Fall Meeting 2013 Press Conference: Science from Juno's Earth Flyby

okay welcome we’re now having our press conference about science from junos earth flyby and we have three speakers who will speak in this in the order that I’ll give you their names Scott Bolton Juno principal investigator with the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio Texas John Jurgen ssin Juno star camera team lead with the Danish technical university in Copenhagen Denmark and bilk Earth co-investigator for Juno waves investigation at the University of Iowa Iowa City good morning I’m Scott Bolton June OPI and I’m here too we’re here to talk about the results from our flyby of the earth you can go to the first slide do you know flew by the earth on october 9th we launched from kennedy space center in august of 2011 and we’re going to Jupiter and when we get to Jupiter will go into orbit around Jupiter for a little over a year to study Jupiter’s origin and formation and how planets are formed how Jupiter formed how planets are formed in our solar system and how planets form or in other solar systems as well we also will study Jupiter’s interior atmosphere and its polar magnetosphere so this plot shows our our trajectory when we launched in in August of 2011 you when you launched from the earth you leave the earth but you’re actually in orbit around the Sun once you’ve left the earth and the energy that you leave the earth from dictates how far away from the Sun you can get and so we left with just enough energy to get out into the asteroid belt because you Juno is a pretty massive spacecraft because we have to be able to tolerate Jupiter’s radiation environment when we get there so we’re pretty massive and heavy so it’s hard to get us launched all the way to Jupiter just from their first rocket so what we did was we launched and we went around the Sun and got all the way out to about the asteroid belt and you can see that we’re that deep space maneuver is about as far out as we got and then the Sun’s gravity pulls us back in and we use this technique in order to get more energy when we fly by the earth we fly by very close on October ninth and we exchanged some energy with the earth basically and that’s what the earth flyby was all about we exchanged a little bit of energy we we get some energy from from Earth and we increase our speed and change our direction a little bit relative to the Sun and that allows us to reach all the way out to Jupiter because we’re now leaving the earth with more energy than we came in with of course the speed relative to the earth stays the same it’s that but all that matters is the speed relative to the Sun so this plot kind of shows how that works and in july 4th 2016 will arrive at jupiter and start our primary mission there but we have some really interesting results at the earth flyby and we wanted to use that share that with you and the earth flyby was used primarily to test out our instruments and calibrate but because we are flying by really fast and if you can show the next figure you’ll see our ground track we come in you can see from that arrow the direction that we’re coming in and we kind of make a u-turn over South America there and then we fly over our closest approach is about 500 kilometer altitude and we’re flying right over South Africa and then we go up further north and you can see we curve out and go so we come in very fast and we leave very fast and we come in very close and and so that afforded us an opportunity to take a look at the Earth’s magnetosphere as a snapshot and we just left a scientific session which was called sort of a day in the life of Earth’s magnetosphere where our scientists collaborated with other scientists that had satellites around the earth to take a quick look at what was out there and we kind of flew by in just a few hours and so we kind of got a very fast snapshot and saw the context of what the Earth’s magnetosphere was like and what state it was in we wanted this so we could test our instruments out but we also wanted to get some science out of it and but we also had some opportunities to use our remote sensing instruments and we’ll show some of those one is the plasma wave instrument which measures also radio waves and we have some cameras on board and so I’m going to show some pictures of our of our camera which we call Juno cam and then I’ll briefly talk about the other two things that we’re going to present today by my colleagues right after I’m done so let me show you first the first picture of the earth so here’s Juno cam was coming in it’s a it’s a it’s a camera that works with the spin the spacecraft is

spinning and so as it spins it builds up an image across like line images as we make a spin we spin around every two minutes and you see three images of the earth the middle one I think is a methane filter and the other two are just combinations of color filters off of our camera the interesting thing about Juno cam and all the images that i’m going to show you is this camera is not actually a full science instrument it was put on primarily for public engagement outreach and education and so we don’t have a lot of science requirements on this camera but we also as a team couldn’t imagine going all the way to Jupiter and we go very very close to Jupiter when we arrived there were only five thousand kilometers above Jupiter and we go right over its poles nobody’s ever seen what Jupiter’s poles look like and so we wanted to have a camera on there so that we could all see what Jupiter’s poles look like and appreciate that so what we do with these images because we don’t have a full science team associated with it is we take that raw data and we immediately just pump it out to the public through a web sites and and we rely on the public actually to go in and process the images and that’s what you’re going to see is these images were all made by the public people that go on to unmanned Space Flight calm or other places where we post these things create pictures in their living rooms and at home on their computers and and then