The 20th Century's Greatest Volcanic Eruption: Mt Katmai 100 Years Later

well I want to thank you all for coming to summer evening and the weather is nice and you could be doing other things outdoors but instead you came to get educated which I appreciate so you’ve heard the title of the talk and this is the area we’re going to be visiting tonight the valley of ten thousand smokes in the scene of the largest eruption of the 20th century which has occurred in Alaska exactly 100 years ago today and so happy anniversary cat mine the eruption lasted about 60 hours so it went from June 6th 7th and 8th and what I’m going to do is start out with some eyewitness reports what people experienced near the volcano and then I’m going to go to the scientific expeditions and tell you what they discovered and kind of also hopefully give you a little sense of how science works and trying to figure these things out and then one one year ago today I was fortunate to be part of an expedition that went to this area I think they go there every year in fact Charlie’s boss and my old boss is there at this very minute leading an expedition they go over here and I went I was fortunate to go last year so we’ll have some on the ground boots on the ground photos of that and then we’ll end up with kind of a lessons learned and what are we doing today monitoring volcanoes particularly in Alaska so here’s a scene looking from the site of the eruption down the valley of ten thousand smokes and we’ll come back to this picture later well let’s get some historical perspective what else happened in 1912 Woodrow Wilson was elected president New Mexico and Arizona admitted to the Union Fenway Park in LL Bean and the oral biscuit make their debut Japan donates three thousand cherry trees to Washington DC and of course the most famous catastrophe of the year was the Titanic so I’ll tell you now beforehand it is that the number of fatalities attributed to the Katmai eruption is one so which is pretty amazing so we can kind of in a way enjoy what happened there without being guilty about a lot of lives lost Thursday June 6 dawned clear this is a there’s a map of Alaska this is the Alaska Peninsula the Cook Inlet Anchorage is kind of up off the map there Homer the big island of Kodiak there were a lot of Native American settlements around here and on that day the mail steamer the SS Dora was making her way from one of the towns to the main town on the island and around 1:00 p.m. she noticed a giant plume to the north to the northwest about a mile wide and going way up into the atmosphere around 6:00 p.m. ash started falling on the ship and the ship then was plunged into total darkness about 6:30 so shifts going along here the eruption was there these lines our ash thickness it’s kind of jumping ahead of the game but we’ll come back to that as well in Kodiak meanwhile I asked against falling at 5 p.m heavenly by 6 p.m. and a black night settles down by 7 p.m. and it would stay dark for over a day in the town of Kodiak in Kodiak had I think around 400 residents at the time Kodiak was 178 kilometers away from the eruption site I’ll let you do the conversion to English here’s a close-up of the region so the Native Americans II the elutes had settlements kind of an interior they did fishing and hunting and then during the summer again June they would vote the host and have fishing camps there so they had sort of temporary settlements there also the Russians had been in the area since the mid nineteen hundreds and they hired a lot of Native Americans to help them do fishing and there’s some were way down the coast down here fishing for salmon and so on so a lot of the people were gone actually so it was pretty not only lightly settled to begin with but but partly evacuated this gentleman here in kya Kehna was 6 years old at the time he’s shown here at age 75 so he was with his family and down on the fishing settlement and

this is what he had to say it was just like this bright sunshine hot no man that’s when the volcano started started snowing let that fine pumice coming down made a lot of noise cough Leah Bay started to get white gradually dark didn’t come all of a sudden it comes gradually pretty soon pitch-black so like even if you put your hands to or three inches from your face outside you can’t see it and then this patroller to run out of the side of the high-heel all hollering let’s go see the mountain because they’d heard this blast coming from the west one of the children was blind but he running right by me how are you out of your big buddy let’s go see them up we get to top of the no this guy get flat all or all full of lanes now in this part of Alaska they don’t get thunderstorms so lightning was a novelty to them the Lightning was being caused by the ash in the volcanic plume and that’s a very common sight in volcanic eruption there are parents start hollering for us to come back come back to our bar bars and we run back down the hill now a bar a bar is like a sod house that these people live in so that building entrance they die with vegetation and moss and you can see they’re actually kind of nicely suited for this kind of catastrophe happening now the sooner is that soon as it became apparent that volcano was erupting one of the building village elders said turn all your canoes upside down because they’re going to fill with ash and you won’t be able to move them and get all the water supplies you can under cover and he knew from just even though there had not been an historical Russian experience in his lifetime he knew from oral tradition they had yet to protect your water he had to get it in away from the ash before the ash contaminated it gets hot it got get hot got hot little part of ours we pull off our clothes we soak them in water and put them over our face those people’s other losses in their barn are for water over those losses and put them over the nose and mouth so they can breathe after a while we open the door and try to see out all black everybody a little bird fly your barbar he can’t see where we go we children wash his eyes with water and you stay in barabara with us and then after three days when a dawn clearly let the