Human Power Team Design presentation VeloX TX

Good evening everyone Welcome to the design presentation of the Human Power Team I’d like to take you back to 18 years ago: The moment I learned to ride my bike for the very first time I assume you all remember this moment as well When you rode your bike for the first time without the help of training wheels You fell countless times but you got up as well And for me: it resulted in a lot of crying But fortunately, there were two persons who supported me every single time And those two were my parents When I fell, they picked me up stopped me from crying and put me back on my bike until I was able to ride my bicycle all by myself I didn’t learn to ride my bike on my own I did it together with my parents And today, 18 years later I dream of building worlds’ fastest bicycle together with my team My name is Valerie and I’m the team manager of the Human Power Team and tonight I will tell you about our dream Our dream began in May 2019 when we had our very first team meeting and officially became the tenth Human Power Team In September, the real work started We could finally start working fulltime, to fulfill our dreams And today, we all came together to present to you the design of our bike In the upcoming months the whole team will be working every single day to eventually create worlds’ fastest bicycle But let’s go back to our dream: breaking the world record with our bike Without the help of an engine, no descending slope, no cheating, no use of a windscreen held by a car Only human power We will fulfill our dream by riding our bike with not one single athlete, but with two We are going to build a tandem with the name VELOX TX Our goal this year is to reach the highest speed ever during the World Human Powered Speed Challenge The current record is 144.17 km/h (89.59 mph) Which is faster than the speedlimit on our highways This year we are lucky to have four athletes that will take on the challenge with us They will be the engine of our bike These four athletes will give everything they have during the race to find the limits of human power Our athletes are Kees, Emil, Thijmen and Joris

As I told before, we will be building a tandem Which means they will be riding a race in duos Kees and Emil are the first couple and Thijmen and Joris the other First of all, we have Kees Kees is 21 years old and is a Nutrition and Health student in Wageningen, The Netherlands He has always been a sports fan When he began his studies, he started a dedicated rowing carreer Unfortunately, he eventually had to quit but his athlete’s mentality and motivation didn’t disappear Emil is also 21 years old He is a Biology student at Utrecht University During his lifetime Emil has lived in three different countries, in all of which he played soccer a lot When he started his studies, he picked up on ice skating And just like Kees, with a lot of motivation Our next athlete is Thijmen, 22 years old He studies Sport Management in Utrecht and The Hague During the last couple of years, he committed to ice skating at a high level and even won some medals He unfortunately had to quit skating but luckily for us, he decided to join the Human Power Team instead Last but not leats, we have Joris. He is 25 years old He is the oldest, and most definitely also the longest Joris just started his master’s degree in Amsterdam on financial economy During his lifetime, Joris practiced several different sports such as golf, hockey, rowing and cycling Since he enjoyed cycling so much, he started participating in competitions and eventually joined the Human Power Team I present to you the four athletes of the tenth Human Power Team Before they could actually be apart of our team, they had to go through a strict selection procedure With the use of interviews and several physical tests, we selected the most suitable athletes During the interviews, we mainly focused on their dedication since they would have to train for a whole year and spend hours and hours a week with us in order to reach our goal We also focused on their winners mentality They have to be equally motivated as the rest of the team to win the race in America, and luckily for us they are Next, we have the physical tests We tested their power, sprinting capabilities and endurance An example of a test we used to examine the athletes’ endurance is a VO2 max-test But what is a VO2 max-test exactly? The test is comparable to the cooper test, of which I don’t have any good memories The challenge is to run as much laps as possible during a certain period of time And maybe you remember doing such a test as well, because afterwards, I always was exhausted But that is nothing compared to how the athletes feel after a VO2max-test They have given everything they have to complete the test with the best results possible After the athletes were selected they were ready to start their training These training sessions does not only consist of cycling, but also strength training On average the athletes cycle about 150 km per week Which is 6000 km during their year of training That is the same as the distance from where I’m standing, in Delft, all the way to New York City And besides all of this, they also go to the gym two or three times a week

