Dr. Shashi Tharoor at Moravian College

Good evening, as the president of Moravian College, it is my pleasure and honor to welcome you to the Inaugural Tagore Distinguished Lecture Series We are honored to be able to bring speakers to our campus who espouse the values and teachings of Rabindranath Tagore and we are especially honored to have Dr Shashi Tharoor at this inaugural event Just last week. I spoke at a Seminary alumni event and in the process of planning my remarks, I came across this poem by Tagore and I thought it was timely for that event and I also think it’s timely for this event right now. I would like to share one of his poems with you, I’m confident that it will make you think about our own country and our own time period, I’m sure you are all very familiar with “Where the mind is without fear and the head held, where knowledge is free where the world has not been broken up into fragments by narrow domestic walls where words come out from the depths of truth where tireless driving stretches its arms to its perfection where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way into the dreary desert sand of dead habit where the mind is led forward by thy into every winding thought and action into that heaven of freedom my father left my country awake” This is a beautiful and meaningful and even timeless poem especially in light of today’s world We can continue to learn from these teachings from these poems and we are fortunate, very fortunate to have this lecture series I would like to take just a moment to give you a brief background on this lecture series, the idea and concept for this lecture came about because of the vision of one person, Arup SenGupta, who is quite a distinguished individual himself. Arup is the P.C. Rossin professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Lehigh University and for the 275th anniversary of the city of Bethlehem, he was named as one of the inaugural members of the Bethlehem Hall of Fame Arup was chosen as a member of this esteemed group for among other things; developing ways to provide safe drinking water in regions in the world where groundwater is naturally contaminated with arsenic Regretfully, Mayor Donchez was unable to attend tonight’s events but asked me to extend his greetings to you Arup, he really wishes he could be here A little less than one year ago, Arup approached the college with the possibility of creating a lecture series to honor the teachings of Tagore. It was Arup’s idea to not only have this lecture series is something that benefitted the college community but also the Bethlehem community as well Moravian has a interesting history that is unique to only a few, very select cities In 1741, when the Moravians came and landed on Christmas Eve, they named Bethlehem the city, and within a few months later, they started a school So the college and Bethlehem have always been here, they have always been one. And for this reason Arup came to see that it was a good place to have Moravian, which has always been here with Bethlehem, be the place that could extend knowledge to the Bethlehem people in our area. So with that, it would be best to let Arup explain his vision for this lecture series Good evening everybody Good evening, thank you all for coming I’m happy, I’m pleased, I’m excited. I

finally get here today to start and celebrate Inaugural Rabindranath Tagore Lecture Series and the Distinguished Speaker Dr. Shashi Tharoor is here and will speak The job, which has been entrusted with me, has been simple, there’s only one thing: Why this takeover of Rabindranath Tagore Distinguished Lecture Series? In other words, why is Rabindranath Tagore relevant today? Rabindranath Tagore was made famous. He was a poet, he was a philosopher, he was a novelist, he was a social reformer, he was a women empowerment activist, he was a painter, he was songwriter. I won’t get into the details because different people probably have plenty of other reasons I’ll just share one simple thing with you, a fact, which you can relate to and you can also comprehend Rabindranath Tagore passed away in the year 1941, six years after that, India became independent After becoming independent, India, which is a secular, but predominantly Hindu country, made one bigger song when some harvester went Twenty five years later, Bangladesh, about twenty five years later, Bangladesh became independent That it is a predominately Muslim country made and equipped sovereignty go as hard momenti Another song written by one of his students. They were students in the Academy Constitution, which he founded later became the national anything of Sri Lanka Which is predominantly able destruction? this fact alone probably Gives enough evidence that wrote an article far more than being just A Bengali or a Hindu or an Indian he was truly a citizen of the world And that’s why this particular lecture series is very relevant at least today Because all said and done, and they in we all human being is planning Much more the same they are different, and that’s why we will continue to celebrate the article lecture series and Thank you Amy for coming and Allah invite did Open the may have to introduce our very distinguished speaker inaugural speaker appreciation And Like I said Gupta said I serve as the Dean of Arts for management social sciences marina college And I’ve been very fortunate to be connected to a series And I’m richer but I’m not going to take up too much time because we want to hear what dr. Shapiro’s has to say Come on words This is a big quotation a very brief one from Tagore’s that state nationalism in India our Real problem in India is not political It is social He goes on to say This is a condition not only prevailing in India But among all nations So Tagore was deeply spiritual deeply political and deeply engaged with the joys and sorrows of contemporary life and In his way Much the same can be said for Shashi through All the submission to his works one fiction and one non-pitcher The nonfiction work is the more recent one and era of darkness? the British Empire in India which came out in 2016 and on the UK edition Came out on teddicus last year and the work of fiction is a great Indian novel which came out of in 1989 for which he won the Commonwealth writers prize for the best Way to read the titles of some of the chapters of that novel to give you a sense of

some of his concerns The duel with a crown the Sun Also Rises Midnight’s parents passages through him yet the ring they have the bumble look or the reign of error Now Rather than take up more time from our honored guests. I last returned to your programs and Be more enough on On their side and rewards I’d like you to please join me in welcoming writer lecturer Thank you Thank you very much EMM Esmond greets me Professor of same comparison man behind all of this friends Delighted to join you in this hotel peplum at the invitation of Moravian College Very generously given really distinguished honor of delivering the inaugural winner dr. Gahl lecture Dedicated to the ideals and values of the straight man, and what they mean for us in today’s world. I’m really grateful to 2d men as well for Resisting the temptation to do what people usually do when they seduce speakers in these kinds of events? Which is to look them up on the internet? That can actually be quite quite a challenge because Very often as you know the internet will tell the world things you May not actually had done wish to take credit for and then you hear it being recited as you are about to address the audience I have a friend in New York specialized in In not just looking up his Introduced CDs on the internet, but also looking up their family tree the deeds and misdeeds uncles and aunts And grandparents in fact one particular occasion II discovered that the person he was about to introduce had an uncle who peed Electrocuted at Sing Sing prison for kidnapping and armed robbery as on equally horrible But haven’t taken the trouble to look it up. He felt he had to use it They said in our speaker Distinguished speaker had an uncle who occupied the chair or applied electricity and one of the nation’s leading Just by way of saying we need to take these introductions with a piece of Swords and let me start by congratulating you organizers for taking the effort To initiate such a lecture series which so many better-known institutions have failed to do And the fact that I’m speaking on this topic here in America is perhaps all the more appropriate Since it is a land in which to go spend the most amount of time after India and Britain He first visited this country in 1912 while the company his son an attendant Who was at the time pursuing his education in? agricultural studies in Veda The following year he won the Nobel Prize for Literature and became a much sought-after international literary celebrity So much, so that during his second visit in 1916 to go wrote to his close friend the English painter William, Rothman Stein Complaining of his rising popularity in America and the effect it had on his own privacy American people he wrote have an unhealthy appetite for sugar candy and for lectures On any subject and from any book Well having said that item to go was right about the American after lectures Especially I have to compensate for the absence of sugar candies And let me not to go over some physically a striking figure He came across too many years of an archetypal Indian mystic and ascetic dressed in white robes of the flowing better than air of great wisdom the very image of a stage from the east who confirmed if you liked it, please share if there’s a land of exotic mysticism and ancient spiritual wisdom or as the guardians in Jack was it an

