What is SAR testing?

I good afternoon everybody I’m mark Jenkins as Simon has already said and sat next to me I’ve got my colleague veena kurai and we’re going to talk to you this afternoon about specific absorption rate or SARS it’s commonly known and we’ll get the presentation started now okay so just a quick overview of what we’re going to cover this afternoon we’re going to start off with an introduction to specific absorption rate or SAR call itself from now on and we won’t need to cut to continue mentioning specific absorption rates it’s quite a long and unwieldy phrase to keep saying and we’re going to look at SAR we’re going to consider why we do it and consider what it is we’re going to look at the legislative requirements in terms of the directives the test standards and all that sort of stuff then we’ll talk about the test facilities themselves how we actually go about measuring SAR and the various and numerous systems that there are available to do this we’ll then talk about the test requirements in terms of SAR for head and body and we’ll touch on some of the more complex aspects such as simultaneous transmission which is becoming more of a requirement and then we’ll finish off with a summary of the content that we’ve covered today the presentation should last between sort of 30 and 40 minutes and assignments already said there’d be some time for questions at the end okay so starting off with really why consider SAR well as you can see on the screen there are lots of headlines that appear in newspapers and on the TV to do with mobile phone health and that the safety and the threat it poses to the general public and all this sort of stuff so really due to public concern this has led to legislation with the aim to control and standardize what manufacturers have to do to try and meet some of these public concerns obviously concerns are to do with parents concern for their children people concerned about the use of mobile phones for periods of time and you know the health implications that are put in newspapers and quite often they’re sort of scary headlines like you know new mobile phone threat to health and all this sort of stuff and so what we’re going to cover really is what manufacturers can do to cover some sort of measurement of the SOL that the devices that they manufacturer are going to be putting out and they seem to always end with you know everything in moderation don’t use your focal long periods of time but there’s no real conclusive findings from from a lot of these studies and surveys that are done and so really you know we’re going to cover what you have to do at the moment to try to lay some of these issues so really what is SAR well put fairly simply SAR is really the measure of how much energy that could be any sort of energy but in this case we’re talking about radiofrequency energy so how much energy is absorbed by the human body in a certain volume over a certain period of time and within with Sal we’re talking about RF energy per kilogram per second as probably a lot of you already know a radio transmitter does need to make a link with with another device such as a base station in order for the device to work and the device to do what it’s designed to do so you know the phone is is next to your head it’s trying to communicate with the base station is a certain distance away and some of the energy is going to be absorbed into you into your head or your body the energy is going to radiate in all directions some of it’s going to be received by the base station but you are going to absorb some of that energy into your body and and the severity of this will cause various factors depending on things like distance and that the power of the radio transmitter and a few other things and if you can think of you know a light bulb if you put your hand close to a light bulb it gets warmer you move your hand away from the light bulb it gets cooler and obviously we’re talking about RF energy here so but you know the analogy is very similar and so distance has a big impact on how much radio

energy your body will absorb and most SAR measurements are performed using a calibrated electric field probe and that’s usually in conjunction with a robotic arm which is for positional accuracy and there’s also some data acquisition electronics which is to do with signal processing and detection star is expressed as a figure in the unit’s we use our watts per kilogram and that’s volume averaged over a certain size of body tissue it’s usually one gram or 10 grams of body tissue volume that these SAR is is expressed against you can see there on the screen the main formula for doing a spots our measurement for each revealed probes is as thing on the screen so this R is basically the conductivity of the tissue which is the first symbol which is a lowercase Sigma the energy squares and that’s over the permittivity or the mass density of the tissue and that gives you a spot SAR measurement the vertical lines there indicate your modulus so it’s respective of the whether it’s positive or negative ie it’s an absolute value but that’s the basics our formula the e field standard star probe equation which we use is directly proportional to the temperature change so our equation however temperature change measurements are rarely used for cell because of problems due to repeatability and but that’s not to say temperature is a very vital part of Sol measurement in that’ss we use quite a complicated mathematical formula to determine the volume average Sal figure though there is a mathematical formula we’ll take the spots are which you which you use the formula for and convert it into a volume average figure over a 1 or a 10 gram volume and this is dealt with by post