovering are covering completely the spectrogram is natural noise okay for people maybe natural noise and we have also other example here we are in doesn’t work yes our fish what rough thisis incredible other fishes this is the top and finally you expect that the Sun is music down chorus of birds to this marula blackbird or robin maybe so the soundscape ecology is an efficient efficient tool for describing complex phenomena at community echo system and landscape scale with the natural and human dominated system so the advancement of such field of research is well documented in this last year thanks to publication books etc Center and we have publication in paper like bioscience landscape ecology ecology informatics by acoustic June of American Society of acoustic science finally science so it’s very popular is it’s coming very popular and we have results of the last Paris meeting just in June and I am here in the same definitely a hammer boss of this now yes so I organized with Jerome swear Jerome’s were here the the meeting other collaborators are here from from Australia from Spain from Italy except from USA and finally in the next year in Portland Stewart gage and I we organized a new meeting connecting the soundscape to the landscape so coming back on the relationship between between landscape ecology and soundscape ecology and you can see this is a typical Italian landscape mountain landscape with edges open fields woodlands and this is German landscape from internet and sorry I don’t know well it’s part of Germany well you know and here there are landscape ecologist that landscape the geographical landscape is characterized by shape and size of objects age complexity spatial distribution patch diversity these are some of the year that are in the landscape ecology so I will try to connect these two approaches what is the relationship between landscape and soundscape over there are several models it’s surprising that the landscape and the soundscape are not coincident and that the soundscape has more detailed information than the landscape so the soundscape has a finer resolution absolutely a fine resolution so we have at least I’m sorry this is a very specific topic I try to be to simplify we have at least a four level of about the sonic object sources special overlap of resources behavioral process and landscape processes these are the four epistemic domain and now in this graphic you can see that you have Japanese bio phonies anthropo phony has a has described before that are overlapping at the landscape scale and they produce a situation that I call sono top these are the units the sonica units created by the overlap of Giovanni Giovanni edy and row for me but is this story is longer than we believe if I add behavioral processes for animals of course we can distinguish inside this sauna top subunits created not by physical feature but by the behavior of animals I call such subdivision sound tops

and finally if I use the theory the theory of a set of landscape ecology if I had landscape process like echo tones I have another category of objects of sonic object that are the Sun tones so for categories according the source accordingly the type of overlap and finally according to the spatial resolution or displacement here so no tone sounds on top so no tops and finally so Newton’s creates such type of complex figure so in other words the so Newton’s are a additional complicates of the sound tops and the sound tops are an additional competence of the sonnet on earth soil of the of the solute on the edges at the edges you know do you have an Abba term or disturbin etcetera so we we can expect some changes in bio funny or in Japanese and if I see more in detail what happened this is a satellite images where I can find the solo tones between two different covers land cover like pasture or shrub or forest etc etc and this is an interesting field of research because we know that according to vehicle tones we have a different distribution of frequencies inside the soundscapes of the soundscape is different according to the position in which you are collecting this fact and we have scientific evidences from for instance from this work of talk that occur at all appear recently on landscape ecology where and untruthfully Giovanni and biophony have been investigated and we have seen that the increasing the page size of the landscape we have a different behavior of an Trapani that are reduce or biophony that are increased it means that more fragmenting is the area more and Trapani we have more is mo genius the area more by oftenly you have this in general maybe that something doesn’t work in this way but again if I use the sono top as an example these are different different distribution of bio phony Giovanni and anthrophony well these are different cases of a sono tops and if I investigate one part of this so know top I can find differences according the the place in which you are so are merging the sound tops created by different arrangement of species a different arrangement of the communities I’m sorry I I don’t know if this is is enough for you for the first time but according to this epistemology we can collect information and we can see that according the season in the same area you have a different acoustic scenario you can see the time of the month and every day you have a different scenario produced by this case by birds that are changing patterns acoustic patterns according to the phonology of a season so it very complex a situation where I use the semiotic approach that I prefer I put the the de species at the center of time and space and perception perception box in which there is also culture and we I use this epistle epistemology to explain what what I I I collect and we have a big evidences that the landscape patterns like a fragmentation effect the the typology of the sound for instance in Dupont lark or in Skylark and we have other interesting point of discussion we can distinguish in a soundscape and far-field a near field according to the amount of energy that we collect on our recorder in our recorder like this okay and we know that birds to particularly birds are the

