Florida Miller & Levine Biology Textbook Pages 2-16

a tues today I’m I start reading this book from Florida called nil I’m entitled the videos Florida Miller under the vine biology and then pages blah blah blog pages blah blah blah so I have this book for my honors biology my honors one biology class and so today we’re reading pages 3 through pages page page 3 2 316 and if you were wondering at all I go to a lake of ranch high school and for homework I have to read pages 32 page page 32 page 16 so I’ll just read this when I write hallmark to read certain pages okay so let’s see okay so this is page two right here i’ll just start here so I’ll title the video page 22 page 16 or pages 22 through two through 16 so starting on page two right here one the science of biology chapter mystery height by despite prescription a doctor injects a chemical into the body of an eight-year-old boy named David this healthy boy shows no signs of disease actually let me sort of here sorry i was reading this yellow for writing see this text here if there’s any words i can renounce i’m sorry i’ll just if i can’t pronounce them i’ll try to read it and then i’ll just spell the word these paleontologists biologists study ancient life are working to reconstruct the skeleton of card Chara done toes sores CA r CH AR 0 do n t 0 s aur us a giant dinosaur that lived over 90 million years ago by using scientific skills such as observation and inference science can learn how ancient animals lived this huge the huge teeth of this dinosaur a sharp and serrated like a night soon for eating meat a lot of it chapter mystery height by despite prescription a doctor injects a chemical into the body of an eight-year-old boy named David this healthy boy shows no signs of disease the condition for which he is being treated as quite common David is short for his age the medication he is taking his human growth hormone or HGH HGH together wear jeans and diet controls growth during childhood people who produced little or no HGH are abnormally short and I may have other related health problems bday via has normal HGH levels he is short simply because his parents are both healthy short people but if David isn’t sick why does his doctor prescribe HT age where does medicinal HGH come from is it safe why what does this case say about science and society as you read this chapter look for clues about the nature of science the role technology in our modern world and the relationship between science and society then solve the mystery never stop exploring your world finding the solution to the growth hormone mystery is only the beginning take a video field trip with the eco geeks of untamed science to see where this mystery leads 1.1 what is science think about it one day long ago and the vocabulary our science observation inference hypothesis controlled experiment independent variable dependent burial control group and data taking notes flowchart as you recreate a flowchart showing the step scientists used to answer questions about the natural world 1.1 what is science think about it one day long ago someone looked around and wondered where do plants and animals come from how did I become to be since then humans have tried to answer those questions in different ways some ways that explain the world have changed have stayed the same over time science however is always changing what science is and is not what are the goals of science this book contains lots of facts and ideas about living things many of those facts aren’t boring you will be tested on them but you shouldn’t think that biology or any signs just a collection of never changing facts for one thing you can be sure that some facts presented in this book will change soon if they haven’t changed already what’s more science is not a collection of unchanging beliefs about the world scientific ideas are open to the testing discussion and revision so some ideas

presented in this book will also change these statements may puzzle you if facts and ideas in science change why should you bother learning them and if science is neither a list of facts nor a collection of unchanging beliefs what is it figure 1 dash 1 studying the natural world how do wheels communicate how did they travel how are they affected by environmental changes these are questions whales whale researchers can use science to answer the science as a way of knowing science is an organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world it is a way of observing a way of thinking and a way of knowing about the world in other words science is a process not a thing the word science also refers to the body of knowledge that scientific studies have gathered around the / gathered over the years so several features make signs different from other human and Davis first science deals only with the natural world scientific and Davers never concerned and I had to stop filming but I don’t I might have a mission to start from several features several features make science different from other human and divers and just in case on the same is wrong it’s en de avo artists first science deals only with the natural world scientific endeavors never concerned in any way supernatural phenomena of any kind second scientists collect and organize information in an orderly way looking for patterns and connections among the events third scientists perfect proposed explanations that are based on evidence not belief then they test those explanations with more evidence the goals of science the scientific way of knowing includes the view that the physical universe is a system composed of parts and processes that interact from a scientific / 6 perspective all objects in the universe and all interactions among those objects are governed by Universal natural laws the