LIVE Q&A with MoMA Film Curator Dave Kehr (July 25)

Well, hello, everyone. My name is Dave Kehr I’m a curator in the Department of Film here at the Museum of Modern Art, and I’d like to welcome you all to this little chat We’re sitting here in the Titus 1 Theater at MoMA, which is where we have most of our film screenings It opened in 1939 when this building did, so it is now the oldest continuously operating movie theater in New York City And probably through this conversation you’ll hear a little rumbling in the background, and that is the sound of the oldest continuously operating subway in New York City, which is located right on the other side of the wall here So nothing wrong there, just turn down your woofers and we should be fine Today we’re gonna answer your questions about the film department and what it means to be a curator of film We got quite a few questions on the other videos we’ve posted here and we’re gonna start with some of those And our producers will pass me your questions as they come in, so let’s get to the first one And it’s the big question, Heather Malcolmess, susebbentley, and nesin have all asked more or less the same question It’s, “How do I become a film curator?” I think the good news is there is no answer to that question There is no real career path, educational path to this particular job I came from almost 40 years as a film critic writing for daily newspapers when the film department contacted me and asked if I’d be interested in coming aboard We have other members of the department who have started here as assistants and have gradually worked their way up the ladder We have other people who were trained at some of the archival programs at NYU or Rochester and have entered that way It’s a funny kind of job in that I don’t think there are a lot of jobs like it in this country MoMA is very generous in that they consider the film curator job to be analogous to a curator’s job in painting or sculpture, so we have a great deal of latitude about what kind of scholarship we wanna do, what kind of programming we wanna do, what kind of research we wanna do Yeah, it’s been a wonderful opportunity for me and I certainly hope that people who have a passion for this kind of work are willing to pursue it and hopefully will restore the ranks of film curators in the future The only bit of advice I’ve ever had to offer anybody who have asked me about writing about film or curating film is that it’s, like so many things in life, it’s all about practice and repetition I think you develop your taste as a critic by watching as many movies as you possibly can, and you develop your writing skills by writing as much as you possibly can I’m not sure if these are things that can be taught as much as they can be learned through trial and error It takes a while to develop a sensibility and it’s something that no one can give to you It’s not a subtle thing You have to arrive at that point yourself through your own reflections, through your own experience, through your own understanding, so it’s different for everyone Yeah, let’s see what else we might have here And indeed, Ginerva of YouTube asks, “If there is a specific path of studies that I should undertake in university in order to become a film curator?” And indeed, I think a good background in film history is definitely a must Depending on what branch you wanna go into there are certainly more technical pursuits If you’re interested in film preservation that’s a very distinct branch, working with the film elements, with the nitrate film, with the negatives That’s something you can learn and probably should learn in a university environment There are a number of programs around the country, UCLA, USC, Rochester, Indiana, all of them producing very fine people in that field But if you’re interested in more of the programming side, I think, again, it’s a question of, developing your taste, seeing what you can, writing what you can, being able to make a learn how to make a good argument, which is something a lot of people need to learn It’s not always about having opinions,

it’s about justifying your opinions and being able to share them with other people and convince them that what you wanna do makes sense It’s a wonderful field and one that’s treated me very well, and I wish I had a secret password that would open the door and you could jump right in, but I’m afraid there just isn’t one This is something that I almost feel that the hand of fate came down and tapped me on the shoulder to do this, and it’s just not the kind of thing I ever really thought I would be doing, but I certainly consider myself very, very lucky to be doing it now Let’s see, well, dmayer o n Instagram wants to know what did I study in university? And indeed, I did not study film I am actually so old that there were no film programs when I was at college in the University of Chicago I studied English as an undergraduate and had a passionate interest in film We had a very active film society on campus which is still there, Doc Films, University of Chicago And that was just a terrific opportunity, again, to see a lot of movies We showed films I think five nights a week, often double features In the days mostly what we were getting was on 16 millimeter, so there was a very wide selection of movies available at that time And it was, yeah, an unguided education in the sense that I didn’t have a professor telling me what to look at But there was plenty of literature available, as there certainly still is, and I think the best thing to do is just to plunge in and follow your nose and see where it leads You never know where you’re gonna end up Indeed Here’s a tricky one from Tug Nadley on YouTube “What do you see as television’s role in film history? Does the MoMA collection contain any content from the small screen? And as new content delivery programs like Netflix continue to blur the lines between weekly series and single films thanks to binge watching, do you think that television programs will become more prominent in film history?” Well, that’s a lot of questions there, and these are things that we are still struggling with on a daily basis MoMA has some television but it’s never really been part of our method, at least up until now to collect television This is the oldest, first archive in the world that started collecting film as an art form back in 1935, so we very much evolved from that sort of theatrical film perspective When television started coming into the ’50s, it just wasn’t something that the museum was collecting, unfortunately, because an awful lot of ’50s television is now lost And as we’ve gone on it’s more that we’ve collected television work by directors who were basically known for their theatrical films In New York we have The Museum of Broadcasting They have a wonderful collection of kinescopes from that period UCLA has a fabulous television collection in Los Angeles But just not something that the MoMA has been much involved in, but that’s certainly something we have to think about And as you say, theatrical film and streaming are starting to converge There’s a lot of overlap and we’re seeing a lot of very interesting work by theatrical directors working in that new long-form format They got a lot of new talents coming up through the long-form format who have really never made a feature-length film So definitely something we need to consider as we go forward, and I’m sure we will start looking to that kind of work more seriously Inevitably, you know, that kind of format, the extended series, is gonna become more important It seems like people are starting to lose the habit of going out to see a 90-minute, 2-hour self-contained narrative film in the theater and they’re more and more staying home and watching these long-form fictions That’s gonna change the way we think about film and television, and the beauty of a department like this is that we are able to grow and develop as the medium grows and develops So I think we just have to stay tuned and see where things go, but definitely that’s a major shift in our medium right now and it’s something that MoMA is gonna have to