post them and so we actually woke up the morning of the flyby and we were surprised that the first pictures were already made we thought it would take longer so the idea of putting them out to the public really works and engages them and you’ll see some beautiful let’s go to the next ones I’m just going to flip do these this is a picture of the moon on our way in and you can see it’s about half lit just based on our geometry next picture here’s a picture of the spacecraft you can see where solar powered so we’re the first solar-powered spacecraft out to Jupiter that’s kind of newsworthy by itself in and at the end of one of the solar raises the magnetometer it makes magnetic field measurements at Jupiter and so it’s put out really far away from the from the main spacecraft so we’re measuring the magnetic field of Jupiter when we get there that’s where some of the cameras are located you’ll see a little bit later today but anyway you have our high gain antenna that we transmit back to the ground is in the middle and you see this picture of the earth and the moon this is made by the public again you know somebody in the public took this picture of Juno added the earth and added the moon from Juno onto the picture to make this next slide here’s another picture of the earth these are all again made by the public next one and here’s an interesting shot that during the flyby of the earth we actually went behind the earth in the shadow of the earth and it was the only time in the entire mission that we were going to go into eclipse or the shadow and we wouldn’t be able to see the Sun of course we’re solar powered so we generally are pointing at the Sun and we need to point at the Sun but for a little while we were in the shadow and we took this picture and you could see the the lights from Cape Town South Africa because it was right near our closest approach so this is certainly evidence that there’s life down there and it’s emitting light next slide and here we just happen to catch a picture of Jupiter our destination and so when we notice that by luck we looked out and there was Jupiter when that’s where course where we’re headed next slide and here’s another beautiful picture of the earth our planet is really beautiful that’s one of the things I think we all know that of course from space station photos and shuttle next one and here’s where we’re headed now when we get to Jupiter we’re going to study the atmosphere so we’re one of the things we’re going to look at is the the reason that you see these beautiful zones in Bell we don’t really understand what’s making those colors or whether Jupiter’s rotating these things are all moving in different directions and at different speeds and we’ll be able to study the interior in the atmosphere to understand that we’ll be looking at the polar magnetosphere Jupiter’s Aurora’s are some of the strongest in the entire solar system we are perfectly suited in our spacecraft science instruments and the orbit that we’re doing to study Jupiter’s Aurora and most importantly will study the interior structure and the composition which will help us understand how Jupiter formed it’s the largest of all the planets and it must have formed first and so it’s helping us to understand how planets form initially at when the solar system is getting created so the Sun first forms and then somehow something happens that allows the planets to form and that’s really what Juno is about is trying to understand that very first step in the early solar system that allowed the plan is to form and why they’re different from each other and why they’re different from the Sun and this will shed light on not only Jupiter form but how all the rest of the planets form and

how planets are forming around other star systems that we’re now being able to see with our stronger telescopes so what you’re going to hear next is a couple of kind of interesting things that we were able to do when we flew by earth as we were approaching earth we also had a set of cameras that I showed you earlier that we’re on on the outer part of the solar array and these cameras are used in order for us to understand exactly where this magnetic field measurement is oriented in other words we want to know how the spacecraft is oriented or which direction it’s facing very very precisely so that we can map Jupiter’s magnetic field and so we have four cameras hanging out at the end of one of those solar arrays and those cameras are special cameras they’re not like the ones in your phone or that you carry around your neck these are cameras that are specifically designed to take pictures of faint stars and because we take pictures of the faint stars and that’s how we figure out which way we’re pointed so they’re optimized for that they’re not necessarily optimized to take a picture of the earth but as luck would have it we realized that on the way in about four days out these cameras had an incredible view of the earth and moon together and so we took that opportunity to actually make a movie and for the first time humans will be able to see the earth and the moon in motion together doing their cosmic dance and so it’s a very low resolution image because that’s the kind of cameras those are but nevertheless the image is very profound because you’re seeing the earth sort of in its stage in perspective with the rest of the universe and you may recall years ago Carl Sagan took an image that he called the pale blue dot and made a lot of important points about the fact that you know everything we know is on this little dot all of history it puts things into perspective and I think our movie does the same thing but with a moving image rather than just a still Cassini also recently took a picture of the earth that was you may have seen it was beautiful with this with Saturn in the background and the foreground and birth in the background but again it was just a still but I think the points that Carl Sagan made are still relevant today and are applicable to the movie that you were going to be able to show you and that is that everything