same natural laws apply whether the objects or events are large or small Aristotle and other Greek philosophers were among the first to try and view the universe in this way they aim to explain the world around them terms of events and processes they could assert modern science has continued that tradition one goal of science is to provide natural explanations for events in the natural world science also aims to use those explanations to understand patterns and nature to make sure and to make sure useful predictions about make useful predictions about natural events science change and uncertainty over the centuries scientists have gathered an enormous amount of information about the natural world scientific knowledge helps us cure diseases place satellites in orbit and send instantaneous electronic communications yet despite all we know much of nature remains a mystery it is a mystery because science never stand still almost every major scientific discovery raises more questions than it answers often research yields surprises that point future studies in new and unexpected directions this constant change doesn’t mean science has failed on the contrary it shows that science continues to advance that’s why learning about science means more than just understanding what we know it also means understanding what we don’t know you may be surprised to hear this but science rarely proves anything in absolute terms scientists aim for the best understanding of the natural world that current methods can reveal uncertainty is part of the scientific process and part of what makes a son what makes science exciting happily as you learn in later chapters science has allowed us to build enough understanding to make useful predictions about the natural world in your notebook explained in your own own words why there is uncertainty in science figure 1 dash to science in action these marine science is the recording information as they study whales in Alaska build vocabulary word origins the word science derives from the Latin word santhia which means knowledge science represents knowledge that has been gathered over time scientific method methodology the heart of science what procedures are the core of scientific method methodology I’m sorry if I’m saying it wrong but it spells ma th oh do ello ga gee why you might think that science is a mysterious process used only by certain people under special circumstances but that’s not true because you can you use scientific thinking all the time suppose your family’s car won’t start what do you do use what you know about cars to come up with ideas to test at first you might think the battery is dead so you test that idea by turning the key in the

ignition if the starter motor works but the engine doesn’t start you reject a dead battery idea you might guess next that the car is out of gas a glance of the fuel gauge test that idea again and again you apply scientific thinking until the problem is solved once you run out of ideas and call a mechanic scientists approach research in pretty much the same way there isn’t a single cut-and-dried scientific method there is however a general style of invested investigation that we call scientific method methodology scientific methodology involved with serving and asking questions making inferences and form hypotheses conducting controlled experiments collecting and analyzing data and drawing conclusions figure 1 dash 3 shows how one research team used scientific methodology and its studies of New England and salt marshes observing and asking questions scientific investigations begin with observation sorry lost my spot scientific investigations begin with observation the act noticing describing events were process in a careful orderly way of course scientific observation involves more than just looking at things a good scientist can as the philosopher Arthur go open howre SCH 0 PE nhau are put it think something that nobody has thought yet looking at something that everybody sees that kind of observation leads to questions that no one has asked before figure 1 dash 3 salt marsh experiment salt marshes or coastal environments found often where rivers meet the sea researchers made an interesting observation on the way marsh grasses grow then they appealed scientific method methodology to answer questions that arose from their observation and observing and asking question of location a and location B researchers observed that marsh grass grows taller in some places than others this observation led to a question i do marsh grasses grow marsh grasses grow to different heights and different places inferring and hypothesizing the researchers more nitrogen ? the researchers inferred has something limits grass growth in some places it could be an environmental factor temperatures and light water or nutrients based on their knowledge of salt marshes they propose the hypothesis marsh grass is marsh grass grows growth is limited by available nitrogen designing controlled experiments the researchers selected similar plots of marsh grass all plots had similar plant density soil type input a freshwater and height above average tide level the plot were divided into control and experimental groups control group experimental group no nitrogen added nitrogen added the researchers added nitrogen fertilizer the independent variable any experimental plots they then observed the growth of marsh grass the dependent variable in both the experimental and controls plot inferring informing a pipe sorry in varina forming a hypothesis at their posing questions scientists use further observe ations to make inferences an inference is a logical interpretation based on what scientists already know inference combined with a creative imagination can lead to a hypothesis hypothesis