processing software within the the sol system that you use the probes positioned then at various points within something called a phantom which is basically a vessel filled with tissue simulant and the SAR probes that we use have an averaging capability where they average out duty cycles for certain radio devices that are not transmitting continuously for example there a gsm mobile phone will only transmit for approximately an eighth of the time so the SAR probe measures one eighth of the peak power from from such devices other modulation schemes such as wideband CDMA use a hundred percent duty cycle and four other modulation schemes we use the appropriate duty cycle which is used in conjunction with the SAS software so I mentioned WCDMA you know things like GPRS and DECT all use slightly different modulation schemes and this is compensated for in the SAS software we’re going to be looking at head and body and limbs are so typically for forehead SAR we’re talking about devices that are use next to your head or the intended use is next to your head such as mobile phones DECT phones that sort of thing in terms of limbs we’re looking at ankle or wrist worn tracking devices and four bodies are we looking at devices that you use next to your body such as laptops that may contain an RF module a PDA or a body-worn transmitter of some sort so your body is absorbing the SAR and that’s the intended use of the product itself let’s just look at that we’ll see some of the requirements for limbs and the different limits that apply to limbs a bit later on so that’s an overview of what saris we’re now going to look at some of the legislation requirements for SAR and I thought the slides you see on the screen now is talking about RF exposure RF exposure is used quite commonly or your you might often see MPE which is maximum permissible exposure or sometimes our FX is used which is an abbreviated version of RF exposure and really you need to consider if the human body could come into close proximity with an RF transmitter but this is not the intention of the device rather it’s a consequence of its use or its positioning so things like wireless routers you know they’re not designed to be used next to you next to your body but you could come into contact with

them femto base stations cells and other transmitters that are you know you come into contact due to its positioning in terms of standards the generic standard for RF exposure is in sixty two three double one which is quite a commonly used standard there are some others which look at specific types of products so 503 85 is for base stations and fixed terminals for the general public and 500 3 7 1 which is for low-power devices typically less than 20 milli watts in RF output power and I should should also note that this standard 500 3 7 1 is going to be superseded soon and by a standard called 6 2 4 7 9 and the date of Super Session is the 1st of September 2013 so what we’d advise you is to start using 64 79 as soon as possible really because it will be the standard that will super sit that will be taking over from the older 503 7 1 standard and you can see there there’s a small little screenshot of the Official Journal which I’ll talk about in a bit more detail in a minute and you can see that this new standard listed in the Official Journal and you can see the standard supersedes and the inflammation implementation date in there as well and there are other RF exposure standards which we’ll be touching on in a bit but really if you need any more information on our four exposure standards and you can contact us at TV and we can advise you continuing on the legislation requirements for the European Union we use the our NCT directive and specifically we use article 3.1 a of the rit te which covers health and safety of the users and bystanders and also in conjunction with apps we use a document which is council recommendation 1999 5 190 C and that actually contains a lot of good information to do with public exposure making exposure to electromagnetic fields and also contains the limits and for the SAR that you might be measuring the low voltage directive is also in part of this and it mentions again the RF exposure standard EO in six to three double one which is intended to cover both intentional and non-intentional radiators so those are the top line standards for the European Union you can see there this is the first page of the Official Journal which is published by the European Commission and you can see there the the standard that’s rings is the harmonized standard 503 6-0 which which is talking about SAR between 300 mix and 3 gigahertz and you can see there on the right-hand side the part of the RTT directive the article within that it that it applies to as I said it’s article 3.1 a instead of Lee if you need a copy of the Official Journal is updated quite regularly we do post it on our website so you can go to TVP SEO UK and click on the news and download section and you will see the latest version of the Official Journal on there and we do try and keep it updated as soon as as we know it’s available okay so you’ve got five ere three six zero which is the harmonized standard and now the screenshot is an extract from that standard which then points you towards another standard which is six double 209 – one and that is the actual standard which contains all the test methods and all the rationale for measuring SAR for devices used in proximity to the human ear so this is the head SAR standard and that’s the standard we use day-in day-out for doing head SAR measurements underneath that you’ll see reference to the council recommendation five one nine which other cities to do with are for exposure to the general public and it also contains the limits the limits of SAR don’t actually appear in 60 209 – one you do have to refer to the council recommendation to see the limits for that and then on the next page this is an extract from the council recommendation five one nine and the table of limits Table one and you can see in there if you look under the frequency range ten megahertz to ten