we know is on this dot this dot is a fragile piece of the universe we’d like to think of ourselves as being very special because there is life here and we are intelligent we’re starting to explore but in fact we look the same from far away as all the other dots and so that’s a very important thing for us to realize and we’re all in it together this is the you know everything you know all the countries all the people all the history are in this dot that you see and you’re going to see this movie in a little while and the point I want to make is is that you know while we’re all sitting there all the different countries and all the different the cities over thousands of years and the different states have fought each other and they’re going back and forth trying to get different things the truth is is we’re all on the same team and that’s what this image really points out is that we’re all on the team we’re all on the earth team and and so I think that philosophical perspective is sort of what Carl Sagan was pointing out and I think it’s still relevant and I’d like you to keep that in mind when you see this movie we also managed to we work and collaborate with a famous composer named Ben gelis he also worked with Carl Sagan and did the theme for the cosmos series and he also did some of the Tom Hanks themes and and other things and chariots of fire maybe the thing he’s most famous for he was very happy to work with us and and saw the importance of this film and was composed of music to it so you’ll hear that the next thing you’re going to see is another experiment that we managed to do which was a ham radio experiment we had radio operators all across the earth all synchronized their signal to say hi to Juno and so for the first time I think is that I know of the natural the normal public everyday public were able to go in and hit their ham radio operator the machines in such a way as to send a signal in Morse code that says hi and here’s this deep space spacecraft coming in from the asteroid belt on its way to Jupiter and we managed to hear that and so you’ll see that data and hear it so we’ve seen the first signal from Earth from intelligent life sending out reaching out and the thing that’s interesting is is while all these ham radio operators and it took thousands of them all across the world to work together in order to make this signal that we heard that signal is actually sent out into space into the rest of the universe it’s still traveling out there of course as it gets further and further

away it gets weaker but you know you hear about of course NASA and the military and many other countries of all communicated with satellites that are going by but those are governments and organized and intended here is the public reaching out and being able to connect to a spacecraft so with that all let my colleagues take over thank you Scott and good morning to you all my name is John hugginson I’m from dennys techno University North Copenhagen I’m going to tell you a little about the experiment we did or training of our system as we flew by the earth can I get the first light please the camera as you will see is this big it’s the same size as a GoPro camera the purpose is not to take high-resolution images of mundane things the purpose is to look at faint stars and is updated it’s actually designed for this the lens is faster than anything you can buy commercially so it’s really a low low light camera has to be because dunno is a spinner that means that it rotates about its axis every 30 seconds and such a rotation speed will smear images violently if you’re trying to look for faint objects like stars earth and moon is of course what we are we’re aiming at the earth for this flat flyby and why we were playing with the ideas of actually using the moon for a triangulation in a project that we are trying to do with NASA trying to make a navigation method for going interstellar space flight and we we actually learned or just judged on to us that the earth was actually in the field of view as well so we could get the chance of making a movie of this imagine you have to do a movie of a rotating spacecraft then you need to be rather snappy at the shutter and take an image every time your rotation is correct when the when the earth happens to be in your field of view at the exact right spot and we had great help of the star tracker itself because it knew exactly what was pointing at any time so we just are asked to straggle to every fifth rotation take an image of the earth-moon system and we approached from out 3 3.5 million kilometers out of 2 million miles out and that’s actually what we’re going to show you shortly I can get next slide here’s actually a small collage where you are you’re the tree and I mean this tree and a half million kilometers out and you should be able to see the moon as a very faint dot out here the the earth itself is a way brighter than the moon is moon is darkest chart Cole and it’s where as Earth is rather shiny blue dot as you see out here and then you can see as we approach the earth seems to be growing rapidly as we come closer there’s 240 minutes between each of these snapshots here and you can see how the moon starts to accelerate to the right in the image the you can also see if you try to line up the earth images you see here you can actually see that we are not aiming for the center of the earth with the spacecraft we actually aiming for the right edge of the earth as you see it here and with that you can see the the big trick for camera like this was really to tune it in a way that we were able to get images with a low-light camera of a very bright object and that was really the trick the camera was designed for operating at the Jupiter system where light is way way more faint a hundred times fainter than what we are going to to see in this movie so if you’re going to start the movie please this is a rendering of what we are going to see you see the moon to the left passing all the earth itself and you can see the years the rotation of the spacecraft the cameras are the tip of the pointed boom at the air one of the end of the solar panels there’ll be four cameras we only use one of the cameras for the to take the images and of course this is a time short and sequence earth to make one rotation per day as you know so you can imagine how fast it goes note the subs on point here came in with the Sun behind us so you basically have the light shining past us to us system you can see the stray light battles here they are meant to kill stray light from to be the ones who at once we’re in orbit around Jupiter so we can see the famous stars on to that too and here in the bottom we have the cameras the cameras are shielded for the extreme harsh radiation environment the harshest environment in a Ferrari ation we have in the solar system outer tubular so it’s actually wrapped in pure gold the other movie comes I hope you see the that was the Eclipse