is a scientific explanation for a set of officer issues that can be tested in ways that support or reject it designing controlled experiments testing a scientific hypothesis often involves designing an experiment that keeps track the various factors that can change or variables examples of variables include temperature light time and available availability of nutrients whenever possible hypothesis should be tested by an experiment in which only one variable has changed all other variables should be kept unchanged or controlled this type of experiment is called a controlled experiment controlling variables why is it important to control variables the reason is that if several variables are changing the experiment researchers can’t easily tell which variable is reasonable for any results they observe the variable that is literally changed and called the independent variable also called the manipulated variable the variable that is observed and that changes in response to the independent variable is called the dependent variable also called the responding variable control and experimental groups typically an experiment is divided into control and experimental groups a control group is exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group except for one independent variable scientists always tried to reproduce or replicate

replicate their observations therefore they set up several sets of control and experimental groups rather than just a single pair in your notebook what is the difference between an observation and an inference list three examples of each collecting and analyzing data scientists make detailed records of experimental observations gathering information called data there are two times two main types of data quantitative data are numbers obtained by counting are measuring invite rounds around sorry it’s qu a NT IT a TI ve in the data are numbers obtained by Councillor measuring in the marsh grass experiment quantitative data could include the number of plants per plot the length width and weight of each blade of grass and so on qualitative data qu al ITA tea I ve data are descriptive and involve characteristics that cannot usually be counted qualitative that is is in the marsh grass experiment might include notes about foreign objects in the sampled wats or information on whether the grass was growing up right or sideways research tools scientists choose appropriate tools for collecting that collecting and analyzing data the tools may range from simple devices such as meter sticks and calculators to sophisticated equipment such as we can machines that read that measure nitrogen and can content in plants and soil charts and graphs are also tools that help scientists organize their data in the past data was recorded by hand often and no boots or personal journals today researchers typically sensor enter data into computers which make organizing analyzing data easier many kinds of data are now gathered directly about computer control experiments sources of error researchers must be careful to avoid errors in data collection and analysis tools used to measure the size and weight of marsh grasses for example have limited accuracy data analysis and Sam sighs must be chosen carefully in medical studies for example both experimental control groups should be quite large why because there is always variation among individuals and control and experimental groups the larger the sample size the more viability researchers can analyze that variation evaluate the differences between experimental and control groups this mystery clue described a controlled experiment that can be designed to test the hypothesis that extra HGH helps children grow taller what ethical issues can you imagine and actually carrying out such a study figure 1 dash 3 continued collecting and analyzing data control group experimental group researchers sampled all the plots throughout the growing season they measure growth rates and plant sizes and analyze the chemical composition of lip living leaves drawing conclusions and there’s a chart where the title is height of grasses and in the left it says height and then in parentheses as an M and then time and in parentheses has weeks and as plus n and control data from all plots were compared and evaluated by statistical test data analysis confirmed that Marsh crashes and experimental clock plots with additional nitrogen did in fact grow taller and larger than controls the hypothesis and this predictions were supported drawing conclusions scientists use experiments that as evidence to support refute or revise the hypothesis being tested and to draw a valid conclusion hypotheses are often not fully supported or refuted by one set of experiments rather new data may indicate that the researchers have the right general idea but are wrong about a few particulars in that case the original hypothesis is reevaluated and revised new predictions are made and new experiments are designed these new experience might experiments might suggest changes in the experimental treatment or better control of more variables as shown in figure 1 dashboard many circuits around this loop are often necessary before a final hypothesis is supported and conclusions can be drawn when experiments are not possible it is not always possible to test the hypothesis with an experiment in some of these cases researchers device hypothesis that can be tested by observations enemy behavior researches researchers for example might want to learn how honorable groups interacting the wild in this a and this kind of