bird go so meanwhile on Kodiak 170 kilometers away you do the conversion ah it it was dark for two days and then it dawned clear and you night at least a foot of ash I can convert that actually of ash was fallen Kodiak you can see a guy walking in the drift looks like snow but it’s volcanic ash now you don’t have this problem here we have snow and it weighs down housing ashes many times heavier than snow so buildings in Kodiak were collapsing due to the weight of the ash and it doesn’t melt away you have to physically remove it people in Alaska have to deal with us periodically as the nearby especially in Anchorage the nearby volcanoes erupt they do a lot of shoveling a lot more than we do during our boozers and so it became apparent that Cody actors of uninhabitable for a while so a lot of people were evacuated on boats to the Northeast away from where the ash ash fall was so here’s here’s the absented pond anchored someone asking earlier ash carry aloft worldwide reported in Virginia on Tim Camp Europe June 20th 27 and then fine particles went around the world probably probably many times for over a year the climate impact wasn’t as great as you might expect because this is at high latitudes so it doesn’t get quite the dissemination that a a Krakatoa wood or even a Pinatubo back in 91 and we’ll come back to that the the Native Americans were relocated so here’s the old villages and I’ll see we’re living and they they created new ones down here the people down post board the ship and start a new settlement called Perryville named after the captain the ship way down the coast alright so the place was pretty much evacuated I should also add that there was total devastation of wildlife the salmon these rivers were rich in salmon until the eruption and then they were they’re basically sterile all the wildlife is killed so there was no way you could you could live off the land so fast so a few years elapsed and finally the first scientific expeditions went in there and the first well-known one was funded by National Geographic which funded a number of these in there Levi guying robert grapes and i forgot to bring his book down but we have a book

in the library and it’s entitled the valley of ten thousand smokes so here he is right here stop sorry it’s this gentleman here shown with his crew and as the years went on he kept mounting more expeditions i got more money and they studied a lot more here and here’s ten this guy here charles dinner was the first geologists to go in here drinks was actually a bottle so he was studying how the land unit matter was the first galleries and remember those initials because uh we’ll come back to that later he he really formed the first real the first study and the real first real developed thoughts about what happened during the eruption so this is what they saw they stood that validates all hundreds upon hundreds of themed fumaroles coming out of the ground and that’s why they call it the valley of ten thousand smokes over time goes gradually died out as you might expect but at that time for at least ten years it was quite a sight to behold this this layer here was the first real this was a different kind of panic deposit wasn’t asked falling from the air it was an ash flow so you have ash mixed with hot gas coming out of the vent roaring down the flanks of the mountain and going out this is what happened in Pompeii and it happened here but this is the closest we ever got to one really soon after the eruption you could study it scientifically so this is an ash flow deposit as opposed to the air call ash that came down separately and it’s really the best example that we’ve had in modern in modern times here’s another picture from the Griggs volume which came out in 1922 now I love this picture because what’s going on here we could be begging but so here’s the scale that magazine there’s no flame and then notice the size of the state he’s got an iron skillet you know tied to the end of that thing he’s holding in one hand you know so what’s going on here obviously the gas is rushing out of here in fact he had a hole he was holding that down so it was not gas not only we can cook the bacon with one hand using that that contraction these guys would go out on the trip in on a make a make a bread dough and put it next to one of these fumaroles and come back for a local bacon bread this is another amazing sight they they have beheld a brand new volcano Nova rum and they called it a lung of stiff lava today we know this is a volcanic dome and here it is wreaths in its own ejecta its own ash all around so that was a discovery by this group obviously the Native Americans really they couldn’t get no one can get in here for such a long time they didn’t really know what was going on this is an entirely new discovery and another amazing discovery the volcano six miles away on Katmai which is your classic cone-shaped thing the Rogovin completely collapsed in and made this giant crater with a lake in today we call this kind of thing a caldera so it was obvious we’ve known we know there are many examples these around the world when these collapses occur that’s usually the magma chamber empties out comes out the size of the collapse and then the roof caves in together there are many examples of this so it was naturally assumed that this was the source of the ash that came out during that big eruption the bottom here which is now flooded they looked down and they saw this thing this is up partially breached a little gun and was never seen again because the lake filled with water because of all the abundant rain there actually if stayed the state is closed for a few years but soon enough it will submerge and that’s our only evidence of that particular faith so a little bit of lava turns well I’m getting ahead of the game but that’s our only evidence in hindsight that anything came out of mount Katmai and we’ll go into that some more so there were two main types of deposits recognized this natural copper again right that’s the mixture they’re lured out of the vent and it well is because it’s so hot the little particles weld from their own heat into solid rock and this is a now you cut a Goergen like and then the other main type of deposit is the air fall which forms these nice thin kind of sandy layers and that’s