capacity to ranging in other words they can judge the distance at which the other individual heart and the behavior can can change according in this case there are no problem because the other male that is singing is far but in this case this this bird is in trouble like in a in football play when people if a player is far the ball is far no problem no but they are approaching the problem is rising just an example in the morning the early morning before the sunrise every vocal animal are very active we call such phenomena down choruses down chorus is this in the morning before the first birth in this case is singing and approximately in 50 minutes in springtime there is an incredible amount of energy of acoustic energy that is produced we don’t know there are 12 hypotheses a hectic I know explain no one of these hypotheses but any one disciple is but there are many hypotheses about this interesting phenomena the chorus phenomena that has been studied by 4/4 since a long time by Leopold by Griffin and they have discovered that the currency’s is important for the communication of animals it is important also for informing other involuntary informing other other animals in foreign in this cartoon the Frog occurs is used by migratory birds for orientation the choruses a-kor occur in the morning early in the morning and there is two peaks the morning and the task and is a one of more intriguing phenomenon in which we are on which we are working actually for the instance we have discovered that moving from a highland to lowlands the importance of kurtosis a decrease it means that the chorus is very distinct phenomenon when there are a lot of few resources like a mountains and this phenomenon is reduced when there are high resources it means that after the 50 minutes of a choruses birth specifically are not silent but they are singing more or less like in in Kurdistan and this is a an important topic to be to be on which to focuses but coming back to more general discussion the soundscape can be used to assess a monitor in the environment you know that have environment as affected by many many fact many events a human by illness of course and we can use the sound as indicator of what happens in this in this in this environment this is a study carried out by by colleagues from Switzerland on the sound of the stream is that it’s in very stingy stretch much is function very well to characterize the stream the regime of water flow or you can summarize all data of one year for like in this in these cases or in some answers or in this in these cases in the in this case from May to July and you create such a fantastic a landscape soundscape in reality these mountains are the down choruses these are Chiklis during the day and this is Verdasco course so you have an idea how its distributed the sound and you can produce like Angelus facilities these these maps of a distribution of animals of the sound of the song of animal in in the study area but of course you have to use a Mattox of off of recorder not just one recorder also in marine area you can apply the soundscape studies I have no tie to enter into detail but are very interesting studies carried out recently using the acoustic complexity index that I’ll explain later how to measuring the soundscape okay this is another important story we have now innovative acoustic and fishing metrics that allow to manipulate the acoustic file and this offer a lot of advantages for people for the searcher because lack of the stamp disturbance by operator permit restoring acoustic file post-processing long time recording our days weeks months even years so we have different approaches we

can collect automatically we can have direct our procedure in an interpretation we can use a public interview for instance if I I devote my research to source social in social direction you can measure the sound pressure using some level mate or you can use pecker measure digital recorder and this is the the field in which we are in this moment and we produce different indices I don’t enter into detail for entities but there is free free download a software for analyzing the data like a sea wave that can manage the data the acoustic data all you have other this like mine some scrap metal plug-in are free you can download this and you can apply there are different matrix I present you just one metric I imagine that for you is just a formula an equation but nevertheless with this equation I can measure the information that was the information because I using this this approach that now is quite standardized i measuring the information such I mean the peak the difference in peak along every frequency in which I can distinguish the sound and I can produce images like this we read the monarchy with your birth in yellow with dark horse and you can measure directly this you can analyze the data in different way different scale day hours etc etcetera and you produce this you have already seen this is more sophisticated figure all the day all the year long for instance here is the frequency the low frequencies that means the geophone is a long in one station for one year in the Mediterranean McKey in cinque terre i believe that some know where is equatorial Aspasia and this is the amount of energy produced by biophony this is the island in in ocn of offer of knowledge in this case and you can see that the majority of information about Baroni is exactly where you Green here in the recession Island is in autumn autumn and etc so I have five minutes till I see more or less I try to conclude we have a lot of new a lot of new scientific facilities like these more miniaturized low-cost recorder from ten ten dollars you can record all more sophisticated recorder like this hardware which we are in engage for production but sound is not only music is also vibration vibration used by reptiles captioning prey or to transfer me long distance information like elephants that are produced by stamp no it’s that sound that can be travel until 32 kilometers we can use for instance for attracting ones granting this is a special game made in Florida attracting world outside the soil as interest insult story insects are producing vibration like hands and we can measure in liberation of the soul and you can depict a creative map of distribution of pests in test disease for line for line there are different figure about the the sound of organism of such type of organism I move very very quickly and finally there is a very interesting part of a story devoted to individual social human dimension of a soundscape is not my field of research but you know that people produce or sensitive it was due to sound produced by car by playing cetera cetera and we have problem relatively to this fact we have a physical level positive level interpretation level and there is a real important field in which we can describe every type of song economy in human point of view we can appreciate the level of annoyance living for instance in in the city and this is a different elements that can create for analyst in people we can test this using visual and acoustic experiments sorry and finally I conclude the time two

minutes and I say there are no conclusion we are in the new field we have enough a theory but we have a lot to do in front of us so we have new theories like sound sound top acoustic niche we have new tools and some metal Sanskrit Explorer etc cetera we have new metrics and we have new new researchers in landscape in seascape and we have amazing possibility to apply this new science in environmental monitoring so finally soundscape ecology absolutely promising a promising discipline can be used to monitoring threat of animal communication long term sanskrit monitoring rotation national park etc cetera finally and not knowledge is not a secondary the soundscape ecology can be applied for a high spot inspiring heart fragment or distinction is a recent work made by david monarchy that used way the sound from familiar forest to create symphony and copying animal to sinfully the last the last the last is not really the last as the last button okay this last I think I am a teacher and I think that our mission is not only to build search also to educate to educate people to appreciate the sound because if you understand what the sound say means you can protect nature and ourselves so this these messages for biologists for ecologist landscape ecologist architect environment engineering human planet Wildlife Park planets etc said this is my booklet that is devoted to education and my offer to to open in your curriculum a small part devoted of a small part of your interesting in the analysis or in the study of the sound because sound is part of our life absolutely you are moving the in the tube you are moving the the airplane you are moving outside the city on the nature everywhere sound is coming you can close your eyes but you can close your head is difficult to close your hair and so sound is moving around the house around you continuously and why we don’t use this information for improving our lifestyle and protect our environment this is my question so I encourage you to enter in in this in this new field okay thank you