natural behavior requires field observations that disturb the animals as little as possible researchers analyzed data from these observations they may devise hypothesis is that can be tested in different ways sometimes ethnic prevents certain types of experiments especially on human subjects medical researchers who suspect that a chemical causes cancer for example but not intentionally expose people to it instead they search for volunteers who have already been exposed to the chemical for controls they study people who have not been exposed to the chemical the researchers still try to control as many variables as possible for example in my exclude volunteers who has serious problems are known genetic and conditions medical researchers always try to study large groups of subjects so that individual genetic differences do not produce misleading results then there’s a little chart here little thing here and it says initial observation hypothesis experiment observation and analysis of data interpretation final hypothesis supported new hypothesis new experiment new observation hypothesis not supported and fair one dash for revising hypothesis during the course of an investigation hypothesis may have you revised and experiments we’ve done several times and has a little assessment here right about science thing I’m gonna read that quick 1.1 assessment review key concepts 18 review what is science be explained what kind of understandings does science contribute about the natural world see form an opinion do you think that scientists will ever run out of things to study explain your reasoning to a review what the scientific methodology involved be explain why our hypothesis is so important to control experiments write about science creative writing three a few hundred years ago observation seems to indicate that some some living things could just suddenly appear maggot showed up on meat mice were found on grain and beetles turned up on Cal dung those observations let’s incorrect idea of spontaneous generation the notion that life could arise from nonliving matter write a paragraph for a history magazine evaluating the spontaneous generation of hypothesis is why did it seem logical the time what evidence was overlooked or ignored 1.2 science in context vocabulary is dairy and bias taking notes preview visuals before you read study figure 1 dash 10 13 1 dash ten as you read use the figure to describe the rule science plaisance society figure 1 dashed by the process of science as the arrows indicate oh sorry i’ll read that later think about it scientific methodology is the heart of science but that vital part is only part of the full body of science scientists science and scientists operate in the context of the scientific community and society at large exploration discovery where ideas come from what scientific altitude attitudes help generate new ideas scientific methodology is closely linked to explore innate exploration discovery as shown in Figure 1 dash five recall that scientific methodology starts with observations and questions but where those observations and questions come from in the first place they may be inspired by scientific attitudes practical problems and new technology scientific attitudes good scientists share scientific attitudes we’re habits of mine that lead them to exploration and discovery curiosity skepticism open-mindedness and creativity help scientists generate new ideas curiosity a curious researcher for example may look at a salt marsh and mainly ask what’s that plant why is it growing here autumn results from previous studies about spark also sparked curiosity and leads and like lead to new questions scepticism good scientists are skeptics which means that they question existing ideas and hypotheses they and they refused to explain explanations accept explanations without evidence scientists who disagree with hypothesis design experiments to test them supports of hypothesis is also undertake rigorous testing other ideas confirm them and to address any valid questions raised open-mindedness scientists must remain open-minded meaning that they are willing to accept different ideas that may not agree with

their hypothesis creativity researchers also need to think creativity to design experiments that yield accurate data to your one Nash five the process of science as the arrows indicate the different aspects of science and interconnected are interconnected making the process of science that dynamic flexible on unpredictable and there’s Google chart here said exploration and discovery scientific methodology science and society and communicating results and then here the top there’s another one says exploration discovery making observations asking questions sharing gathering ideas finding inspiration exploring literature and here’s his curiosity surprising observation personal motivation practical problem and new technology adapted from understanding science UC Berkeley / Kelly Museum of paleontology practical problems sometimes ideas from scientific investigations arise from practical problems solve marshes for example play vital roles in the lives of many ecologically and commercially and imports and organism organisms as you will learn in the next unit yet there are they are under intense pressure from industrial and housing development should marshes be predicted from development if new houses or farms are located near salt marshes can they be designed to protect the marshes these practical questions and issues inspires scientific questions hypotheses and experiments the role of technology technology science and society are closely linked discovering in one field of science may lead to new technologies those technologies in turn enable scientists and other fields to ask new questions or to gather data in new ways for example the development of new portable remote data collecting equipment enables field researchers to modern monitor environmental conditions around the clock in several