embodiment of how the West wanted to see the East Those who looked beyond his appearance and read his work knew there was far more to God than met the eye One of the things about a minute ago that never fails to be brother Educated Indians is the extent to which his reputation is plummeted in the West Even as it has grown into immortality in India when the Nobel prize-winning polymath emerges in published his brilliant potent argumentative Indian few of any Western reviewers paid attention to his essay in it about to go and Yet while the Pope was rightly noted for sin superb marshalling of arguments for the existence of a liberal tradition in India This masterly as it was a much needed effort to reclaim the cause international reputation The reason it was necessary is of course Then whereas divorce greatness seemed self-evident to most Indians and to all Bengalis to earth million-strong room Tagore is now unjustly misjudged in the West as a mediocre mystic put rather than as the remarkable rationalist and humanist genius that said convincingly depicts The fact is though that it’s genuinely difficult to explain to foreigners the scale of her women ought to cause accomplishments Some of me to comparisons to Shakespeare and Goethe, but neither man this fighters and of greatness Excelled at as many fields as the were available to goal Nor dominated his culture to the extent that Tagore did his Think of it. He was not merely an extraordinary thoughts the only Indian to win the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913 for his Gitanjali profoundly moving verses written in Bengali in 1910 after he had lost his father his wife His second daughter and his youngest son or within a span of a few months He was also a prose writer essayist the first rank whose articles books and monographs Commanded a wide readership her work as a philosopher He was perhaps the first to develop the synthesis of Eastern and Western approaches and in other political ideas in great depth and humanity in which more later He was agreed in uneven Novelist and short story writer could produce several masterpieces that continued to be read a century and a half after his birth His company Weller is among the few short stories most Indians remember from childhood And he was also playwright of rare distinction His play the post office for instance was one of those popular plays on North Broadway and the West End in London before the Second World War But added to all that with his other remarkable talents He was a painter of high quality and perceptiveness and artists with a poet’s eye He was a composer of over 2,000 immortal Psalms of which he authored both the lyrics and the tunes and Through which he essentially founded his own discipline of ending music known as ruins. We shall meet He’s the only person that’s already heard from Professor Sengupta to have created the national anthems of two different countries India’s janaganamana and Bangladesh is among the both nations were born after his own death and He inspired the composer Sri Lanka anthem as well who translated to course lyrics and simple to cause music in a tribute to his mentor As if this were not enough you can see my Shakespeare pales in comparison He was an educator of great vision and courage funding Bhishma part of the university a champion kitten the abode of peace to offer an authentically Indian experience of higher education following systems and approaches of his own devising An educated the lives of subtly Israeli famous film director and Indira Gandhi a former prime minister Not to mention offering the cradle to mother said I’m already mentioned whose first name with its Evocations of immortality about Demings at which I’m not tired That first day was given to him back to God Possibly the only since the one If all this were not worn extraordinary representing a level of achievement, so Tolerated that it’s impossible to imagine an individual in any other culture who even comes close

There is also the remarkable factor towards huge worldwide impact his own time Which even today’s Indians may have difficulty imagining? Tagore was a global giant before the era of globalization When he was to speak in New York’s 4,000 seats Carnegie Hall in 1913 Itself a rare enough common essence the others know is usually reserved for concerts not voracious more than 20,000 people were turned away from the sold-out event creating a massive humanity on the streets outside that blocked traffic for miles and occasion an article of the front page of the New York Times The the traffic jam caused by people who couldn’t get in to listen to go New living right on the planet and never had something comfortable to that happen and what’s more To go was handsomely paid for it While American critic not without a tinge of jealousy Wrote the 17th that the Indian schools Americans at $700 were scold today’s tender definitely more like $17,000 per school in current dollars and perhaps $70,000 in practicing biology And they were quite a few schools in every speech Tagore himself was modestly dismissive of his fame and the attention it got it The perfect world into public excitement the Nobel Prize has given rise to is frightful He wrote to his friend, ratha Stein in 1913 It’s almost as bad as tying a tin can to a dog’s tail Making it impossible for him to move without creating noise and collecting crowds of It he has written. He confided to this Torah dendrotoxin What an immense about? Unreality there is in literary reputation, and I am longing Even while appreciating it like a buffalo the luxury of a mud bath To come out of it as a sannyasi in this age be hidden and aloof Now as you’ve seen I really He had a rare gift of fragrance his description of the Daruma health as a tear dropped on the cheek of time man can scarcely be better and Which poet would not have wanted to offer his linemen who? Constrained to blue from the sky His descriptions of nature are stopped in the original and thought-provoking in their imagery the Rose he wrote is a great deal more than apology for the faulkner Dawn is the Departing mouths kiss on the closed eyes of morning Just a meta-level a Picture is a memory of light treasured by the shed Sometimes the metaphor is explicitly metaphysical In the mountains still the service up to explore and stone right in the lake movement stands still to contemplate its own death He led to spirituality literary sexiness few others could master Life is given to us. We earn it by giving it or the poignant and Because I love this life. I know I should love death as well His stories and letters overflowing literary jammers each bury and incite family steeped in Indian tradition quotes while God waits for his temple to be built of love man brings stones o He who does good comes to the temple gate, but who loves reaches the shrug and Darkness travels towards lights, but blindness tours death This is also true is more social reflections now these men in require But God did not choose to give him he wrote a short story, or is he 1015 Elders have become chief to mother and children to readily accessible and so have all objects of desire and Throughout his awareness the divine decree to the cosmos the world is an ever-changing phone that floats on the surface of a sea of silence o