deal with very seriously in the years to come Let’s see…well a YouTube question from Eva “Hi Dave! You were a critic before becoming a curator How did writing about films first inform or shape your curatorial work?” I’ve had a line about that for a while is that curating is the extension of criticism by other means It’s another way of expressing your opinion, another way of making an argument, I think, to put together a program that suggests a particular point of view Yeah, it’s definitely always using your critical judgment as a curator At the same time, you don’t wanna rely entirely on your own taste You have to be open to other people’s suggestions, try to give an overview of something that you’re focused on We recently did a program of early ’30s films from the Fox Film Corporation, and that’s a collection that consists of a lot of important films by major directors, like John Ford, and Howard Hawks, and William K. Howard, and also consists of a lot of silly comedies and musicals that have no particular authorial stamp on them And yet, those are certainly fun to watch and worthwhile seeing, and we’re glad to bring those back and find them an audience when we can So rather than just being a strict didactic about it, these are the important films I like to also get into some of the unimportant films, some of the marginal stuff, some of the mere entertainment that people were also watching at that time I think we just got something off the live line from Tree Island Horror on YouTube “Hi Dave, have you ever acted in a film before? Did you ever want to work behind or in front of the camera?” I have never acted in a film and I can’t imagine that opportunity is going to come up I have worked on two documentaries, television documentaries, one about Clint Eastwood and one about the director Budd Boetticher But yeah, from early on it was never…filmmaking was not for me I was always more of a film watcher, more of an analytical mind than a creative mind And I’ve never really felt that pull to do that You know, my talents are such as they are, seemed aligned in another direction, so I pretty much stuck with that for the course of my career And let’s see…Instagram from Michael Paul Phillips “Are there particular techniques and/or aesthetics you look for in a film to be featured at MoMA?” Well, no really Yeah, the trick is to be open to as many possibilities as you can while still maintaining, I guess, a sense of quality and relevance The last thing you wanna do is have a checklist in your mind, “A movie has to do this, this, and this in order to be a good movie.” Francois Truffaut once said that every great film defines its own aesthetic, and I agree with that What makes an Orson Welles film great is not what makes an Ida Lupino film great Director has an idea of the cinema to them and their films are the explication of that idea More and more we’re seeing directors who rely on heavily digital techniques, the possibility of taking an image apart and putting it back together in ways that previous generations of filmmakers just it just wasn’t available to them So that’s a huge shift in aesthetics, and one that I’ve kind of struggled with The point at which heavily digital special effects film really becomes something closer to animation than a live-action film, still something that nags at me I don’t have a clear sense of where I stand on that myself But again, I think the important thing is to be open to those developments and recognize them when they come and not get attached to one particular notion of this is a movie, everything else is not