the actual moon is actually moving across early across the year the earth disc itself it’s quite beautiful when you are seeing this you’re going to see for full rotation of the earth and it’s kind of amazing to think that I mean this is all of humanity being scanned by the camera as we come in yes and launched so I look at the Eclipse to the right here you see how small the moon is relative to earth looks a tingle god the camera is really fighting with the extreme strong light from the earth of course why you see the flicker nevertheless we have 17,000 kilometers out when earth moves out our field of you with this I give the floor to curve okay can we go to the next slide okay so we just came from a scientific session where we talked about data from some of the other instruments on Juno and in the context of observations made from a number of other earth-orbiting spacecraft and I’m I don’t have time to go through all these observations and tell you what they mean and so on so I’m just going to say that going from top to bottom the the top panel is the magnitude of the magnetic field you can see where we came to closest approach where it peeks out and further out early in the plot time goes from left to right on this plot you see fluctuations that tell us we’re in different regimes some very sharp boundaries are seen there in fact there’s we actually crossed the earth bow shock this is the boundary between the solar wind and and the the gas around the magnetic bubble of the earth and we crossed into the bow shock the pressure and the solar wind increased and pushed the bow shock back towards Earth so we popped back out and in about ten minutes later we cross the shock again and shortly after that we cross the magnetic boundary between the solar wind and and the earth again these st. boundaries show up very clearly in the end the the next panel these are the plasma wave observations this is the instrument that I’m responsible for this represents frequency up to about a megahertz the instrument actually measures up to 40 megahertz and then we have two panels of energetic particle observations from the the Jedi instrument which these panels go up to about 1 million electron volts and intensity these are electrons these are protons the instrument was the high voltage for this instrument was shut down at this point in time as a means of protecting against very large count rates that were anticipated for the flyby and over here you can see that these are radiation belt particles and the plasma waves here are instrumental in modulating those energetic particles the plasma waves can actually accelerate the particles and they can also be responsible for scattering them into Earth’s atmosphere there for losing them from the system so we’ve had a this is our first chance to actually get measurements from these instruments in a planetary magnetospheres to see how they work in an environment that at least remotely resembles our target at Jupiter so it was very gratifying for us to be able to take these observations let’s see if we can go to the next slide now this is a still from the the video I’m going to show you that has to do with this ham radio experiment that we did and this is basically the same data I just showed you in the second panel with a different coloring scheme white is bright and black is not and this now goes up to higher frequencies up to the 40 megahertz limit of the receiver and I’d like to point out these emissions up here these are terrestrial radio emissions the Tres tree already 0 stations shortwave stations so on and we can tell that because their frequencies are very steady and they we they get stronger as we approach the earth and they get weaker as we leave this type of omission was detected on previous flybys by for example Cassini and Galileo in fact Carl Sagan with my colleague Don Gurnett wrote a paper on the Galileo

observation saying if this were an interplanetary spacecraft from another civilization what could they tell from the observations gala me Gallio made of Earth that there’s actually life on earth and it was radio emissions like these that were argued that okay the the fact that they’re fixed frequency and so on suggests that their radio stations on the planet radio waves that are generated by intelligent life on earth we didn’t actually modulate demodulate decode those signals on Gallio to say to determine what information content if any there was in those signals so we thought instead of doing exactly the same thing again what can we do that would involve the public and also send a signal that we could actually decode from the Juno data and so we came up with the idea of sending a Morse code signal a very simple one just the word high and we would enlist the support of ham radio operators across the globe and we have evidence that at least 1,400 participated in this experiment we devised a website that coordinated the result people the coordinated the activity the radio operators were assigned frequencies in the range from 28 to 28 and a half megahertz this is the 10-meter ham radio band if you’re a ham we devised a website that’s a key down now key up we slowed the message down it