locations at once this capability allows researchers to pose and tech and test new hypotheses technological advances can also have big impacts on daily life in the field of genetics and biotechnology for instance it is now possible to mass produce complex substances such as vitamins antibiotics and hormones that before were never were that before were only available naturally in your notebook describe a situation where you were skeptical effect you had seen or heard figure 1 Nash 6 exploration and discovery ideas and sites can arise in many ways from simple curiosity or from the need to solve a particular problem scientists often begin investigations by making observations asking questions talking with colleagues and reading about other about previous experiments mystery clue how does the ability to produce artificial HDH HGH impact team in life figure 1 dash 7 ideas from practical problems people living on a strip of land like this one and murals in late South Carolina may face flooding and other problems posed questions why are some scientific questions that can arise from a situation like this one here’s the little picture shows okay well I’m going to be right back I want back and we’re continuing right now on page 12 e communicating results in reviewing and communicating results reviewing and sharing ideas why is peer review important data collection and analysis can be a long process scientist may focus intensely on a single study for months or even years then the exciting time comes when researchers communicate their experiments and observations to the scientific community communication and sharing of ideas are vital to modern science peer review scientists share their findings with the scientific community by publishing articles that have undergone peer review and peer review scientific papers are reviewed by anonymous independent experts publishing peer reviewed articles and scientific journals allows researchers to share ideas and to test and evaluate each other’s work scientific articles are like high powered versions of your high school lab reports they contain details about experimental conditions controls data and analysis data analysis and conclusions reviewers read them looking for oversights unfair influences fraud or mistakes and techniques or reasoning

they provide expert assessment of the work to ensure that the highest standards of quality are met peer review does not guarantee that a piece of work Islam is correct but it does certify that the work meets standards set by the scientific community sharing knowledge and new ideas ones research has been published it answers the dynamic marketplace of scientific ideas as shown in Figure 1 through 1 dash 8 how do you how do new findings fit into the existing scientific understanding perhaps they spark new questions for example the finding that growth the salt marshes marsh grasses is limited by available nitrogen just the other hypothesis is the growth of other plants in the same habits out also limited by nitrogen what about the growth of different plants and similar environments such as the man mangrove swamp shown in Figure 1 2 1 dash nine each of these logical and important questions leads to new hypothesis is that must be independently confirmed by controlled experiments in your notebook protect predict what might happen if an article is published without undergoing peer review and then so right here they have a diagram says communicating results feedback and peer review replication or results new ideas discussing my colleagues publication adapted from understanding science UC Berkeley Museum of paleontology and if I’m saying that wrong it’s be e r ke le y says figure 1 dash 8 communicating results communication is an important part of science scientists review and evaluate one another’s work to ensure accuracy results from one study may lead to new ideas and further studies figure 1 dash nine mangrove swamp in tropical areas mangrove swamps serve as the ecological equivalence of temperate salt marshes result of the salt marsh experiments suggest that nitrogen may be a limited nutrient for a limiting nutrient for mangroves and other plants in these similar habitats design an experiment how would you test this hypothesis and here’s the mangrove I guess there’s some camels walking around it and there’s a quick lab guided inquiry right here I’ll read that click free quick lab guided inquiry I don’t know if I’m saying in query right but it’s AI n qu IR y replicating procedures one working with a partner behind the screen assemble ten blocks into an unusual structure right directions that others can use to replicate that structure without seeing it to exchange directions with another team replicate this team structure by following the directions three compare each replicated structure to the original identify which parts of the directions were clear and accurate and which were unclear or misleading analyze they conclude 1 evaluate how you how could you have written better directions to infer why is it important that scientists right procedures that can be replicated scientific theories what is a scientific theory evidence from many scientific studies may support several ladies hypothesis is in a way that inspires researchers to propose a scientific theory that ties those hypotheses is together as you read this book you will often come across terms that will be new to you because they are only used only in science but the word theory is used both in science and in everyday life it is important to understand that the meaning you give the word theory in daily life is very different from its meaning and science when you say I have a theory you mean I have a hunch when a friend says that’s just a theory she may mean people aren’t too certain