Coax man has in him the silent see the noise of the earth and the music of the air I Couldn’t least keep your sense of flavor of his of his way Abruzzi where this imagery is mr Weh his famous introduction to get Anjali quoted an anonymous big horny doctor saying that quote we have other poets, but none that I is equal recalled as the epoch of Rabindranath no – it seems to be as famous in Europe as he is amongst us he has written Music is important and the songs are songs of the west of India into Burma wherever Laguna is spoken He was already famous at 19 when he wrote his first novel and please when he was possible owned us – please I so much admire the complete pursue his life when he was very young he wrote much of natural objects He would sit all day in his garden from his twenty-fifth year or so to his 35th perhaps when he had great sorrows The trend in here to Juba he wrote the most beautiful love poetry in our language After that is our pool deeper it became religious and philosophical all these Puritans mankind and his enemies He’s the first among our sins who has not refused to live but has spoken out himself To go return the compliment Iligan tells writing of Yeats quote like a cut diamond That means the light of the sky to show itself the human soul on its own cannot express its essence and remains dark Only when it reflects the light from something greater than itself doesn’t come into my self It’s himself my talk to observe and I quote him again these lyrics which are in the original mind and friends Tell me full subtlety of rhythm about Rawnsley from delicacies of color of metrical invention Displaying their fourth a world that I’ve dreamed of all my life long the work of a supreme culture they yet appear is much the growth of the common soil as the grass and the Russians a Tradition with poetry ability now the same thing has passed through the centuries gathering from remand and unlearn the metaphor and emotion and carry back again to the multitude the thought of the scholar and nothing new For each their ending spiritual content was their principal men Could be frightened make money and fill our heads with politics all the other things in the doing well mr Tagore like Indian civilization itself has been contend to discover the soul and surrender himself to in spontaneity Again Tagore himself would have disavowed such grand claims as he had spent quote since it’s Impracticable to be uncivilized and better tried to be thoroughly civil. He wrote in nineteen in 1892 twist nice But a visiting none of these the sexual teacher rarer than the other and I have spent too long Summarizing the extraordinary accomplishments was rather But none of these miss assembly often adequate Explanations for the second part of the question that must naturally be on your mind why should to call matter today? Yes, there was a time when Tagore was a global phenomenon whose or an impact was felt in places around the world like Iran worries warmly received in celebrated by the shop in South America We would go on to influence a young table, New River the Argentine writer Victoria Campo and the Brazilian put Cecilia Mira Mira leash He was popular in China, Japan Vietnam Germany Poland all countries But like the US he went to make connections pourcel at a point in history where networks between these countries were at a nascent stage and the idea of globalization and been buried in the Far East conquers the governments of the first world Yes, there was a time when terkoz reputation at the international image was so greatly recognized that you could have a rather bizarre situation wenting teachers like Mussolini in Stalin vied with each other To heaven having visit their countries in the hope of securing the symbolic symbolic endorsement from his presence of their egregious regimes But that was all a considerable while ago a moment in history that shouldn’t necessarily hold himself to special relevance for us in the 21st century and it also trooper to what was always welcomed by Asian modernist in his own new time on a visit to Shanghai in 1924 his message that modern civilization built upon the cut of

Money and power was inherently destructive and needed to be tempered by the spiritual wisdom of the east while Western ideas of modernity should be regarded skepticism Led to him being heckled and booed by Chinese audiences the child the communist poets truly my roots Thank You mr. Tagore, but we have already had too many Confucius’s and mistresses here in China And yet history has a way of repeating itself and unless we learned from the past The future remains unclear and challenging as I’ve often said myself in another context As a man was telling you about Michael Caine hero of darkness. I have some say to young people You know when you’re coming from how can you appreciate? Where you go, so? Let’s take a step back and look back at the world which to Gore made such an impact in the 1920s or 30s a Period universally recognized being one of the darkest points in human history Which ultimately? Concluded in the monstrosities of the Second World War and the horrors of the Holocaust and Hiroshima Across Europe the far-right and its populace promises to restore the historic law or glory and grandeur of their respective countries was finding unprecedented acceptance in society Winston Churchill for instance now Ironically hailed in the West as a standard bearer of democracy and freedom was throughout the 1920s and early 1930s and open and Meyer and Mussolini saying in the 1920s an Italian fascist movement had rendered a service to the whole world He made it a judgment that he’d been prepared to do much the same in Britain as Muslim. He had literally hadn’t been necessary Churchill travelled to Rome in 1927 to express his admiration for Al duche two years after the murder of Matteotti When the character of the fascist regime was well established I? Could not have been charming seabrooke Churchill like so many other people have been By signor Mussolini is gentle and simply bearing and by scon detached poised in spite of so many murders and dangerous Anyone could see that he thought of nothing But the lasting good as he understands it of the Italian people quote unquote Churchill declared Umbro if I had been an Italian I’m sure that I should have been all heartily with you from start to finish your trial for the stroller comfort zone in print unavailable Suppress subsequently was another story London Times 21st January 1927 t+ axes ask for democracy Churchill wasn’t laid to combat to the cause as Latest 1921 he declared in the famous speech in which he attacked Gandhi the Indian Congress and other elements of this agitation represent neither the numbers the strength nor the vegetable vinden beetle They merely represent those Indians who required a veneer of Western civilization and have read all those books about Democracy which Europe is now beginning increasingly to discovered quote unquote Democracy was an idea that Europeans like Churchill. We’re happy to discount in the heyday of fascism when circumstances Plunged him into becoming the standard bearer of democracy and freedom he embraced the public relations opportunity But remember that fascism had much broader appeal in those days that is commonly realized Protectionism was at an all-time high with countries looking inwards as they moved to recover from the structural changes forced upon the First World War Here in America the Great Depression and set it heating 34 million Americans with no income of their own and across the Western world and nativist in a phobia a decision Based on intrinsic distrust and organized a turn of any one was deemed an outsider fast forward to 2018 and the parallels between the two periods are gremlin and of a sobering reminder of the dangers of our times Populist leaders are strongly the resurface for the plum in Russia China turned to the Philippines across parts of Europe and of course in India and in America supranational institutions of global governments of the post Bretton Woods era The United Nations European Union the IMF and others are facing intelligent crises of their own brought about by the continual reluctance to accommodate structural reforms within them to reflect a changing world that has moved a long way since the bipolar Cold War order Xenophobia anti-semitism are back in parts of the world that one would have thought would never entertain such ideas again