gigahertz which is typically the products of it that we’re looking at you can see there’s a limit under localised SAR for head and trunk is two watts per kilogram and that’s volume average over a 10 gram volume so you can see there and that’s where the – what per kilogram limit comes from the column to the right of that shows you the Lim’s SAR limit which is four watts per kilogram so if you’ve ever wondered where these limits come from they they do contain there are contained in this this cancer recommendation document okay looking at more legislation as I mentioned five three six zero the harmonized standard refers to six to 209 – one for the testing methods you may have heard of another standard five F three six one which is an older standard and has now been superseded by sixty two a nine – one so we don’t actually use 503 61 anymore and then the standards for bodies are 62 a 9-2 and six through three double one for our exposure there aren’t actually any harmonized standards that point you in the direction for body saw so what we recommend is that you you do some body size testing – these standards as a sort of due diligence activity until the harmonized standards list actually contains a home and our standard for body SAR and that’s what we recommend to people in terms of in terms of simultaneous transmission again council recommendation 501 nine contains good information on that there are also ignor guidelines to do with simultaneous transmission and it’s also touched upon in six to three double one and as I’ve already mentioned low-power devices are covered under six two four seven nine and the new standard which was superseded five a three seven one and you can see there at the bottom the limit for the SAR for Europe to watts per kilogram for head and trunk for a 10-gram volume average SAR and that’s based on the requirements of the independent scientific organisation Hignett which is sponsored by the World Health Organization so those are the requirements for the EU looking at the FCC requirements for the USA and these tend to be I’d say quite a lot more complicated and we get a lot of questions and a lot of confusion actually about what’s required for the USA and but the general standards the overriding standard that we use for FCC is a ET 65 C which contained a lot of that the testing methods for measuring SAR however there are other parts FCC rule parts and you can see there for portable mobile and fixed mount devices but with the FCC there are also things called knowledge database documents and and there are quite a few knowledge database policies that apply to lots of different areas and different types of products and they are updated constantly so they’re always new knowledge database or KD B’s as we call them lots of KD B’s covering things such as you can see on the screen there and handsets with multiple end transmitters and antennas laptops with built-in discreet display screens wireless LAN LTE you know the list goes on also there’s a few interesting ones for PTT radios push-to-talk radios WiMAX 802 16 II and wireless charging applications and as I say these are constantly updating so you need to you need to be looking at their quite regularly or asking us for advice and we can advise you on any new k DB that may be coming up for your type of products there are also some other interesting KD B’s there’s the permit that ask lists which is something that you may be able to test and certify against but you need to ask the FCC specifically and for these just to give you an example products such as I get this new technologies things like HSPA+ where you use 16 cram modulation LTE or CDMA 2000 EVDO these types of technologies where the FCC still wants some involvement and you need to repeatedly be permitted to do something but you must ask as well and there is also

TCB exclusion list which which are lists of products that are excluded from TCB certification so this means you do actually have to go to the FCC directly for certain types of products but as I say we can provide you with it with advice and we can also give you links to where these documents can be downloaded and obtained from we’ve covered I won’t go through all these KTBS survives to say this there’s lots of them and just to touch on the limits pasar in the US it’s a different limit to the European Union the limit force after the u.s. is 11.6 watts per kilogram and that’s volume Ares over a 1 gram volume as opposed to a 10 gram volume for the EU the limit of limbs which covers hands risks feet and ankles is 4 watts per kilogram so this one what one more per kilogram limit is more stringent than the EU requirement as the limit is lower and the Tsar is average over a smaller smaller volume theoretically average averaging over one gram rather than 10 grams could give you a factor of five times more stringent so you do need to be aware of that for the FCC just take a quick trip to Canada the standard is RSS 102 and you can see the most current version they issued for March 2010 and and that covers the devices you can see on their mobile portable and fixed transmitters having an integral antenna and also covering the detachable antennas and a few other things the invokes several other documents invokes I Triple E 1528 and it also invokes the international standard IEC 62 o9 which is identical to the European en 