actually took about six minutes to transmit this message hi we decided that the you know Morse code is made up of dots and dashes and the word hi is four dots for the h two dots for the eye and we decided to make those dots last for 30 seconds so that we didn’t have to worry about rotation of the spacecraft and the fact that our antennas would be rotating through the radio signal and making it difficult to interpret so and then we repeated the message every 10 minutes for 16 times so we basically covered the span of a little bit more in a couple ours centered on closest approach and we didn’t really know whether we’d be able to detect this at this signal at all dependent on how many ham operators participated defended on the ionosphere how many of these waves could actually escape and so on so this video that I’m going to show you is the result of this campaign and the bottom line is yes we succeeded we we heard the people of the earth say hi to us after this video I’m going to play a second video we had so much fun putting together this campaign that in addition to this video that dan goods at the JPL put together he also organized a very short about a four minute documentary on on how we did the campaign and we all think that’s kind of a fun thing to watch too so let’s start the first video now and we’ll have questions after the second video the sound you’re hearing are sonification of the natural radio emissions and plasma waves that we detected flying by earth so we’ve lowered these frequencies down into the audio frequency range so you can hear those and that’s what hi looks like in Morse code remember each one of those dots took 30 seconds there’s a 30 second gap between each one so this is what I like to call a sing along with mitch video so at the top we had on basically where we expected to see the ditz and the green squares or where we actually were able to pull the the the signal out of the noise and we successfully detected a number of those messages and parts of others and so we were quite gratified by that now this is go to the next level maybe something you can use the hygiene Oh experiment is something

that a group of us came up with the biggest challenge we had was we didn’t know if this was going to work on it if it works you know I’m part of history this is w6 JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena California hello CQ CQ CQ you’re fly by is junos way of gaining some extra speed changing directions so that its orbit can take it to Jupiter he said what if we actually sent something to Juneau basically came up with the idea that we could send Morse code to Juneau enlist the support of amateur radio operators around the world so the intent is to join amateur radio community together in a coordinated transmission from Earth to the Juno spacecraft as it flies by the website would tell them okay key down now keyup transmit for 30 seconds and that’s how we would send add it but he knows morse code is did they did it well it turns out to say hi to juno it takes for debts and space and then two dates for the eye i thought wow that’s neat thing to do and they’re gonna need a lot of people to pull this thing off i said i’m good to go we’re getting ready right now here we go and now we are transmitting they could hear ham radio operators all over the world doing this which is really remarkable everybody’s doing this at the same time thousands and thousands of hams then he locked the Juno spacecraft will be able to listen and hear all these immature radio transmissions and so what we’re doing now is we’re looking at the data that’s come down and see if we can put together that signal that says hi will it work who knows you have the audio from Juno I’d love you to listen to it this sounds very cool and it actually worked in earnest when you think about what it is it was really really amazing how many times do you get to say is based on that same player huh to be a part of it it was very great more than thinking about what it means to me I think it’s just such a great thing that humankind has the ability to think beyond our own environment it’s the curiosity it’s the adventuring spirit like the space program has given us yeah I dunno I dunno I dunno I to know Arjuna fine thank you okay take 17 like to say that one of the guys that showed up in that video a couple places is Don Kirshner he’s my lead engineer he built the Juno instrument the waves instrument and he also was one of the masterminds of putting together this campaign he’s also a ham radio operator do we have questions hello I’m Harvey Lyford freelance the k2 hhv and actually my question is not about ham radio at least not the first question it’s reductive

jurgen ssin I was wondering you didn’t say what the mission of this camera is I mean why are you taking pictures of faint stars when we have Hubble and other things out there okay I know that the the cameras are actually using the stars to find out what the orientation of the spacecraft is at any given time you should think of a spacecraft that is moving through space at in this case some 12 kilometers per second relative to earth and rotating freely as it do so will constantly need to know how its oriented and that’s what the star trackers are doing so these cameras are really small navigation cameras that is used to keep the orientation of the instruments onboard the spacecraft the accuracy of those cameras are quite astonishing they are used to give an accuracy in the pointing direction of what we term as five arc second so and that’s about a 50,000 in clear measure so that’s way more accurate than you could do in with any mechanical system yours isn’t on your mind okay hi I’m Irene Klotz with Reuters for a doctor kurth I know you said you didn’t have time to go through all the science but and I understand that it was mostly just a test to the instruments but of all those charts and things that you had up there the graphics is there anything that kind of popped out as unusual or that was unexpected during the earth flyby I guess my initial reaction to that is