Protectionism at least partially has made re-entry into global politics and worryingly anyone who is an immigrant Muslim or worse a Muslim immigrant it’s now cooked as in parts of the world as a national security threat as The great journalist Jonathan friedland described the comparisons between the 1930s from the president quote Historians of the period and 1930s of always worthy of study Because the Dickey proves that systems including Democratic Republic’s Which it seemed solid and robust can collapse that fate is possible ill in advanced sophisticated societies the morning never gets old on country Let us consider for example the widely discussed recent paper and the Harvard scholar Yasha monk and his colleague Rebecca for Who argue that the health of liberal democracies across the world is failing and the former? consolidated democracies around the go confront imminent degeneration drawing on data from the world value survey the 1995 2015 they sure has been a considerable dan you should of support for democracy and growing impatient process especially among the so-called millennial generation That was born up to the 1980s and that we can no longer assume that once the country upholds democratic institutions for a steady period of time Foster strong civil society traditions and attains a degree of wealth that the future of democracy is secure and it’s endless It says they tell us a fallacy we must always go against complacency Democracy in other words has been challenged. Even as we face a worldwide backlash against globalization and Cosmopolitanism and under you byproduct of this is the rise of mandatory introduce and then this heart Conformity as a new batch of Allegiance The global rise of officially mandated nationalism is a surprising phenomenon of our times a century began with urbanization receiving unstoppable national batteries appearing ever more permeable and state surrendered more and more of their sovereignty to organizations that Were traded organizational regional global trade pacts and to international legal institutions like the International Criminal Court fukken foreseen such an abrupt reversal of this trend midway through the second decade of the century The global backlash against the forces that have defined the first decade and a half Of the 21st century have taken on new service to you everyone in Europe and America This has involved racist hostility to immigrants and minorities whether ethnically or religiously defined since such negative messaging requires a positive counterpart nationalism must fill the breach as a Majoritarian narrative in each country has sought to subsume each country’s denver’s political tendencies into an artificial mandated unity Masquerading as authentically rooted patriotism We were discussing as before this event how worms taken aback when America deserve to elect Donald Trump to its highest office Seduced by the proposition that Trump would make America great again Which to many voters of course was also called for make America white again? In less than a year into his just over here to his best year in office The president and his army of Trumpets have declared war on anybody who defiles the Americans by symbol of nationalism with Trump himself suggesting extensive use of damages for such an offense And this is a country where the flag can form a garment to cover just about any part of your body Similarly to take the knee movement started by the effort in American football player Colin, Kaepernick Kneeling during the national anthem right before a game a protest against what he felt was systemic and continued Discrimination against the African American community in the US has been denounced as an insult to the nation While several of his colleagues including from other sports were quick to show them some authority and support Cabling himself can do London yet again to place your support In India we have leaders of the ruling party similarly denouncing those who refused to declare not a key to Victory to the mother goddess India as NT national democracy matters much less racemes than such litmus tests of nationalism The organization had promised a world of dissolving differences in ever expanding freedoms that would embrace innings and everyone instead today’s reactive nationalism – differences

emphasizes singular virtues associated with the politically to find people and seeks to instill loyalty and commitment to the state and its immigrants at The level of voluntary voting the national flag the National and the lapel opinion and reverence for the military’s Sacrifices. I have no problem with us But when these symbols are used to promote a sense of obligatory duty rather than affection of the nation for the idea of the nation and Compliance with the prevailing governmental narrative rather than freedom free citizens to interpret national volunteen our own way That I do have Respect from the anthem of the flag becomes a code for obedience to the states of the ruling party And that’s why I said conformity has now become the new bed of Allegiance Now why do I spend so much time on what’s going on today in the world not just because these are troubling and potentially dangerous Developments the idea of the nation as an inclusive community of all citizens One that allows each individual to shelter under the constitutional carrot base To pursue his or her own ideas of happiness Free from the stipulations of others is being tossed aside in the name of a higher patriotic duty to the officially sanctioned version of nationalism This is exactly what Warsaw is described In the 1910s 20s and 30s, and it’s reminiscent to the same slippery slope done with Italy in Germany slid into fascism and nazism in the 1920s and 30s Such fears may be exaggerated in today’s democracies which have modern means of communication thriving free media and social media But can we honestly look at that period and see that complacency is still an option to go for a saw and predict the dangers of this narrow-minded nationalism and Was bad one of the greatest critics of a phenomenon that he described as quote a cruel epidemic of evil that is sweeping over the human world And age eating into its model vitality It’s safe to assume that to go as principled opposition to nationalism came from a perspective tempered by the experience in the First World War and the nationalist fervor that a group much of Europe And led to violence of a magnitude the world had never seen before In a three-part essay that forms his ministerial work nationalism to go Writing at a time when war was raging across Europe was published in 1917 offered a Christian warning of the dangers of nationalism in the nation-state quote when this organization of politics and commerce whose other name is the nation Becomes all-powerful at the cost of the harmony of the higher social life, then it is an evil day for Humanity When a father becomes a gambler’s obligations to his family take the secondary place in his mind that he is no longer a man Button also makes me led by the power agreed Then he can do things which in his normal state of mind you would be shaped to do It is the same thing with society when it loves itself to be turned into a perfect organization Then there are a few crimes which is unable to Ultimately did to call the moral imperative of humanity far outweighed the political and commercial impetus But came together to form the core of nationalism as he saw it To him nationalism was a distraction from the real problems of humanity, which he felt was sushi To him nationalistic fervor had come to a stage Where the moral man the complete man is more and more giving way almost without? Renewing it to make room for the political in the common the man of the limited purpose of courting this aided by the wonderful progress in science is assuming gigantic proportion are causing the upset of Maddie’s Mormon fellows obscuring his human side under the shadow of soulless organization I’m just think of what technology is in the process doing to us today and Tagore could have written the very same words in 2018 as was often the case with the gory captures this morning nested most beautifully in his poetry is a poem called the sunset of the Century which you know from the last day of the 19th century, and I’ll quote a bit material The last song of the century sets amidst the blood-red clouds of the West and the whirlwind of hatred This is 40 years before the first one the naked passion of self-love of nations in its drunken