60 209 and it does all does also invoke FCC knowledge database publications which we could just see Canada also up adopt the FCC one more per kilogram limit early marriages over a one ground saw there are some peculiarities you need to be aware of industry Candida specify requirements of bystanders is quite an important and new consideration and this is to do with innocent parties bystanders that could come into contact with devices such as laptops and tablet computers with built-in antennas in display screens and a bystander is classified as any person in the facility of this apparatus or radiating element there is a new document s pro-1 which refers specifically to bystander SAR and we did actually issue a newsletter recently a TV newsletter which gave you a lot more information about this bystander SAR requirement which you can get off our website game TV PFO UK and and it’s quite important that instructions are provided in the user manual regarding usage restrictions installation and operating instructions and that’s really common across across all requirements you know the the user information that’s provided to the customer is key and does cover a lot of the requirements that you need to you need to look at things like minimum minimum separation distances really need to be clearly stated in the user manual and the separation distances between users and bystanders and the apparatus itself needs to be clearly displayed in the user manual wrist of the world that’s quite a wide and sweeping statement you know there are other SAR requirements and Sol limits for various other parts of the world most of them adopt a derivative of the EU or the FCC requirements Japan or Korea or Japan have adopted the to offer kilogram or sorry Japan and Korea adopted the 2 watt per kilogram volume average over a 10 gram body jacket Japan has a standard called Arab t56 which gives test methods for the Japanese requirements and the Korean radio wave Act issued a public notice 2091 which contains information for SAR this are a comment for Korea Australia the

standard is a CA 2003 and there is an amendment one in 2007 and they’ve also adopted the 2 watt per kilogram 10 volume 10 gram volume average SAR requirements as the famous for the EU so you can see there most countries have adopted either the European or the American SAR limits and they do very okay so that’s sort of an overview of the legislation surrounding SAR we’re now going to look at the the SAR test systems themselves there are various SAR test systems that you can use to measure cell I’ll go through a few here now firstly looking at a platform called the saara – which is manufactured by a manufacturer called index are in the UK and this platform we use quite extensively TV here in the UK and it’s fully compliant to the IC EAN and FCC and canada requirements it uses a six axis robotic arm with an e field probe on the end of this robotic arm and that’s linked via a fiber optic link to a pc which is there all the post processing software that’s that’s done to actually generate the star level SAR readings at the end and we do have two of these systems available at CUV there’s also a new platform called the sour sea which we have it to UV also this is slightly different it uses a 90 degree angled probe so that the probe tip is perpendicular to the surface of the Phantom which is slightly different to the way the sorrow – system does it and this actually reduces a lot of the uncertainties a lot of the angular uncertainties compared with the the uprights are to system so the uncertainties are much much better for the sorrow see and you can see over the page there is a few benefits with surah C as I mentioned salon certainty is better you do get much faster scam times typically it’s about 50% quicker than some of the other systems of their out there it uses four axes to do the same measurements so there’s no robotic arm involved you’ve got some quite lightweight and simple stepper motors that would move the probe in four axes rather than six and it does actually have a much smaller footprint than existing cell systems and you don’t need an expensive robotic arm for positioning so quite a few benefits for the Sara CE and also the the speed Daisy for system which we have it TV now and that’s also compliance all the all the requirements for Canada European FCC etc it uses a flat phantom and which basically presents the SAR probe in the same way that the Cyrus II platform would where the probe is perpendicular to the surface that’s being measured with this system where we do have some new capabilities that we can offer such as 1.6 gigahertz for satellite handheld devices which we are seeing demand for two point six few Hertz of LTE handhelds and five gigahertz for 802 11 a five gigahertz Wireless LAN devices and we’re busy getting these platforms this platform validated and ready for use and we we hope to have that available to our customers in quarter three start a quarter three this year and so we’ll have you know some new capabilities which we’re seeing quite a lot of demand for okay so that’s the various systems that we have here just to show you really what we do with are and the protocol for SAR assessments before we do any measurements we do something called a system check and it’s also called a daily check because as it would imply you have to do this check daily or you do it when you change sour fluids you know if you change from 900 to 1800s you have to do a system check and the procedures for that contained in 62 andand X 1 and X D and where it says you do this before any sour measurements are executed a system check is a complete 1 or 10 gram SAR measurement and and you basically measure with a calibrated signal generator a calibrated dipole and the fluids that you’re intending to use and you do a system check to basically check that everything is working correctly it’s a bit of a check to make sure that the system is okay and also that the fluids you’re using is within certain tolerance and so