no I don’t think we were surprised by anything we were comparing measurements with a number of spacecraft for example the Ben Allen probes that are studying the radiation belts and so it was gratifying to us to see the energetic particles with the Jedi instrument associated with the radiation belts and the plaza waves associated that were measured by the the waves instrument because those two aspects are have a very complicated interaction and the radiation belts in fact that’s the whole purpose of the Van Allen probes mission is to understand that interaction we found some interactions between the magnetic fields that dr Kerner knees magnetometer measured and the plaza waves which was not a new phenomenon it’s the magnetic field has compressional motions in it and in the region outside of the magnetosphere but inside of the bow shock which we call a mere mode wave and those interact with the plasmas and the magnetic sheath to drive a phenomenon we call lion roars that are visible in the the plasma wave data it’s it’s it’s a well-established fact but to be able to go there with a new instrument and a new set of instruments and be able to measure that is is of interest hi Molly Michelson from science today maybe you mentioned this and I missed it but why does Juno rotate Juno spins a twice a minute in order to we use that as a way of stabilizing the spacecraft there are two different kinds of spacecraft you have something called 3-axis stabilized than the other ones are spinners we chose that however because it worked with our way of making measurements in an efficient and simple way when we got to Jupiter so when we arrived at Jupiter and we’re flying over it we’re spinning so that our instruments are able to see Jupiter and all share and take a turn seeing Jupiter and then at the same time look back into deep scold space away from Jupiter and essentially calibrate each time they do that so it’s worked into our science observation plan other questions well since there’s time I’ll ask one more about ham radio I always understood that you weren’t supposed to do that just send signals out that you’re supposed to be making two-way communications and not just keying into the void actually we were sending a message to Juneau each of the ham operators were required to identify themselves as is normally the case I let’s see I had another thought flip

through my my brain there I think there is communication with earth satellites the ham radio operators have flown satellites that act as repeaters and this is I agree this is not exactly that same thing but this was actually a way of coordinating activities with the the ham radio operators each the ones that participated have requested qsl card and we will send them a qsl card because we detected their signal yeah I’d like to add something and that is that you know we had this experiment done in the public basically transmitted and coordinated they had to all work together I mean we all have to work together and that’s how we reach out and learn about ourselves and the universe and this was a demonstration of people from all over the world doing that together and it also demonstrated that here’s a spacecraft that’s traveling between the planets and going to another planet and coming by the earth and had the ability to measure essentially intelligent life a signal from intelligent life and if you were to have that spacecraft go buy another planet close enough and actually see something like that on Morse code signal coming out that’s clearly unnatural it would be a very strong suggestion that that place had life and so this was one of the first experiments that I know of where we had everyday people reaching out and we demonstrated that here is a way of a spacecraft a NASA spacecraft that visits other planets that is capable of detecting life we haven’t obviously seen that anywhere else IM only locked a wallet from the Planetary Society the star tracker video is really cool I’m wondering if you’re going to be able to repeat that feat on approach to Jupiter we hope so it should be a little easier I don’t expect that Jupiter and its moons will be quite as bright you know we had a lot of problems with the with the bright clouds of Earth as we approach because the timer is designed for faint objects but it would be very interesting to be able to see a movie of Jupiter and its moons revolving around that planet I don’t nobody’s ever seen that either and it reflects back to Galileo’s initial discovery oh my god there’s moons around this place but we’ve never seen it in a movie form actually actually the mode we tested here at the earth flyby is was he just a dry run of what we’re going to entertain why we are flying past the the belts of and and in through the the teen years rings of Jupiter where we expect to find new moons we’re using exactly this technique so we certainly will do this again what we find well we have to wait a couple of years no question from the chat I do I have a question from a chat the chat this question is from Michael Forester from Michigan Public Radio as a science and technology editor there um uh he’s wondering um this is a question for Bill I’m sorry I’m trying to reading the same time bill do you have an estimate of the signal-to-noise ratio of the high message that was sent to Juneau it was not very high I would say it’s on the order of few DB that’s that’s kind of a number that comes off the top of my head the signal first of all we were challenged by the the strength of the signal from the hams itself in second a second of all the the noise level and the instrument it turns out that of course that sometimes it was stronger than others when we’re off the the coast of South Africa’s where we detected the strongest signal of course we were presumably close two transmitters there and and very close to closest approach at that point in time thank you any other questions from the floor anymore from the chat okay well that wraps up this press conference thank you very very much for your presentations and thanks everyone for participating