Delirium of greed is dancing to the clash of steel and the howling vessels of vengeance The hungry self of the nation shall burst in a violence of fury from its own shameless feeding For it has made the world its food The crimson glow of light of the horizon is not the light of thy dawn of peace my motherland It is the glimmer of the funeral pyre Burning to ashes the last flesh the self-love of the nation dead under its own axis By morning waits behind the patient at least meet and silent It was almost as if he was thinking of today’s world when he wrote this clue with his clarion. Call to Where the dangers of jingoism shamanism? Cloaked under the garb of loved ones nation, but this is not dismissive, or wasn’t a patriot he would eventually return his knighthood to the British in protest of amassing these phylidia protestors a general about by geminal diol an active repeating disregard – Korra’s great error of the National astronomer Tagore wrote that he could not retain such an honor a lighter in the incongruous context of national humiliation At the same time in a letter to the British CFM bruise in 1922 gold admit foot It is not that I do not feel anger in my heart for injustice an insult heaped upon my motherland But this anger of mine should be turned into the fire of love For lighting the land who wish to be dedicated through my country to my god It would be an insult to humanity if I use the secret energy of my moral indignation For the purpose of spreading a blind passion all over my country So a patriot yes, and nationalism no To go did not really believe in nationalism and the values of the human spirit transcending all national boundaries my religion He told Albert Einstein He’s in the reconciliation of the super personal, man The universe of human spirit in my own individual being my religion conciliation In my own individual be Careful patients of parochial forms of thinking are mindless faculties, which had universal he declared But it’s habits are concealed in his book nationalism expressed the view that there is only one history history of man Or master histories are merely chapters in the larger National right does not feature in his thought only the immutable girl’s knowledge learning and the pursuit of truth Now this is where I will again quote the point the president groups would be pleased we already read out to you But now here is the context of everything I’ve been saying for the last 45 minutes What he believes in Where the mind is without fear of the head is held high Where knowledge is free? Where the world has not been broken up into fragments by narrow domestic walls Where words come out from the depth of truth? Where tireless dragging stretches its arms towards perfection? Where the clear stream of Reason has not lost its way to the dreary desert sand of dead head Where the mind is led forward by me into ever widening thought and action Into that heaven of freedom my father let my country awake Typically, this is an inspirational poem that would serve as the anthem for any base received in the freedom Indulgence whatsoever to tourism or chauvinism Well the chauvinistic, Cleveland Which I as an Indian writer and celebrating ruin the not to God would not particularly repeal to him He dreamt of freedom for India He sought for his country it was in a place where the mind is without fear and the head is health I when knowledge is free and where the mind is led forward into ever widening fortune actually that Tagore vote is in they will awake to freedom and His idea of freedom was indeed far more profoundly individual than national Freedom of movement is not the only vital Liberty said in 1916 freedom our workers to more important Nora subjugation the greatest bondage narrowness of Opportunity is the worst cage mall One of his poems perfectly as the paradox on the nature of resident freedom in an enslaved land. We were enslaved by the bridge

quotes the tame bird was in a cage The free burgers in the forest we met at the time came it was a decree of fate the free bird cries Oh, my love. Let us fly to the woods the caged bird whispers come hither let us both live in the cage Says the free bird among bars. Where is the room to spread one’s wings? Alas cries the caged bird. I should not know where to sit perched in the sky Tagore’s was a voice of freedom that was more important to him that every individual be free to pursue his destiny Give me the strength never to bend my knees before Insolent might he prayed and eternally as a result He was an iconoclast dissenting not only from Empire, but even from the political orthodoxy of his own country struggle for independence In this context perhaps his disagreement with Muhammad Ali and also surprising He objected to martha’s non. Cooperation on what one might tell philosophical grounds He considered political asceticism and the citizen was not something of which you Know in its passive model form is assessed businesses and in its active one reformist violence He argued in a lesson to the Mahatma’s British associates the offenders Nor did he have any patience for the Mahatma’s method of fasting unto death? Fasting which has no direct action upon the conduct of miss doers he wrote to Gandhi in 1933 and which may abruptly terminated ones power further to serve those who need help is All the more unacceptable for any individual who has there was ability to represent humanity Gandhi was not convinced, but their exchanges are amongst the most stimulating intellectual pleasures of the freedom movement at the same time to cover the booze that a nationalist was not exactly an internationalist in the classic sense beloved of un aficionados like myself He died before the United Nations was created But he did not think too highly of its foreign organization the League of Nations Tagore wrote of the league that was well conceived in theory but not in practice Because it was an institution in which the world was represented by national governments and Nationalist political leaders it is heroes like organizing a band of robbers into a police department Which is also an organization of States rather than people’s When he won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913 his acceptance speech readout of the grand official British affair in Norway consisted in one sentence I Begged to convey to the Swedish Academy my grateful appreciation of the breadth of understanding Which has brought the distant mirror and has made a stranger brother That’s the entire acceptance be true But to go to propagate something much more powerful than internationalism has defined at the senses yo governance or even Globalization as is understood today What to go promoted was a moral synthesis between the west and east At a time when it felt it seemed as the world was falling apart, and it seems this is a time when the West with its imperial ambitions and legacy was looked at but resentment aleast and For to go to try and establish a moral commonality between the two was no simple task but to over speak to point out that even within the West a Decision must be drawn between the spirit of the West and the nation of the West To him the spinet represent the moral convictions of Western society What he country what he categorized as its best contributions to humanity? from internationalism to the idea of red space democracy to focus on education and social development and so on These were Universal matters, that would go a long way to furthering the overall development of humanity In stark contrast to this was what he called an issue of the West a structure. That was motivated by greed and self-interest Which use the tools of imperialism and colonialism? To promote its with malicious interest in Harper’s fashion and enslaver speaking on the Indian experience under the British to go pointed out that this desire for a common bond of compression Among the different races of India has been the work of the spirit of the West not that of the nation of the west