the project office our assessment and we’re going to go through really how we would do a normal head Sol measurement so we be using typically a mobile phone in this instance we’ve position the phone next to the cheek and on the left hand right hand side of the phantom we do we do a cheek and what’s known as a tilt measurement so first of all we do a cheek measurement where we position the fonox that the phantom head and we configure the phone to be transmitted on a certain channel at full power under the band that we’re investigating so if we’re doing a 900 megahertz device we check the center frequency of that band on maximum power and we do that using a communications test set such as a Roman Schwartz CMU 200 or equivalent you know there are others out there as well and we then position the mobile phone at a 15 degree tilt position again on Center frequency in full power mode and then we do that left and right so we do four measurements cheek and tilt on left hand side and cheek and tilt on the right hand side and that’s really to find the worst case position in 62 and 9-1 they’re asked there is some text in there to say that if you are below half the limit so the limit for the European Union as I’ve said is two watts per kilogram if you’re below half of that so you’re three DB down so you’re you’re less than one watt per kilogram you don’t actually have to repeat the testing on the top and bottom frequencies so you can do cheek and tilt left and right so you can do four scans on center channel because everything’s below 1 watt per kilogram that’s good enough you don’t need to then go and check top and bottom of the band if you are between one and two watts per kilogram in those initial four scans you do then have to go and do top and bottom channels so you could end up doing six scans and if the SAR is is higher than one watt per kilogram in the first four okay so we’re going to look at some of the rules governing our exposure these can depend on various factors which you can see on the screen there these are the fixed portable or mobile device the Alpha power of the transmitter is quite important some devices are exempt because of the the Alpha pair of solo and the device type whether it’s a mobile phone a USB dongle whether they are there are any accessories involved if it uses a headset a microphone a belt clip these will need to be taken into account and do affect what measurements are actually done the exposure region whether that’s head body or all the limbs you know the arms legs wrists ankles that sort of thing and also with any co-located transmitters within the device you know you could have a device with one two maybe three transmitters that could be you could be in use at any one time so you do need to consider colocation and quite important consideration and also the environment is it for professionals that are trained ie is it for occupational use or is it for the general public so is it a device that’s freely on sale to a member of the public okay so just to summarize the head saw we test on left and right ear at the touch and 15 degree cheek position we test using something called a Sam phantom Sam stands for step Sam stands for specific and throw problem and throttle morphic manikin bit of a mouthful and we use that for facade head testing the devices that you use next to your face so it’s not user next to your ear but you may you’d be using a portable radio maybe a push to talk to device we would actually test that using a flat phantom which we also use that for body testing and we use the manual the user manual distance for the intended use of that device and where these are both supported health of the year is considered worst case so the help to the face tests are not needed so if you’ve done that the head start next to the Sam phantom you don’t even have to repeat that in the body phantom the flat fountain tank you can actually just do it all he’ll to hear Phil to ear sorry that’s heads up we’re now going to look at body saw and there’s quite a lot in the body sauce standard which is Ian 62 a 9-2 as I said this isn’t a harmonized standard but this is a standard that’s published and available to demonstrate

compliance for for body saw and when we talk about body saw we could talk about lots of different different devices list of which you can see on the screen there and and I’ll briefly go through and show you an image of what these these different types of devices are talking about what we’re talking about here firstly looking at a body worn device this is a generic term to sort of indicate that there’s a body worn transmitter and quite important that the user manual or the user instructions specify you know the the intended use of the device otherwise you could end up doing star on if it’s if it’s a sort of square box you could be doing so on six phases of that device which does increase the cell time significantly so if the intended device is you know a certain scenario if you declare that in your user manual and your testing reflects that you then don’t have to test on all the phases of the device you should up you should consider Bell Clips holsters carry cases and really specified separation distance between the user and the device under test and that’s not allowed to be more than twenty five millimeters if you’re considering it a body-worn transmitter devices with hinged or swivel antennas for example you can see the sort of device we’re