This brings us to a total of 20 hours of training per week Besides training they also visit a sports psychologist and a dietician And even though they all train individually they have to learn to work together After all: we will be building a tandem They have to learn to work together in a team because it takes two to tandem During our test days, we work on our co-operation as a team But during these days, we also practice our protocols Eventually we will be working with our race protocol, which we will be using during the race in September These protocols are already of use at the start of the actual race When an athlete sits in our VeloX, he will not be able to reach the ground with their feet since the bike is completely covered with a shell This is why at the start, the VeloX will be pushed by one of our team members for 10 metres By doing this, the bike will gain speed and will not fall over To gain enough speed, the athletes will have to give all the power they have out of nowhere Co-operation between the athletes but also with the person who launches the bike is key for a great start As I said before the athletes will be using full power at the very beginning of the race in order to get the bike going The power they deliver is just above their critical power (CP) The critical power is the amount of power one is able to deliver for a long period of time I’ll try to explain it to you We assume the athlete has some kind of battery which can be drained or charged When you deliver your critical power exactly you won’t charge your battery, but you won’t drain it either When you deliver less than your critical power your battery will be charged When you deliver more than your critical power your battery will be drained As I said before the athletes will deliver slightly more than their critical power at the start During the middle part of the race, they will charge their battery by using less than their CP in order to charge their battery to make sure they are able to give everything they have during the sprint This is the moment we will break the word record The goal for the athletes is to drain the their batteries completely The length of the race track is close to 10km (6 miles) The track is as straight as a line and gives us enough time to start, build up speed, sprint and brake The road I’m talking about is not located in The Netherlands, but in the United States of America More specifically in the desert of Battle Mountain Yes, for real This is the name of the small town where we will compete against teams from all over the world This will be the location where we are going to break the world record The question is: why is this place, the most suitable for an attempt at the world record? You could compare Battle Mountain with Salt Lake City In Salt Lake City, an ice rink also located in America, many world records in ice skating have been set Because of the altitude of Salt Lake City as well as Battle Mountain, the air is quite thin Which means the air resistance is relatively low: an ideal situation which increases the chance of setting a world record Since less air resistance increases a chance to get to a higher speed and thus an increased likelihood we’ll actually get to the world record In Battle Mountain we’ll compete during the World Human Powered Speed Challenge:

the competition where we will be faster than everyone else But how many chances do we get to beat all the other teams? Well, fortunately, we have more than one The World Human Powered Speed Challenge will take place in September In total, there will be six racing days Every day is divided into a morning- and an evening session Unfortunately we won’t be able to race in the afternoon, since the temperatures in the desert will be way too high for the athletes Every morning- and evening session is divided into multiple heats This is necessary since there are so many competing teams that it is impossible to let everyone race in one single heat A heat in itself is yet again divided into multiple runs during which we can actually race As a team, we want to participate in two heats to give both our athlete couples the chance to race To determine which team can participate in which heat lots will be drawn Preferably, we want to join two heats as far apart as possible to make sure we can get our VeloX back to the start in time As I told you before the track has a lenght of 10 km And does it take about 8 minutes for the athletes to get from the start to the finish So when we are selected for two heats right after each other, the time we have to bring the bike back to the start is quite limited To make our attempt to a world record valid we have to conform to a certain set of rules The road itself can only have a slope of 0.6 percent max There are limitation to the maximum wind speed as well: 6 km/h (3.7 mph) And the only power we’re allowed to use, is human power And furthermore: we cannot store energy in any way These three factors are required in order to be able to set a world record Of course, the weather is very unpredictable When the wind gusts are too powerful, we’re not allowed to use our bike and when the wind speed is higher than 6 km/h, our run will not count Above all our athletes have to be in perfect shape Mentally and physically During my presentation, I talked to you about our journey to our dream But who are our leading actors? I’d like to present to you this years Human Power Team These are my fellow team members They make sure we have enough money to bring our ideas to reality They make sure our engine keeps on going They are the engine They are the brain behind the project We are the Human Power Team And together we will build worlds’ fastest bicycle to make our dream come true I will now hand the floor to Sarel, our chief engineer He will tell you everything you need to know about the design of our VeloX TX Thank you Valerie My name is Sarel, I’m the chief engineer of the tenth Human Power Team And you were just told about how we’re going to break the world record as a team But now, I will tell you about the bike we will be using to do so But before I start I’d like to explain to you why we think a tandem will be faster than a bike for just one person Hence, I take you on a little excursion through some physics