loose you can dig at this stuff this stuff is harder digging but you go downward in it you get earlier in the eruption and it gets more and more welded and this this deep canyon isn’t even at the beginning of the welded stuff you’re only looking at it up and on the top third of the entire thickness of this ash flow top which we now know to be over 600 feet deep this guy is called a glacier increases in gently priests who taught at Santa Clara University in California and I guess he studied glaciers that’s why you know but he he came here several times he brought his students and dogs and he made some early observations so the the result of the early of the early expeditions these are their conclusions most of the apps are up did from alchemy that collapsed volcano because that’s what usually happens and lesser mouths came from the Nova rubble event that said volcanic dome you like that and also little vents in the valley of ten thousand smokes B TTS so that was one of the early conclusions the mountain collapsed by melting of its own man so it’s sort of eight outside its own entrance collapse and then the the magma came out in the form of ash now there was a peculiar thing and I’ll show pictures of later band and pumice white and black lava mixed together in in these in these class that came out and that was they thought L was a mixture of the new magma which was the white stuff and the old rock which was the black stuff and we’ll revisit that because that’s actually a central part of the story also and produce all those fumaroles in the land Kent Valley and down clothes there must have been a key source underneath which they have hot size-11 scientists thought there was actually a big granite body underneath the whole valley sending up heat and making those fumaroles another guy dr Fenner that we saw a picture of thought it was a thin sill a sheet of magma underneath the valley doing that more recent scientific expeditions were they the first Vulcan allergist did not arrive in the area until the 50s and these guys have looked at a lot of volcanoes and they knew better than how to deal with the the evidence for this then raised the bottoms they’re better kind of the general geologists and then here’s a more recent expedition of course they’ve been going continually because this is a fabulous laboratory so they then they came to different conclusions all of the ask erupted from that novarupta then you start it out and you start out with rhyolite which is a high silica very white ash and then you eventually got to andesite which is a very dark ash so wry light first about over half of it and then going to these other less silica rich things and will come back with it but it all came out of that vent the magma chamber though was under Mount Etna he traveled horizontally ten kilometers six miles to erupt at the Nova erupt event emptying of the magma chamber due to that lateral plumbing caused the mountain to collect this is still something that they wrestle over today what exactly was was going on here why would you have a process like that the funeral’s in the valley mm close to power left over in the ash flow sheet itself not any underlying magma alright so here’s a view looking Northwest here’s the Nova rotted dome that’s that late plug and so we know then that the main vent shown by the circle was about this big and all that ash came out of there and a lot of it roared down the valley of ten cows the smokes in the form of one of these roiling a sheets and buried it to 600 feet and went all over the place elsewhere a giant column of X went high on the end here probably at least a hundred thousand feet and spray ash eventually around the world here’s the belly ok another view there’s no Virata the vent area and there’s mount Katmai and this odd feature here we know as a turtle so let me back with it here’s the bed so ask him out in the very end kind of the coarser chunks couldn’t go very far and they they for me we call an ejector ring around the vent but it’s a

symmetrical is a symmetric pattern in northward direction and when the early ulka I’ll just call this a turtle and will visit battleground for some reason that necessarily wind it ended up depositing mostly in this area and that has the vent kind of collapse inward fall storm and it kind of stag and swamped a bit so that’s what these are these are our Falls from from the slumping most of the air fall ash went to the east over towards Kodiak that’s because the prevailing winds were coming from the West so somehow magma god from mount cat and i way over here to this vent here’s a nice aerial view of the cat my caldera showing and collapse from the air then this is kind of neat view along the edge because these lines in the rock or glacial strike well that means you must have had a glacier above this rock moving down outside grinding that rock and forming those streets but obviously there’s nothing there now but air so it’s a nice illustration of what used to be there obviously there was enough summit above it two or three thousand feet to have glaciers up there coming down the side of the mountain so what processes were occurring during the eruption to produce the great variety of mul Kanak raw so we’re starting that they’re starting to figure things out by the by the mid 50’s the general thing but there was a lot of other work to be done there’s a lot of funny stratification in 8’s close-up there’s a lot of compositional briefs going on here a lot of different things so the task from then on is been to really try to get into the mechanics of the eruption figure out exactly what went on what prophecies were occurring what was the timing and so on so the scientists geologists have been occupied with that task ever since so I mentioned the variety of composition so we had Riley a very white that means it’s high in silica you know like a quartz quartz now and then as the eruption progressed you have gradually less silver rich and you end up with anxieties very dark but they also had this peculiar banded robbed so you see that is layering