Wherever an Asian people understand the true lesson West it is in spite of for Western As I’ve already observed with his long beard and flowing white robe women are to go pitch wise for many the archetype of the Indian sage the precursor of so many government and gurus who follow his footsteps to the West There is little doubt there’s Magisterial mindedness authoritative presence Did a great deal to inspire admiration across the world and to spark a revival of interest Hinduism and the teachings of into spirituality Tagore see who is amended do with the illness Sought to be promoted, but today’s Hindus, but brigades in India. It was a thief free restrictive doubler only rich untraveled in its yearning for the divine and Universalist and its conviction and its appeal This is what me and his idea is so attractive to non-indians He had a great respect the Christianity which he saw as emerging in many ways evening I think it has been the good fortune of the West he wrote to me to have the opportunity of Absorbing the spirit of the east through the medium of the Bible tell me to remind the folks once about the Jesus Christ position In his famous discovery of India In his first prime minister from the Narrows fittingly acknowledged to those contributions Knows who that bothered in India more than any other Indian he has helped to bring into harmony the ideals of the east of the West and Broaden the basis of Indian nationals he is been India’s internationalist par excellence Believe me in working for international collaboration Taking into his message to other countries and bringing their messages to his own people under as historian ramachandra guha oneself, but never became Prime Minister 1997 Influenced to go, but strongly in the direction never chose to take his country towards To cause ideas or the citizens of a traditional Tennessee between the western India was a guiding philosophy For narrow as well as evident in his efforts to keeping the non-aligned during the Cold War era and to promote a nation ism amongst India and its neighbors Tagore was unusual and stretching his Africa the title of one of his lesson employers in which mystical imagery is married to denunciation of colonialism quite a few lines from its Africa Alaska veiled one underneath the obscurity of your dark facade they unknown your human identity Degraded by the collective gazed at derision And then they arrived manacles in hand claws shot by far than any on your wounds They arrived human rustlers and traffickers a wall by vanity and arrogance blinded Cyclists by far than your darkest sunless forests If to core the man of sophisticated political Educational spiritual ideas has dominated this picture It will be wrong before I finish to admit the other to God the author of some of the finest love poems and songs ever written in bingo My personal favorite is when I went to my late wife upon our engagement And I will embarrass myself by repeating it here for it is too. Good to admit I Seem to have loved you in numberless Falls numberless times in life after life in age after age forever My spellbound heart has made and remade the necklace of songs that you take as a gift Where our new link in your many forms in life after life in age after age forever Whenever I hear our chronicles. I’d love it’s a do with pain It’s ancient tale of being a possible together as I stare on and on into the past in the end you emerge Had in the night to a star piercing the darkness of time You become an image of what is remember You and I looked at the air of the stream that brings from the funk to the heart of time love of one for another We have played alongside millions of others share the same shy Street this meeting the same Distressful tears of farewell all love, but in shapes that were new and renewed forever Today it is heaped at your face it has found its end in you the love of all men’s days will pass them forever Universal joy

Universalists are universal life the memories of all loves Merging this love of ours and the Psalms every poet past and forever When the great British poet Wilfred Owen author of what I consider the greatest anti-war per than English language Will change the Economist? Was to return to the front to give his life in the futile first world war He recited to cause parting words to his mother as his nasca by Widow and was so tragically in quintal as he killed his mother found Tagore’s Pullen Copied up in her son’s hand in his diary When I go from hence let this be my parting word that what I have seen is understood possible I Have tasted him hidden honey of his notice that expands a musician of lights, and that’s my list Let this be my parting word In this Playhouse in infinite forms. I’ve had my play and here am I caught sight of him That is formless My whole body and my limbs have thrilled with his touch. Who is beyond touch, and if the end comes here Let it come let This be my parting word And hid this magnificent leader of words spoke modestly of the value of what? words are barren dismal uninspiring by themselves He said in a 1922 nature But when they are bound together by some bond of rhythm they attained their significance as a reality Which can be described as created? The University of Turkish thoughts and ideas seem to me beyond chemical and his fears for the direction of the modern world as Prescient to them and as applicable today as when he first expressed With his typical generosity to go 70 artists, William, Rothman Stein he had a vision to seek truth and the heart to love it the Same was true of himself And we do not to go with a woman immortality in any of his chosen fields Instead he remains immortal Thank you very much, sir I can bring the distance near and doctor through her has graciously Allowed us some time to ask questions Please wait for one of our students to come to you with His hand out like so that Toby could be short getting your questions so that everyone can hear Will you be perfect couple dings question is Which one of them a little closer to your selection yeah, can you comment on if she had My comment on her ste a visual artist And Yes, she has written about it in letters and interviews and memoirs She’s I would argue that The biggest contribution of Ashanti like 80 years was the fine development of our aesthetic sense she I think discovered Indian art culture fabrics Essentially through that process of being immersed emphasis as you know in a very small town Essentially created like to coach nothing again. Which is in rural Bengal? it’s not in the city, and and essentially kept us was it that was all there was and she I Think was therefore totally immersed in the ideas music art painting she can really have much talent, but she tried all of that and and and Capably I think with a very finely developed sense of aesthetic appreciation And she could judge I mean I know it sounds But not to say this but for example of magnificent taste in saris

Was actually a reflection also a respect for the traditions and craftsmanship that had gone into each Each sorry so that you know she knew as it well What the challenges were and could you see? The work of art that that she was wearing a saree that sort of things I would say that would be the principal Contribution we difficult to argue that she might any of the horse political ideas as you’ve heard me describe to summarize them have you was very to obviously, but historically nationalists she was a bit of big government kind of person that always much more committed to individual freedom and so on so I Would confined the impact essentially to the aesthetic and the country not? Thank you Talk to questions is Remember it’s a great point but sometimes ideas seem More practical Whether the whatever saves on nation-states and freedom something more or less similar doing a way to Gandhi’s his idea of personal freedom and subburaj which is The Impact it had on each person on the other On the first bit, and I don’t disagree with you that there’s something impractical particularly the world of nation-states to imagine a world without national markets and Serve your right to that degree this isn’t going to happen in any foreseeable Future your country in my country in this country are obviously extremely wedded to the sovereignty there And they’re not about a compromiser to any notion of world government or anything like that so I would say that That if you were to think of it as as Impractical it’s different to disagree with a lot of idealism is impractical Where I would say that Tagore should be heeded Today is it as prescient about the dangers of Nash running record That when nationalism gets converted as it was of the tens twenties and thirties Of the previous century and as it seems dangerous Italy to be beginning to be converted in the same decade a century later That is into this Recession of national glory strong men leaders Mandatory diversion to nationality national symbols self-aware suspicions of foreigners increasing economic protectionism these are the very elements that Tagore decried at that time and As I said fifteen years before the First World War II wrote to put About the world breaking down what happened I of the First World War II rose again about the great dangers of measure what became essentially the the excesses of nationalism the fascism You know none of us wants to go through that again I’m sure and so aim lead to divorce warnings makes him sound a good deal this he impractical We can’t abolish the statesman we can get them to behave better perhaps and strengthen those Institutions that could help them get better the problem is that of course we’re not doing that Those who are sitting on top of the heap in the institutions created in 1945 Don’t seem to have the vision and the breath of humanity to make room for the newly rising powers Which would be the sensible way of accommodating them in a common shared dural narrative so but the that means of very? institutions that have kept the peace for seventy years After the Second World War are in danger of disintegration into relevant Country like China’s you recently say if you want to give us a place in the high table and Allah Almighty Beltran initiative new development that we saw Chinese say we don’t have space You know at your table, and we all know of course you either at the table or on the menu And we don’t want to be Now this lacking imagination means that the institutions of the given us beats for seventy years are genuinely in danger So I do worry, and I think the Gores Ideas and thoughts are markedly relevant