talking about there a base station with it with a hinged antenna and so that’s you know another consideration for body types for the s are a body supportive device which is a device whose intended use includes the device transmitting within any portion of the device held against the user’s body either come into the next screen you can see some examples of what we’re talking about here that could be a laptop computer you need to consider if the antennas are in the the base or the the lid of the laptop so you’d have to specify and you know the the where the actual antennas are to make sure the testing is covered so good testing the base of the antenna at the base of the laptop sorry where the antennas are in actually in the top of the screen you need to make sure the screen is tested as well tablet computers well the antenna could be anywhere of the six faces so you need to specify where the antennas are make sure that that faces is considered and also things like Wireless credit card machine and you need to specify separation distance between that and the device and its intended use a desktop device you know devices use on the desk obviously where the intended use is closer than 200 millimeters from this human body next screen shows you some examples of considerations you need to do for a desktop device he’ll to the front of faiths device ie to a radio that you hold in front to your face and then you key the transmitter we need to talk you put it to ear when you need to listen so it’s held in front of the face when you’re transmitting some examples that could be a video camera with a transmitter inside it it could be GSM it could be Bluetooth two-way radio still camera a game with with RF transmitted inside are examples of front to face devices a handheld only device a device which is intended uses in the users hands that could be a PDA with an RF module inside and and you know the device would be typically only usable when you hold it in your hand which is you know classified as a handheld device a limb or device a device that’s intended uses on the arm or leg and it’s in transmitting when in that position such as wrist or ankle mounted tags which we’ve seen and tested here at CU v offender tags as they’re known and I won’t give you the other colored Cal ISM for an offender tag but I’m sure sort of you know know where that is for these types of little devices and we have actually asked the manufacturers to provide the device where we can get direct contact with the the actual surface of the device in contact with it with a phantom that we were measuring and so the example there is you know a wrist or ankle worn tag where the device has actually been broken apart so you can actually get the surface of the device where the antenna is in contact with the actual and the south tank that we’re using sometimes that does mean you do need to

modify the test sample maybe cut the straps off or or get it so that it presents a flat surface to the Phantom and lastly 6.09 – – covers clothing integrated devices where you know an item of clothing is provided with an integral integral wireless device within it and we need to provide that needs to be provided with separation distance and a method of presenting that device next to the the measuring phantom okay so those are typical head and body devices that we we come across when I was just going to look at the 6 to 3 mm harmonized standards which covers intentional and unintentional radiators between zero and three hundred gigs and this is applicable where no dedicated products or product family standard exists so it’s called a generic standard and it covers lots of different types of measurements are testing calculations modeling etc annex B – does give you some localized SAR procedures and it does use the European standard 60 – 9 – 1 for the asymmetry liquid specifications that requires $63.00 also contains some information about simultaneous transmission and and there’s a formula there which is basically you basically sum-sum the SOL measured from the various transmitters that may be in use within that device so simultaneous transmission as it indicates is for devices where there are more than one transmitter in use at any one time and we basically some the 10 grams are together and and we come up with a we have to put into a formula and see whether additional measurements are required if you see on the next screen is an example of that a typical device could have a GSM which is the WWAN which is a wide area device it could have a wireless LAN because at Bluetooth and they could all be in use at any one time so looking at such a device we wouldn’t need to consider the Bluetooth if the power was less than 20 milli watts so the standard actually exempts bluetooth less than 20 milli watts from testing so all we really need to consider is the wireless LAN and the GSM devices what we do is we look at the the SOL measured for the nine the GSM device and we divide that by the limit the applicable limit and then we’d add that to the salt measured for the wireless LAN device divide that by the limit if those are less then if that comes out at less than one then you’re compliant for a similar training simultaneous transmission exposure if it comes out more than one then you do need to consider additional SAR testing with both devices working simultaneously so there would be some extra SAR scans required for devices where that limit is exceeded and so as I mentioned low-power devices can be eliminated from evaluation if their levels are below 20 milli watts in this case and you know the multiple transmission modes need to be assessed separately and combined and and we need to look at the various modes that that could be used so you need to consider the different types of modulation that could be required you need to be looking at the various channels that can be transmitted on to make sure you’re comparing like-for-like and and thus our data is then combined for each test condition so device position channel configuration and accessories it’s is there where one or two modes and designed to operate simultaneously okay so 6 2 – 9 – 2 looks at more simultaneous transmission requirements and we’ve gone through the the summation of the SOL values and you can also do some volumetric scanning which is the most accurate and you know is always