Because by Newton’s laws of motion a bike is propelled by the forces that act on it The main force that moves the bike forward is the force that is caused by the athletes On the other hand, the forward motion of the bike is being worked against by several other forces The most important of which are the rolling resistance of the tyres and the drag The drag is by far the largest force that works against us, hence the fact we first take a look at this Let’s take a look at this example that you are probably familiar with Every year, millions of birds fly southwards to spend the winter somewhere warm And the V-shape they fly in, is quite remarkable They know that by choosing their position relative to one another intelligently, they can save tons of energy Because as you maybe know, the bird flying in front blocks some of the wind for the others following him which eventually results in a faster overall speed With a tandem it is quite the same The second person is sitting right behind the first one who blocks the wind for him Your question now may be: doesn’t the athlete in the front use much more energy than the one behind him? The answer is no, because since they are on the same bike the force they deliver is divided equally and eventually they both have extra energy to spare in the end This explains why we believe a tandem will be faster dan a bike with a single rider The next question is how fast one can go with such a tandem With a regular tandem with no special features, you will probably get to 25 km/h (15.5 mph) But if you give everything you have you will probably be able to get to 30 km/h If you make sure your buddy in the back tries his best as well at least But with 30 km/h, we’re not even close to a new record so we have to improve some features to get there Let’s first take a look at the gears A regular bike has only 1, 2 or 3 gears which results in his highest gear in a transfer of three This means when you treadle the peddles for one full circle, the wheel will make three full circles This is of course not good enough for us We will need a transfer of 13 That means if you make one full circle with your legs the wheels will make 13 To reach this goal one chain as you see right here, is not enough We have developed a special system which makes use of two seperate chains in order to come to the transfer of 13 Of course, the athletes also should be able to switch between those 13 gears The biggest challenge we stumbled upon is the fact that our space within the bike is limited Hence we have developed our very own switching system Our linear guided shifting system makes it possible to switch between the gears easily It contains of a small gear (cogwheel) that is shifted linearly across a slide Due to this innovation, our maximum speed will go up to 40 km/h (25 mph) The next feature I’d like to discuss with you are the tires which will be specially produced for us These tires have the lowest possible rolling resistance which brings us to a speed of 45 km/h (28 mph) But we also take a look at the wheel itself When we make the wheels as thin as possible, the drag will decrease In order to reach this goal we’ve developed our own hub, which is the center of the wheel where all the spokes come together Furthermore, we cover the wheels with disks since this makes the airflow around the wheels less turbulent The combination of these to improvements adds another 2 km/h to our speed and we reach 47 km/h ( 29.2 mph) Onto the engine The current speed, Valerie and I would maybe be able to achieve when we were to cycle on such a tandem But luckily for us and our team, this isn’t the plan Because as Valerie told before, these guys are our engine Kees, Emil, Thijmen and Joris bring us to an astounding 64 km/h (40 mph) You could definitely say that we would be hopeless without them Let’s continue to the next problem we stumbled upon while designing our VeloX: the drag In this graph the drag is plotted against the speed And as you can see, it’s a quadratic function which means by a doubled speed, the drag will increase by a factor 4

So if you take in mind that we want to reach a very high speed, we should try everything in order to make the drag as little as possible As I said, the drag depends on the speed but besides, two other factors are of hihg importance as well: the area and the shape of our bike We’ll discuss the area first Maybe you have experienced yourself that your drag decreases if you bent slightly forward while cycling You’re actually just decreasing your frontal area by doing so And as a result, the drag that works on you and your bike decrease as well This isn’t enough for us We take it to another level by laying them in our bike instead of them sitting up They will be in our bike back to back Both athletes will drive their own wheel The next challenge is to make sure the athletes can deliver as much power as possible That’s why we made a 3D scan of them to design perfectly fitted seats But since we have two duos, and our athletes are not all the same size, we had to develop a system that could deal with this problem Because since a perfectly fitted seat is required we have to develop an adjustable seating system so we can adjust the seats in between runs according to the athlete This resulted in a dynamic system that guarantees the perfect posture for every individual With the implementation of our dynamic seating system and the optimal posture of the athletes we will get to 86 km/h (53 mph) We’re getting closer and closer to the world record The shape of our bike was the next big factor regarding the drag The shape presented right here is far from perfect It will not benefit our attempt to a record at all So we started looking for a more aerodynamic shape A perfect example of which is a dolphin As you may know, dolphins are capable of swimming quite fast, which can be partly explained by their streamlined shape Their body is shaped very smoothly hence the water can flow around their body fluidly Ideally our bike would have the shape of this dolphin, but that’s quite impossible To make our bike look like this animal as much as possible, we designed a special shell that surrounds the whole bike and turns it into an aerodynamic vehicle To get to the actual shape, we started with this dolphin and tried to adjust it until we got a shape that would be suitable for the VeloX For this, we used CFD-software CFD-software simulates flows and visualizes them so you can determine what we most optimal shape would be In the end, the dolphin turned into a whale But I can assure you that we succeeded in making our bike as aerodynamic as our example [Dutch joke that can’t/shouldn’t be translated] With this highly aerodynamic shape and all the other implementations we will now be able to reach a speed of 114 km/h (71 mph) Imagine: this is almost the speedlimit in our highways But more improvement is needed to get to the world record We zoom in to another detail of our bike: the cranks Cranks are the connections between the pedals and the crankshaft Normally speaking, these cranks are the limiting factor since their length requires the shell to be larger at the front in order to make the cranks fit But by designing our own cranks which are relatively short, the point of our VeloX can be smaller Besides making the cranks smaller we also succeeded to make them much lighter These implementations will bring us to 116 km/h (72 mph) The addition of the shell comes with another challenge Because you can imagine, when you put this shell around the frame, the athletes will see this