there you start out down below it’s lighter color this stuff came out first this is the air fall as were looking at it was cylinder is Riley then it got darker became another composition intermediate called a site and then and easie now these compositions here are kind of typical for art fall chaos and I haven’t really gone into plate tectonics much but this is a typical volcanic arc setting Pacific plate dying under Alaska these volcanoes are forming a chain along the edge we had the same situation in the Cascades of the western US but why so why was there such a great diversity of love of compositions so to understand as you’ve got that do a lot of really work and I liken it to CSI you know the TV show they come to the scene of the crime and they’ve got a new very painstaking work to figure out what’s going on in this case it meant studying these pumice and ash deposits great detail sorting out different sizes what sizes are representative to give given distance what compositions worthy and so slowly unraveling sort of indirectly what was coming out of the event during the abduction so you have something called stratigraphic analysis and you can make a correlation so here we are four kilometers from the vent and this is air fall that you’re seeing only the upper half of it is this day and you can break it into different layers doing that painstaking sitting and and hand lens analysis and so these are separate eruptive events coming out from from the plume and then you have a hiatus here where there was a pause in the eruption dark line and then eruption continue but each one of these layers is a slightly different composition so you’re going to know that you know 30 kilometers away and find the same layers notice we have a person for scale here is Swiss Army knife for scale here but they’re the same layers it’s the same event that’s how you put piece all these things together and figure out what was happening over a larger region you can also take the rocks to make very thin slices and look at the crystals under a microscope the crystals are moving around in the magma chamber and you can kind of get a sense of what history they were experiencing by studying the zoning

on what they some had different compositions inside and outside in older volcanoes they have radiometric elements that you can then date in the thousands or millions of years of course we know the exact date of this so we don’t need to do that but uh that takes a lot of microscope work back in the lab so you bring your samples back and do this kind of study so here you’re actually trying to figure out a Naga was going on the surface but what was going on down below in the magma chamber before the stuff even came up and we can do that so and then you can do kind of basic chemical analyses all your samples so this dashed outline here is what the older lavas do of their compositional ready you don’t really need to worry about what this is calcium oxides just one element but silica that’s that important thing that tells you whether it’s light or dark the light colored stuff up here would be over at this end designer possess the range Moriah light and down logan’s that’s a range for Hannah’s like the darker set so the older lot is amount can I occupy a zone like that and that’s pretty much normal for a volcano in this setting here the here are the compositions of the the pumice pieces that came out of this eruption and they kind of occupy but a peculiar thing happened they stop here and then you yet will all be down to here the very high silica this is the first stuff that came out of high silica O’Riley the early white stuff it came out of the vent first there’s a gap in here and we’ve been fighting over the significance of this gap ever since this was discovered that’s not typical for volcanoes like this you should not have an outlier of a much higher silica composition LA coming out that is also things that you know coming out at the same time or nearly the same time is this so let’s let’s kind of put it all together there here’s this is the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 the second largest of the 20th century and we can imagine that the plume for Katmai no rough it look very similar probably as big or bigger you know rising up into the sky you know it just immense and you have two processes going on like we’ve discussed you got some acts carrying out buoyantly with hot through I guess going way up into the atmosphere that eventually produces our air fall acts those nice layers you got some ash that comes out but it’s entrained and gas sideways and it comes out and makes those ash flow tough so kind of to pass for the for the ash coming out and here’s a cartoon from this eruption so you have ash and pumice going way up into the air being carried or someplace in situations long distances and then ash coming out ash and pumice coming out and hugging the ground in one of these explore features so this is kind of the pictures book that was put together at the beginning of eruption that’s when all the ash flows occurred okay so the valley of ten thousand smokes was created during the first 16 hours of this 60 hour eruption flow down the ground wiped out everything just scoured it clean like a brillo pad and lay down all those hundreds of you – that’s at the same time the plume was going on it was depositing these layers that we correlate can now correlate with a careful work I mentioned yeah Amy and then you had then then no the hiatus and the ash flow deposition stop and you had air fall from then on so these are layers coming out they’re different because the compositions of the lava coming out of the vent we’re changing over time going from lighter to darker and here are those layers over here and this correlates nicely with what they experienced in the town of Kodiak 170 kilometers away so they were noting when when as well they didn’t get of course any of those – hotels those were confined in your event there many has long hiatus just like have you found in this strict interfere with your event then it was more at fault call episode to that episode wanting to do the highest that’s that thin layer he I showed you in the picture and then ash continuing again and then ended unto night and that’s episode three so there’s a nice correlation here between eyewitness