applicable and but that formula I gave you earlier provided that you’re within that formula you don’t need to you know if you do a summation you then no need to consider doing additional sales games the attendance transmission is quite complicated area even more so when it comes to the FCC probably too complicated to go through in our in a sort of 45 minutes webinar so if you do need to consider the FCC requirements for simultaneous transmission if you contact us we can give you a lot more detail and a lot more advice as to what you need to cover ok looking now at what’s required for SAR in terms of the measurements well a test report containing the SAR results is required and showing the requires of the specific standard and the standard you’ve actually used to demonstrate the the SAR the declaration of conformance to the appropriate standards is required and the SAR compared against the actual regulatory limit needs to be demonstrated and for Industry Canada you specifically need to do a what’s called a technical brief attestation which is contained in our SS 102 and X a and B it’s a separate document which you need to revise for for compliance considerations you need to consider its intended use and state that really in a user manual need to consider things like accessories belt clips and set cetera & Teller’s variants and the exposure category I really can’t stress enough how much how much good practice it would be to put all this in your user manual it does save a lot of a lot of effort and a lot of grief if you’ve specified its intended use and its intended separation distance and you’ve got soured data to back that up you know you’d be in a very good position if you had all that information to hand okay so we’re nearly done just really going to summarize a few things so SAR is a measurement of the heating effect of a radio transmitter which is used against the head or body people the human head all the human trunk and so but what about the non heating effects you know the non thermal effects what’s are doesn’t do it doesn’t consider the biological effects of blood flow disruption within the brain it doesn’t consider you know how brain pattern brain waves can be interfered with by radio frequencies and it doesn’t consider sort of cell damage so a lot of these considerations are being looked at and studied and but Sarris is really only considered the heating effect that radio transmitters would have against against the body or head and people ask our mobile phone safe well we don’t know the studies would indicate that there’s no conclusive proof one way or the other and have some phone safer than others well again you can’t really say you can say some saw some folks have a better style than others and but as long as that SAR is below the the applicable limit then you’ve met the requirements that you need to demonstrate so is it safer than someone else’s you can’t really say that and are some people at more risk than others well that is true some people are more at risk children for instance have a thinner skull so the radio waves are penetrate they penetrate more easily into the head and potentially have an increased heating effect so the advice is to limit mobile phone usage for children due to the the fact that they do have a thinner skull other people may be more at risk than others they may absorb radio waves more readily than other people but again if you comply with the soft standards and that’s all you can do really and and what can you do as a manufacturer or a module integrator and where your device is going to be using it to the head or body well what you can do is testing you can put together Russia now you can do a exposure calculation you can provide data and documentation and evidence to say that you’ve met the requirements and really that’s all you can do so just to summarize last page size a legal requirement in all developed countries in the world so if you’re going to be selling wireless devices you would will need to consider a SAR measurement or SAR calculation there are specific requirements for head and body measurements if that’s the in products intended use and RF exposure data is required if the product is not intended

to be used next to the human body or head but it could come into contact with it with somebody till you really product service can provide SAR testing for such devices our test reports are accepted worldwide we do have various test platforms available depending on the device and the manufacturers requirements and if you need any more information you can contact us on the web site TV PS doctor at UK there are other ways you can track what we’re doing you can go on Twitter you can go on our blog and you can go on our YouTube page which I think this presentation will be available on on our YouTube page after this webinar so really that’s the end of the webinar and I think now we’ve got some time for questions so I’ll hand you back to Simon who will then take us through the questions so thank you very much for listening hope it’s been interesting and let’s see what sort of questions we’ve got to go through