Nothing This is simply caused by the fact that carbon isn’t seethrough Inside the VeloX, it’s completely dark Well, the first option you probably think of is implementing a window Which seems like a great idea at first sight because since the athletes have to be able to steer, they need to see the road But unfortunately, a window won’t work A window has obviously to be made of a material that’s seethrough, like plastic, but plastic and carbon, the material our shell is made of, have very different properties And if you use two different materials with different properties and certainly if they are both sensitive to temperature changes, this could cause problems In Battle Mountain, Nevada, where the race will take place, temperatures during the day may vary by 30 degrees This may cause deformation of the window and the shell, something we don’t want We spend months to come up with the most perfect shape and we don’t want anything to ruin this Conclusion: a window is not an option Our athletes will eventually see this Two small screens that will show the road The screens get their data from cameras we place on the bike in a specially designed camera “bubble” We have to make sure it’s as aerodynamic as possible and to assure that the actual bubble is as precise as our design, we use a 3D printer In total there will be three micro-cameras The first one is used for the screen of the athlete in the front as well as the second, which is the back-up camera The third camera is for the athlete in the back The use of the cameras instead of a window, our maximum speed increases and comes to 118 km/h (73.3 mph) Not a lot of improvement but every little bit helps Okay let’s get back to the aerodynamics If you look at our bike, two things stand out: the wheels that show at the bottom These wheels influent the airflow around the bike so we have to do something to limit this Let’s zoom in to look at the front of the bike First of all we place shells around the wheels itself inside the VeloX that prevent air from flowing into the bike Furthermore, we extend the aerodynamic shape to the lower part and we end up with something that looks like this The speed we gain is quite significant and brings us to 125 km/h (77.7 mph) All the seperate parts we created until now the gears, cranks, wheels, seats including our dynamic system for this, etcetera, need to be joined together by a frame Since the forces that work on our bike are much higher than the forces that work on a regular bike our frame has to be very sturdy It has to suit the extreme fores and speed Hence the frame has to be rigid, as well as as light as possible And above all of this, it also has to function as a cage to protect the athletes in case something goes wrong and the bike falls over And thus our frame is made of carbon By using FAM software, a tool that analyses the different forces working on the frame, we can optimize the amount of material we use This optimization makes quite a difference and we get to 133 km/h (82.6 mph) We’re getting closer to the world record! The next important issue is data analysis because our bike is packed with sensors which all collect data during the race All this data is sent to the board computer which processes the information and translates it into something we can use This information is also shown on the small screens This includes information such as the power the athletes deliver and the current speed All these data are also being sent to the chase car with the coaches by a wireless system The coaches can keep an eye on the course of the race as well Valerie earlier told you about the race protocol with which we very precisely determine how fast the athletes should go at every point of the race By combining the received data with the race protocol the coaches can coach the athletes throughout the whole race in order to make sure the race protocol is executed perfectly It may not seem this will brings us closer to the world record

but it makes a lot of difference It brings us to 144 km/h (89.5 mph) Only a fraction slower than the current world record Let’s look back at everything we changed: we implemented gears, improved the tires as well as the wheels, we’ve changed the position of the athletes and optimized the seats, created a dynamic system for the seats designed an aerodynamic shell, we’ve developed a carbon frame to hold everything in place, and we created a communication system But we’re still not there We have to remember one thing: the fact that we will be using a tandem, not a regular bike Which means there are two athletes And they are more than just the engine, more than just the power With science and power we will reach 144 km/h (89.5 mph) But in the end, our teamwork brings us to the world record Because it takes two to tandem First of all I’d like to welcome to the stage this years Human Power Team Let’s hear it for them! I think I speak for everyone when I say that we’re really proud of what we just showed you And before I invite you to the drinks afterwards in the D:Dreamhall I’d like to thank you for coming And for those watching the livestream, or watching this on YouTube: thanks for watching! And above all, I’d like to thank all our partners that support us and our VeloX TX Now we will take a picture with the team to capture this moment and afterwards I invite you all to join us in the D:Dreamhall for drinks After the photo my team members will accompany you We are the Human Power Team Let’s break the world record and let’s fulfill our dreams