accounts in Kodiak and what they found in the layers near the volcano and here’s another slide I haven’t mentioned the earthquakes but how many seismometers were there in Alaska one it was a thousand kilometers away 600 miles away however the earthquakes was so large that it recorded a lot of them they were sixes and sevens which is very big for a volcano there was a lot going on so here’s a chart showing the earthquakes that were recorded and how they think that collect correlates with the events at mount Kenna so the collapse of that mountain probably generated the biggest earthquakes as you might expect beginning of the collapse and then there’s a main collapse there’s a bunch of sixes in a seven and some other crossing me know the earthquakes went on for months and years actually I don’t know some kind of settling going on at the volcano or something but the main ones were probably associated with the collapse of Mount Katmai as the magma chamber B string and then here’s the air again with the ash the air fall ash record at Cody so these diagrams your summary diagrams kind of tie it all together so now we know then this eruption emit a three cubic miles should be thirteen cubic kilometers of he took all the ash that came out and compress it into solid rock you come up with three cubic miles of rock that means that the biggest eruption in North America the second day this was started in the 20th century the next day is about an that we study well is crap go up a little bit earlier and a little bit smaller the gentlemen have introduced me tonight Charlie has studied this now this is an island in the Indonesia so most of the ash went into the ocean so Charlie here’s the first volcanologist actually Don scuba gear and died on the water in studying the positives from Krakatoa and this one about is more well known because so many more people were affected tens of thousands were killed there was a tsunami you know a lot lots of lots of things were happening again a novarupta we know one person who was indirectly killed now two elderly woman who was suffering from respiratory problems in the ash got to her so she passed away but no known other deaths from an eruption pretty remarkable here’s been into a little less than half the size of of maracas Su Su up and there’s Mount st. Helens a puny point one cubic mile of X in 1815 Tambora explode another island in Asia that was about ten times as big as novarupta that killed about 70,000 people and that severely affected world climates the following winter was called the the following year was called the year without a summer and affected much of the globe this could happen again in fact word kind of some people are modeling climate climate change scenarios what can we do to you know slow down global warming and they’re coming up with schemes to inject particles in the atmosphere kind of modeled after what volcanoes really do and here’s what we know in event so all that asking on an advantage is kind of a funnel shape and then finally and the magma which is down below all the gas have been released from it so it’s kind of a stiff magma and it comes out as you need a plug and it moves out and then it comes to it comes to a stop so what’s what do we have left to learn well there’s that pesky gap and a lot of compositions so this is what we’re arguing about now why do you get that and why do you have banded material well the people study the smoke most volcanologist Westfield Rossum Judy Burstein they picture a zone magma chamber under Katmai all the modules have been chamber of the Catholic Rosetta the collapse and their this day it’s red hair this be the white stuff all right which time comes as a fraud to the top and then you have Bayside vs yellow hand side which is the gray so if you’ll rub this from the top then basically in the reverse order the red

stuff in this diagram will come out first lay down then you get yellow you get the great today postulate that if still a civil is a horizontal sheet of magma came out and then broke through of it open no no trouble to create you know the main eruption there well our our my erstwhile boss and Charlie’s boss doesn’t like this idea because the silicon O’Riley that came out is too different from the other yellow blocks or you can’t explain that gap by fooling around with one magma chamber you know the right light is too different from the other layers he has to have another source that’s what he believed so he gives model here’s not catho – the mountain collapse nears the vent he has a dike now a dike is a vertical sheet of magma both was still that he mountain below and that diet was a rhyolite that white stuff that came out first the sill intersected both the area of the vent and the magma chamber of Mount Katmai but erupted here so it this the initial eruption this is layer ages the lower part of the actual top and they triggered the eruption then as it it a waned the magma here actually is more dense than the man died in this vertical diet so it actually wants to fall down it what actually wants to sink it is this is a sign and aside the darker stuff you want to sink into the rhyolite magma and then the currents or something propeller on the here and bring it up in both these models are kind of of some stretching going on it here okay it kind of spent believe it’s a difficult thing to explain and I don’t know I mean I’m sure they’re going to argue about it for a while until we do more studies now does can I do anything today well it certainly does there’s so much ash there that wicks arms and it is very windy there are capable of carrying ash around today almost as much as a volcanic eruption in Alaska in some cases so here’s a satellite image from September 2003 long after the eruption showing how much ass is carried up into the atmosphere and I think you can get murky skies in Seattle and Vancouver based on some people think this is an important process for fertilizing the ocean so plankton actually thrive on this it’s like you know receiving the ocean or compost in the