About Tagore and Foster I haven’t paid too much attention to they’ve been a couple of letters I’m not sure the correspondence was particularly extensive I Am NOT a huge fan of hosts. I’ll have to admit. I’m sure there are others yet, or disagree violently with me but You know that message at Howard’s in whom we collect Would be the one thing that we’ll have linked into goal the goal was always wanting people to connect connect across boundaries Connect across States bring this make the stranger into a brother But what foster was to what you were sitting for that the end of message to India The Indian of the Englishman can never be friends even their horses rear apart. Not now MA. Together. You know essentially That’s that term that vision of fosters would not have intercourse to go ahead excellent loose Relationships across national boundaries and wanted the world to be that way. I’m sorry That’s a superficial response But I just haven’t written more of it on exchanges between them to be able to say what about dog toy Or is it toast where that if it’s done? I am so sorry Toss to it of course the Tolstoy was a profound influence of good to more and Gotha Tolstoy had some very interesting spiritual of course. He was a bit of an iconoclast himself And godly discovered him while sitting in his ashram in South Africa and set a corresponding we’ve got we had two famous sets of correspondences and slightly odd pair of people you might think tossed away and John Ruskin The precision poet philosopher thinker and unto this last I was forgot the rest came out He was quite a giant figure in those days Tagore similarly father toasts are absolutely fascinating and The two kind of bigger look like each other big quite they’re made of hair Brilliant ideas of course also a diamond But till all was relatively a match so they fear their primes didn’t go in silence over one can suggest that they exchanged Correspondences equals it was very much to more seeking to learn from the grand old man of Russian letters But there was a lot of admiration there did totes to have some impact intercourse certainly right you don’t see a lot of direct quotation the retribution, but but certainly his ideas and profoundly influential to earth to work on the end and Tagore and I would say that many Indians And the first half of the 20th century took a lot of inspiration into oestrus, right? Thank you very much dr. Fletcher As we all know that I guess Drop from the sky, I would like to know The influences historical influences that that author on Tagore he was mourning the immediate post war Of independence period and then his period Partly coincided with car moccasin was that he or was an anti-imperialist he was internationalist So I would like to know if there was any influence of the Marxist movement on Tagore and has he written anything in and if not why not because Marx didn’t understand the slightest thing about India if ever he said perspective didn’t take that seriously Marx’s writings in the 1850s for the New York Herald Tribune about India and about the moon This was a man who has such a superficial bigoted knowledge of India It’s a suicide years of oriental despotisms willingness to see british colonialism ourselves with the liberating force his Complete inability to understanding the social the two realities of india Newtons of class alone were all that he used to explain every social phenomenon So the answer is no, but of course there was born a few years after Mars whose few things He did write about India And I do do with it Tagore as some of you may or may not actually dropped out of school Since not as we were sitting around reading And maybe he is nobody school or college and British India was reading reading Karl Marx any case in those days Say well, I know this new area, and I can’t cling to ready were to go over the ropes But I’ve not come across any references to lots of terminals writings, and I certainly seen no influence of marks intercourse writings whatsoever I Just don’t think marks had a single relevant idea in the Indian context

I’m not sure that to go would have even to necessarily be Affected by the to go resent imperialism was all about freedom. It was all about respectful free beliefs about death And yet as you know he nonetheless was profoundly questioning his fiction for example when he talks about The his characters who are self-righteous nationalists? And at the same time He undermines their self-righteousness through asking fairly serious questions about to what degree These characters are truly committed to freedom within their own social circle So no I don’t see the slightest shred of Marxist analysis intercourse rights with when I do see a strong commitment to individual freedom a dislike of Large estates machineries and that obviously includes Empire as well There were no time for Or we can take three or four more questions, and when you learn to keep the auditory and as long as people are interested It’s always good to engage Maybe we need to overcome your device So so you are the situation’s so So here’s the thing At that time back in time, maybe they were possibly Not so much as well Definitely cancer as such speaking, but right now. We’re whatever we have seen we have seen the same situation, but it’s all So my question is like why is relevant to do the comparison, what do you think? Is the way follow it? What do you think should need to be? changing from Actually you you’re slightly wrong there because Germany and Italy were a little democracies Hitler won a free election and I do you think Never got a majority penny got enough seats to form the government either to form the government from there. The rest is history so Literal democracies can be submitted from within this absolutely new lack of historical precedent for that and The fascists can win a free election once As the Joker’s it’ll be one man one more one time You will give your charge. Yes, it certainly can certainly happen of course you’re right that it’s more difficult Seemingly today when you got free media, but social media you’ve got all these voices, but who would have predicted Some of the extraordinary things. We’ve seen the last few years the right cylinder and Turkey and the change in the Turkish Constitution The victory of Trump in America and many of transformations, that’s bringing about trumpery. I guess this was buried on the brexit vote in grip Which is shaking the European? The recent votes and easily the 34% were even upend gotten France I mean There’s there’s an awful lot of interesting trends in what happens in macro is deemed to be a failure Will the French voters have anyone else to turn to they turned to macro as a possible alternative to the mainstream parties? But they wiped out the mainstream parties if he fails to Then I think you know the Pens mist message from the national front of me shocked us all so let’s not be complacent I’m not saying you know there’s a there’s a line not mine when a great line That says his King did not repeat itself, but it certainly does Ryan I think that you won’t find the exact parallels, but you will find enough that echoes What happened in the past and that’s why I say let’s eat to go Because unless we can start fighting back against rampant nationalism And the the ever-present super-strong state the danger of something like the 1933 morning look identical It may not happen in exactly the same way, but similar sorts of things can happen you could have As I say the rise of unpleasant governments through electoral means you could have the collapse of the supranational institutions That they were part of the European Union is looking shaky the United Nations is looking Hollow And they’re real money’s there not today 10 years from now 15 years ago, and then you could find indeed with increasing protectionism