about that idea in those same situations they scientists would probably use the word hypothesis when scientists talk about gravitational theory or evolutionary theory they mean something very different from hunch or hypothesis in science the word theory applies to a well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observation as observations and the hypothesis is the ant enables science is to make accurate predictions about new situations charles darwin’s early observations and hypothesis is about change over time in nature for example grew and expanded for years before he collected them into a theory of evolution by natural selection today evolutionary theory theory is the central organ same principle for of all biological and biomedical science it makes such a wide range of predictions and about organisms from bacteria to Wales to humans that is mentioned that it is mentioned

throughout this book a usual theory that has been thoroughly tested and supported by many lines of evidence may become the dominant view among the majority of sciences but no theory is considered absolute truth science is always changing as new evidence is uncovered a theory may be revised or replaced by a more useful explanation build vocabulary academic words a scientific theory describes a well-tested explanation for a range of phenomena scientific theories are different from scientific laws and it is important to understand that theories do not become laws laws such as ideal gas laws and chemistry or Newton’s laws of motion are concise specific descriptions of how some aspect of the natural world is expected to behave in a certain situation in contrast scientific theories such as cell theory or the theory of evolution are more dynamic and complex scientific theories encompass a greater number of ideas and hypotheses and laws and our can constantly find fine-tuned through the signs the process of science science and society what is the relationship between science and society making lists the health-related things that you need to understand to protect your life and the life of and the lives of others are close to you your list may include drugs and alcohol smoking and lung disease aids cancer and heart disease other topics focus on social issues in the environment how much of the information energyne should be kept private private sure communities produce electricity using fossil fuels nuclear power solar power wind power or hydroelectric dams how should chemical waste be disposed of all these questions require scientific information to answer and many have inspired important research but none of these questions can be answered by science alone these questions involve the society in which we live our economy and our laws and our moral principles using science involves understanding its context and society and its limitations figure 1 dash ten shows the role science plays in society science ethics and morality when scientists explain why something happens their explanation involves only natural phenomena pure science does not include ethical or moral viewpoints for example biologists try to explain in scientific terms with life is how life operates and how life has changed over time but science cannot answer questions about wildlife exist or what the meaning of life is similarly science can tell us how technology and scientific knowledge can be applied but not whether it should be applied in particular ways remember these limitations when you study and evaluate science avoiding bias the way that science is applied in society can be it can be affected by bias a bias is a particular preference or point of view that is personal rather than scientific examples of bias include personal taste preferences for someone or something and societal standards of beauty science aims to be objective but scientists are human too they have likes and dislikes and occasional biases so it shouldn’t surprise you to discover that scientific data can be misinterpreted or misapplied by scientists who wants to prove a particular point recommendations by Sciences or personal biases may be or may not be in the public interest but if enough of us understand signs we can help make certain that science is applied in ways that benefit humanity so on that page has the figure 1 dash ten science and society science both influences society and is influenced by society the researcher Bulow’s tests up shellfish for toxins that can poison humans form an opinion should shellfish be written yiss routinely screened for toxins and then the shows science and society developed technology address societal issues build knowledge in foreign policy satisfy curiosity solve everyday problems adopted from understanding science UC Berkeley Museum of paleontology and then there’s the little picture the woman who is the researcher who is testing shelf list for toxins that can poison humans so this shellfish and then there’s research understanding and using science science will keep changing as long as humans keep wandering about nature we invite you to join us in what wonder an explanation as you read this book think of this text not as a next encyclopedia but as a user’s guide to the study of life don’t just memorize today’s scientific facts and ideas and please don’t believe them instead try to understand how scientists develop those