ocean it’s an important nutrient source so let’s go on to the travelogue portion every year since I think before 2005 John Ida were on the USGS formerly numerous Alaska and pencil hell is death off have led a team of students from the US Russia and and other international to Katmai for a nine-day expedition and I was wanting to go on at last year here’s our group so we have Americans Russians Germans one Brit and one Chinese that’s our group photo and he started you have to fly into this place as most places Alaska you fly over kind of typical Tundra light there’s a moose in that picture somewhere if you can find it and you landed Brooks Lake and you cross a floating bridge to Brooks Lodge and this is our Brooks camp so this is now part of the National Park Service and this is world famous as you see in a minute there’s one of the cute cabins if you want to go here as a private citizen it’s $400 a night we got a price break and of course I went as part of my job pay it there’s Thomas floating along this lake and I I couldn’t sample it because guess what if the National Park but if you go there you see you see Thomas white comes from the eruption floating along the shores pretty cool there’s a huge kind of in the direction of the valley 10,000 smokes like Naknek and here’s the world-famous Brooks River which is one mile long the next row slate to Naknek wait why is it famous because there are Rapids right there and if you come a month after we were there you see this and as a viewing platform and photographers from all over and I’m sure you’ve seen pictures and movies is gone because the brown bears make their migration but the families start to run in late June and July and

the brown bears migrate to the spot from many miles away and do fishing and so there’s an elaborate procedure there the Park Service you have to go through training you have to be able to recognize when a bear they use a cut out is a hundred feet away you know and what you do and so on so you can be pretty close to these of course you’re on a viewing platform and watch them in relative safely safety but you might encounter them somewhere else well we had to make do with this guy this will juvenile Golden Bear who notices one who’s wandering to camp I encountered them on trail you just be cautious and keep your distance you know and then for the expedition you have to put on a backpack here’s mine and because it’s cold and bring a lot of winter clothing so I weighed in here at 55 pounds and you get to the valley of ten thousand smokes you after you have to wait across Swift Creek and it’s not terribly easy one of the reasons why we go this early is that the meltwater that cream starts to rise and it gets harder and harder in July and August across so for safety reasons we cross early so it’s not Swift Creek but I’m blanking on me anyways you have to cross it so get a caution you look back and hear some of the ash flowsheet about as far away from the eruption as it was this is a very tapering edge of that 600 foot 15 and it sort of slightly well it’s got a nice little longer joint and above it is a veneer of earful edge so we’re going across this plane this all pumice here and there’s the valley of ten thousand smokes hardly any vegetation site and then you come off and here’s a canyon cut in that exlode top it’s actually not even totally welded here it’s partially weld and then below the creek level it gets it gets really low and then there’s air fall ash on top of it another view showing Asheville top partly welding and then air fall ash draping so this float out on the ground and that came from the plume overhead in another view creationist if they could get in here we love this place why because this canyon was caught in you know 100 years or less so there’s a lot of processes that occurred very rapidly here they they could go to town a state but they were able to get in here fortunately it’s remote here we’re hiking across okay so this is what’s left and one of those fumarole is this brightly colored rock is where steam is coming out and the steam was carrying chemicals with elements the res iron the other was sulfur but there are things like copper zinc aluminum um so I’m so forth so it was like they’re all like it is your deposits and they’re beautiful because they are all brightly colored like this and they are scattered across the landscape but a hundred years ago that had a debt at a steam vent coming out of it now we’re at the upper end of the valley notice that this stuff is a lot darker that’s the stuff that came out later yeah and this is a split up this is actually hard we’re actually deeper in the section – well we’re not in for a second but if the stuff is welded more you see black jumps in it so this would be an site there’s air fall ash on top of it and this is our camp this is called bait mountain huts I don’t know how long they’ve been up there but is it’s a lifesaver when you get up there because you need some solid structures because the wind when the wind blows it blows our and it’s like sandblasting see inside he’s saying they’re just the crudest of obstructions but they’re okay there’s the outhouse the old one blew away a few years ago and they held it happened in new one you can’t see it for these metal cables holding it in place you can try to pretend in a tent stake in this you know it won’t work the MTO you have to use rebar for tent stakes you have to use about something about this long does ánotá reason when we come in June because there’s still snow up there and use the snow mounted stick a pipe in the snow and get your water source the only water otherwise you dive to hike several miles to that Creek which is muddy and journey here you get it fresh snow melt water so every day we had a bucket made going over to that little pipe which is dripping out and getting water for for cooking and we’re going on our first hike here here’s the turtle again that funny deposit right