Trump was just announced of studying tariffs others are announcing retaliatory tariffs In response you may again. This is exactly how the 1930 start of the Great Depression Followed because of countries starting off in the u.s putting out the tariff barriers that then led to two major around two to two major breakdown the new trade and at the end of that Increasing hostilities as well the horn Japanese project in the 1930s of the Greater East Asia co-prosperity sphere Was basically saying when they become creative because all these barriers, which is conquer you and create the larger market We think we need now the Chinese may have already accomplished that not going to walk to it There are some very interesting things happening, and I would I would say that we need to be alert If it doesn’t happen great. We can all go to our graves and the kind of Relatively peaceful world we’ve seen for the last 70 years wonderful, but I’m not betting on Ok so My voice does play the changing the pitch in the room My question is also a personal nature How has Tagore impacted you have you do you reach out to book an? essay a Poetry or tea box a little bit there for you and during a crisis of your life or You know at a time of joy, or a time of sorrow? I’m interested in like that. I admire him greatly, but I actually don’t believe that imitation is the best form of flattery? I’ve never tried to imitate him his sensibility is very different from mine, and I’ve never considered myself A point to go I’ve written some poetry in some of my books. It’s often you know self-consciously mocking My own pretensions are supportive and not I’ve never tried to be a serious player was a very serious boy I’m interested in spiritual ideas, but they don’t even fears everything. I think and write the way they influence the course This is real. I mean when I’m choosing to write about religion or spirituality When I’m reading about politics that I’m writing about Something else you know whatever camera doesn’t seem to connect, so we’re very different. I admire you I think he’s just Extraordinary for the reasons I mentioned in the first 25 minutes of my speech he just there is nobody like him with any culture on the planet who has accomplishments as towering in as many different fields and Made such a mark on the entire culture a multiple millions of people he just an extraordinary figure and Therefore as one of the greatest human beings And accomplishments I admire greatly But do I try and imitate him no I don’t mean me did you go and open a take our essay at a time of crisis when? I read tag or essays when I’m interested in the specific subjects of nationalism has been of great interest to me in recent years because of the rise of nationalism not least in my own country and therefore every read Stuff that I read my comment days by tomorrow. I have to confess. I haven’t read a lot of his His plays for a long time. I remember reading the post office because such a big You know injury could have slightly underwhelmed as I said and my comments I thought is his work as a short story writer playwright Was uneven there was some great stuff But he was so prolific. It will be miracle and everything I wrote was equally good. I think that’s all his points already unreadable Maybe because they weren’t man enough translation Including by himself You talked to big worries about the course poetry and there’s a a Reverence that comes from because of what he did with the language. They shall musicality of the language and in many ways Thing about good poetry if it isn’t possible translatable that famous Italian phrase of the predatory territory to translate is to betray and and that Cannot be fully true, so His witnesses appointed probably always be understood best patanjali’s and that’s why he ate some nice and an introduction intensely kept quoting Bengali Friends you know to explain how great swordsman even he couldn’t really attempt to know how great he was But where some once I read out to you are Beautiful ones that have all been very well translated I thought anyone and so I shared them with you because they conveyed what the quality in this poetry as well as healthy

Studying poison quality I was writing so yeah, I do turn to his poetry At some point at some more than moment I think I wrote a little note to my family say you know you guys haven’t had a funeral service but we had one of these but I read by Tamora if I go from hence should you want? Thanks doctor for a lecture it was I learned a lot. I got my question for you is If you could pick one of who or what would be Tagore’s biggest influence for his poetry Sorry I could pick one if you could pick one Who or what would be – chorus the biggest influence for his poetry even an influence upon to go? yeah, I Honestly, don’t think there was anything. He was a self-taught would he? I’m not even sure how much he had read about the poyo so he must have read some this is a man who essentially invented his discipline So here’s a guy who drops out of school His sitting in his his family’s very well office where the years doesn’t worry about paying the rent He’s sitting in this in this in this mansion in the countryside Looking at nature and writing and the age of 19 he publishes his first Novel which is already considered a masterpiece and from then onwards He just keeps off going from strength to strength everything he writes into being read people are lapping up his stuff But I Mean like you know maybe if there is somebody here – cause Diaries and can tell me that there was somebody he cited as an influence I’m willing to be corrected, but from reading to go around from reading what I recall of his own writings I new record of emphasizing an influence he didn’t correspondent reach other people liked whatever that was not about poetry and he certainly doesn’t betray in his writings any influence of other writers poets or anyone He’d be the normal Created an entire world of the gory poetry just as he created an entire discipline think only of music songs, which hadn’t existed before Many of his ideas were ideas had no other expressed Before he chose to express them. He just was a remarkable question So I’m sorry to say I can’t give you useful honest in terms of one particular influence you will find in other contemporaries I mean there were people In the 19th century in big oil bottles of what they call Renaissance Who were writing poetry and so on including in English and who were influenced? By British words and so you finds a pretty great terming where there’s a point Two decades of so before to go call Michael Moses is another who who was very happy regarded even today He talks about having read English poets of the late 18th early 19th century And how they influenced him when he tried to recapture some of their ideas and forms and big morning first of all you never find anything my lab report desperate and Itself I think there was something quite unprecedented in the kind of Poetry that’s one of the reasons he won The Nobel Prize was that even though these other Poets and microphones cannot serve a good example that were not unknown that had been translated into English and well Others will learn about them Tabo was considered to be the leak officer and just one slender body purpose was enough to win a little prize I Can’t think of a better way for us to begin our rabindranath tagore lecture series