ideas try to see the thinking behind experiments we describe try to pose the kind of question scientist ask if you learn to think of scientists think you will understand the process of science and be comfortable in a world that will keep changing throughout your life understanding science will help you make complex decisions that also involve cultural customs values and ethical standards furthermore understanding biology will help you realize that we humans can predict the consequences of our actions and take an active role in directing our future that of and that of our planet in our society scientists make recommendations about big public policy decisions but they don’t make the decisions who makes the decisions citizens of our democracy do in a few years you will be able to exercise the rights of a voting citizen influencing public policy by the ballots you cast and the messages you send political officials that’s why it is important that you understand how science works and appreciate both the power and limitations of science figure 1 dash 11 using science and everyday life these student volunteers are planting mangroves saplings as part of a mangrove restoration project and here is the picture of the students cleansing the mangrove saplings and there’s a assessment here I’m gonna read this real quick 1.2 assessment review called key concepts one a review list the added attitudes the lead Sciences to explore the world the to explore and discover be explained what why what does it take to mean what does it mean to describe a scientist as skeptical why why is it why is skepticism and important quality and a scientist to a review what is peer review be apply concepts an advertisement claims that studies of a new sports drinks show it boost energy you discover that none of the study results had been peer-reviewed what would you tell consumers who are considering buying this product three a review what is a scientific theory be compare and contrast how does use of the word theory different science and in daily life for a review how is the use of science related to its context in society be explained describe some of the limitations of science see apply concepts a study shows that a new pesticide is safe for use on food crops the researcher who conducted the study works for the pesticide company what potential biases may be affected may have affected the study apply the big idea science has a way of knowing five explain your own words why science is considered a way of knowing Florida Florida biology and society who should fund product safety studies biology plays a major role on the research development and production of food medicine and other consumer items for example the plastics industry provides countless products for everyday use for sometimes questions arise concerning Product Safety bisphenol dash ditional a bis pH en el bis ph en el a BPA for instance is a chemical found in hard plastics used to make baby bottles reusable water bottles and the linings of many food and soft drink cans is BPA safe this question can be posed as a scientific hypothesis to be tested but who does and pays for the testing ideally independent scientists test products for safety and usefulness then they have nothing to gain by exaggerating positive effects and nothing to lose by stating risk however scientists are often hired by private companies to develop or test their products often test results are clear a product is safe or is or it isn’t based on these results the food and drug administration fda or another government agency makes recommendations to protect and promote public health sometimes results are tough to interpret most independently funded studies found that low doses of bpa could have negative health effects on laboratory animals a few studies mostly funded by the plastics industry concluded that BPA is safe the FDA declared vp8 to be safe when the issue of EPA safety hits the mass media government investigations begin so who should sponsor the product safety studies the viewpoints independent organizations should fund safety studies scientists performing

safety studies should have no affiliation with private industries to avoid conflict or injured because the company would benefit of its product if its product is declared to be safe safety tests should be funded by independent organizations such as universities and government agencies then recommendations for Public Health can remain free advises private industry should fund safety studies sorry I lost my private industry should fund Stacey studies there are an awful lot of products out there who would pay Sciences to test all those products there are simply too many potential there’s simply too many potentially useful on valuable products being developed by private industry for the government to keep track of and test adequately with public funds it is in a company’s best interest to produce safe products so it could be so it would be inclined to maintain high standards and perform rigorous test focus on Florida what about imported goods and materials in 2009 at least for class action lawsuits were filed in Florida and several and other states after complaints about health and house problems allegedly caused by contaminated drywall and drywall imported from China the drywall was thought to contain toxic levels of chemicals such as sulfur research and decide one analyzed the viewpoints research the current status the Contras of the controversy over BPA compare this situation with the history of safety studies on cigarette smoke and the chemical Teflon to form an opinion should private industries be able to pay scientists who perform their product safety studies how would you deal with the issue of potential bias and interpreting results three discuss should product safety laws apply to imported goods how can you ensure the products you buy our safe given the global economy okay so that’s it so that was page 16 I read from page to read from here page to all the way to page 16 and I don’t know what pages i’ll read next if i get a sign more pages for homework i’ll read more from this Florida Miller only vine divine biology textbook okay so thanks for watching and lake comment and subscribe