that you can see it kind of caught by scallop by fault here’s professor idle border explained how does a volcanic bomb it came out of the vent pot still hot in Atlanta and I was explaining how that happens these things kind of expand like baking bread as they come out and there is no other again this is that last plug they came up with the vent is you know much bigger than that have you kind of ate away at this knob which is called falling mountain if you go there anything here Lance there landslides occurring here constantly move there’s a big jump in amount of collapsing to the bed during the eruption so that’s like it’s falling out so we paid a visit to the dome now remember that y’all is at 1923 geologists that I showed your picture up I don’t need you see here that there is 1923 in Harrison’s initials and there’s a whole bunch of of geologists at carve their names they came now it became a tradition if you came here on a scientific expedition you came to this particular chunk of the dome and you carved your initials in of course now it’s National Park they can’t from so but it’s it’s nicer graffiti to look at climbing the dome which is uh about five six hundred yards or feet long and about I don’t know two three hundred feet high climbing up some more so this rock is it comes out it it it gets holy reeling and breaks off this thing loses out on the water the surface of the dome kind of just crumbles and that’s why it’s so broken looking and you can see it here it used to be kind of a coherent flow deposit there’s the layers of the lava it’s sort of like obsidian as you seen chunks of obsidian this stuff was not quite thick so listen this is one as soon is flying great within Germany he Hall this is a very precise GPS unit he was going there to set this up temporarily as a station to measure any kind of changes over like three days and the same you know it’s precise down to the millimeter or centimeter so you wanted to see if there was any swelling going on and he could also compare it to any measurements they had a few years ago now my pad was about 55 pounds Ronnie’s globe was about 135 the other area that thing as well and he’s also seven feet tall we gave him the Paul Bunyan board it’s a lot easier to get down the dome than it is to get up here’s another view of camp this was my tennis stadium for a night that’s Mount Griggs named after the early Explorer and the night before we got snow just down to just above us not that quite reason can’t fortunately these are the jugs of water or you that’s what you carry over the snowbank to get water Charlie you’ll be cursin on the bad days of which we have about two or three everyone crammed into one of the huts and professor Eichelberger is election which he loves to do thank John leading the USGS this fall to go back to a university Alaska because he’s really an academic at heart and I think he I think he had a good time here during his three or four years he really misses students and he can tell that when we’re around the section on his expedition he just loved the lecture almost too much if I’m going on in another high so we had day hikes from this hot kick backpacking in nine miles say hots and then we did forays out for eight days each one was about nine miles but you only have to carry a date so here’s a mere fall I assume the Upper Valley and here’s one of the gorgeous cut by creeks again just in the last hundred years into the welded Asheville top who knows what that is that’s the brown bears making their pilgrimage there’s the fog or fog and rear possum we were supposed to keep our eyes out I never saw him but they would come over the pass Katmai pass and the thieves were fresh of course because there’s no rain dropping bees this bear is heading towards those Falls and no salmon here’s one of the seismic stations is a permanent station we have no longer do we have to rely on an instrument 600 miles away we have a bunch of and I’ll show you sure the network and we’re visiting one here even outside we had elections John brought his white board you couldn’t get away

from it I was trying to pitch the dam this is a picture I took of pan grounds where you got me get free stuff and his brown gum is probably the most abundant life in the areas I have a lichen if algae fungus mixture I’ll have a light and a brown scum that formed on the surface hardly anything growing here each one of those things thank you for asking I go back under then go back yeah each one of those squares in the bottom foot here’s a close-up of Hamish near an event you know beautiful multicolored just an art shot what what’s the shot well here’s a tree a little spruce ceiling is the only tree we saw pretty much in a day so it’s struggling to you know get a foothold here and you can see it’s going to be a long time before any kind of soil really develops and over a few pioneer plants that you might expect some strobes I forget what it is but that’s a first that’s a tree and our big day was not a nine-mile I was an 18-mile er that was to hike up to the RAM amount cat mine back now remember in June it never gets dark here so you never had to worry about it you know you could take all day literally all day to get your destination back I mean we got back from this I think 11 o’clock at night but okay so we’re making our way to mount cabin I there’s another one of those fossil fuels hiking up the mountain on the edge of a glacier this south blanket mount Katmai we’re making them we’re slowly and it was a blizzard at the time here we are at the top you’re supposed to look out and see that glorious caldera where you saw blowing snow but everyone was enjoying themselves nonetheless now in another year you might get this cute and you can see the cold air in the background the lake sort of freezes over but even when we were there there’s always a little patch of openness because there’s still magnetic heat coming up out of the out of the volcano even though it wasn’t the main source of the eruption it still there was something going on partner oh gosh it’s hundreds of feet I don’t know the figure now but it’s it’s hundreds and hundreds of feet when you come back from this 80 mile or you get a day off took the advantage to dry out or close and the students get their turn lecture to everyone was supposed to bring a presentation and I did too everywhere else sitting around here’s a view south of Mount majique from where the snow bank was and then on our last day I we went up to Katmai pass and i split off with another guy this guy is Harry Freiburg was a noted landscape photographer you go down to Harrison Bergeron he has a studio and he teaches he is an adjunct professor James Madison so he I took off on her own and got away from the group for a while in the background is fake mountain these strata are the old rock assigned in volcanic that’s Jurassic which is about 200 million years old silt stone and shale now is what we called a country rock in this area or Nova roughly exploded the Nova relative man dome is right just off the picture here so it plastered that mountain with with ash and that’s why it’s called fake mountain so on my last hike out there I hiked up this thing which was worse than it really was so I hiked up that spur and here we are Here I am getting here this summit and everything was going fine till I got up here and then I was hit was 60 mile an hour winds at the top and I literally had to crawl down the other side I was afraid I was going to get blown on and here’s the view from the Northwest where there is naked Nam and there’s the valley of ten thousand smokes the you can picture Alamos used to be next to shake glacial Valley now completely filled in and no trees wrong so that’s the ash flow tough roar down valley here’s the air haul ass draping the mountain became family now can i agony all if you go to first science picture of the day you can google at or google ePHI you’ll see this picture i submitted it and they put it in for the anniversary how big is it well I see it’s nine mile hike from here we started around the corner so I know we’ll probably

yes six miles to the other end here and then you know a mile up to why that sound about right least a mile would so finally we get back to Brooks camp and the Russians and Germans are very good if not only and then we and get out is the way you gave me and you fly alright so so much for that it’s running late so I’ll wrap it up quickly will the impact of a kick mouth can my rushing today well there’s obviously more people in Anchorage there’s not a whole lot more people in Kodiak and the other is a national parks that I’d like you sell but the accident over a large distance but the real answer is what would the biggest impact would be air travel Anchorage you may not realize it is a major hub between the US and Asia particularly for shipping so FedEx I think it’s the second-largest FedEx shipping hub in the world so these flights leave in and out of there you can imagine the impact that the chaos a large ash eruption would cause on air travel remember in Iceland in 2010 what happened Europe will shut down through couple weeks well that scenario would play off here and that ash would you know keep going and certainly shut down the airports probably in Alaska and maybe affect far down is you know California but that’s really whatever we say now that no volcano is truly remote because even in the remote Aleutian range there there passenger jets flying over to and from Asia over all the time any eruption can have an impact on air training here’s a picture of one of these FedEx 747 coming in there is a mountain spur volcano the distance interrupted in 92 shut down the airport to the right North is now redoubt interrupted in 2009 shut down the airport and they were tiny eruptions compared to cap re of years we have a lot more seismometers out before these blue triangles as it is a seismometer you actually won’t warning obviously we had no warning back then of an eruption will we have warning today yes commie days maybe weeks even months okay because the magma starts to move up to the Earth’s and it makes earthquakes and starts jiggling and so on so the area is now well monitored as is most of the Alaskan volcanoes and most of the US volcanoes they have a lot of instruments on them particularly seismometers gps can detect swelling and we’ll have advance warning of this however a cautionary note oh there’s number of earthquakes all we have satellites so we can tell when a plume is erupted the darkness here is related to temperature so it’s cold which means it’s i altitude this is the Mount redoubt eruption and so we pick that up in satellite you know 45 minutes later a cautionary note this is the Alaska Peninsula cat eyes down here and measurements there this one’s over not most volcanoes we did not have lying around this one this is called four feet it wasn’t on our list of active volcanoes so of course in 2006 interrupts well it it burns it blew out a plume of ash and gave us a big scare because we weren’t prepared for that at all we had no instruments around and we fly over if we saw a line of humor in a lion by mile-long clown room describing what you call yes a dyke so without any warning and with no instruments really nearby a dyke of magma came up an area we weren’t expecting and you know blew off some steam it then chilled off and nothing’s happened since but that tells us we don’t know everything there is to know or not is the active volcano sir like keep your enemies closer to the active ones you know what they’re going to do okay it’s the surprises that are going to get us the caldera that hasn’t erupted in a thousand years you know and it’s going to produce the big so we always have to be on our toes and it just means be vigilant so here’s an end shot here that the Russian ladies asked me to pose of them and people like you to give me grief because notice after discard ewis nine-day eye they want to precious the Daisy if you want to read more of this do to download and I think there’s a flier so you can download a really good report that just came out tell you everything you want to know it’s quite readable

even for a non volcanologist I mean its scientific and technical but it’s not totally ok then National Park Service put out something Centennial volume and and that has some of those witness things that I told you about that’s a chapter and that’s where I got that material from the Native Americans visit our website and there’s useful information here anniversary page I think that’s a handout and I want to thank these people for helping me out thank you