Let’s see, what else? From Instagram, elmapetersone asks, “From your point of view, how important is the role of a curator in movie art saving or popularization?” Certainly in saving films we play a pretty important role When MoMA started in 1935 there really weren’t any programs in place to preserve old movies The studios had their vaults but often they allowed things to disintegrate A lot of movies were lost It really took Iris Barry, who was the first chief curator in the film department here to say she wanted to pluck these films, kind of, out of that flow of product There are certain movies that deserve to be kept, preserved, restored, treasured And because she did that, and because she did that on such a wide scale, a lot of important movies have survived that would not have survived if Iris Barry weren’t there to pick them up For example, we have pretty much every film that the Biograph Studios made between 1909 and 1914 because Iris went and bought the negatives when Biograph went out of business in 1939 So we have amazingly good copies of some of the most important films by D. W. Griffith That was a collection that yielded what we believe is the first full-length movie to star an all-Black cast, a film called “The Lime-Kiln Club,” starring a vaudeville comedian named Bert Williams We found that we had the rushes, unedited rushes for that film were in the Biograph collection And when my fellow curators, Ron Magliozzi and Peter Williamson, put that footage back together, it produced a 15-minute feature-length film, which would’ve been absolutely the first one of its kind and the last kind for several years And in that case, that’s something we’ve now made available for loans to other museums and we hope to get that out on Blu-ray one of these days For popularizing a film, I don’t know We kind of intervene after the fact after a movie has had its commercial career We do have a number of programs here, like the New Directors, New Films show that premiers new films, hopefully movies that are going onto a commercial career So we can help to some degree by drawing attention to movies that we like, but I don’t think that’s something that the museum can really influence on a substantial scale I mean, that really has to roll out, and it’s the judgment of the public and the judgement of the audience There’s not a great deal we can do to promote things after we show them Wish there were, but you know, that’s the role of critics, again, the role of fans and an audience is to support this work And we’re always happy to return to them There are lots of movies that were misunderstood on their first release and it’s nice to come back in the context of the museum show and give them another look because they can look quite different 5 or 10 years later It’s something that happens all the time, and that’s what we’re here to do Let’s see, another live question from Morgan B on YouTube “Is there one lost film in particular you wish could be salvaged and viewed?” Oh boy, that’s a hard question to answer and I think everyone would have a different response to that I’m gonna name something you’ve probably never heard of which is a film by Josef von Sternberg, who you may know from his films with Marlene Dietrich One of his last silent films called “The Case of Lena Smith,” made in 1928 One of the last silent films released by Paramount We only have about 10 minutes of it but those 10 minutes look absolutely sublime And if I had one movie I could make magically reappear I think it would be “The Case of Lena Smith,” but, you know, you have a wide range of opinion there “London After Midnight” is one that a lot of people mention Certainly we’d like to have the complete original cut of Orson Welles “Magnificent Ambersons.”

Unfortunately there’s just too many choices there There are a lot of things that have been lost and we just the temptation is to concentrate on what we’ve lost rather than what we have I prefer to think about what we have and able to work with these films, work with damaged elements, work with dirty negatives, scratched prints to clean them up and send them back into the world again in a nice, new form There is certainly no shortage of things that we can dig into the archives and relaunch We had a nice experience with that this year, a film called “Rosita” which was the first American movie directed by Ernst Lubitsch, one of the great directors in this medium And Mary Pickford, who was then the biggest star in the world, invited Lubitsch to come over from Germany in 1923 to direct her in a film called “Rosita,” which she subsequently kind of fell out of love with, even though it got great reviews at the time and was apparently quite successful She more or less abandoned it and allowed her copy to dissolve But in the 1970s the head of the film collection, a woman named Eileen Bowser found print a print of this in the Soviet Film Archive and repatriated it It was printed in such terrible condition we really didn’t feel like there was anything we could do with it until these new digital tools appeared a few years ago And we were able to get a really good-looking image out of this severely compromised nitrate print We’ve shown it in a few festivals now with a live orchestra and we hope to have that out and available with a recorded score in the very near future So it’s something you might wanna keep an eye out for Let’s see…Natasha Giliberti, also from YouTube “How do you feel about the state of film right now? Do you feel inspired by the work being made today?” I feel good about the state of film right now I think it’s a time when a lot of new voices are being heard It’s becoming an inclusionary medium It was very exclusionary for years and years I personally don’t spend as much time watching new movies as I used to When that was my job I would see 8 or 10 new movies a week These days, most of the work I’m doing is with archival films, older films, so I don’t see that many new films But I’m always encouraged by the level of activity that’s going on out there, just the hundreds and hundreds of films that are being made and released I’m sure there’s lots of exciting talents there and I count on my fellow curators to bring them to me because I just don’t have the time right now to sort through that great mass of material But again, it seems like a very exciting time to be a filmmaker for me Suddenly new technologies make it possible for features to be made on tiny, tiny budgets A lot of the old gatekeepers have fallen away, and yeah, it’s an exciting moment in film history We’ll see which way it goes. Does it continue to be feature-length films for theaters? Does it merge into the television trend? Nobody knows, so that makes it kind of exciting, too It’s a turning point moment, I think Many, many new developments going on and we just don’t know where they’re going to lead quite yet Okay And gabiyank3e on Instagram asked, “How instrumental is taste to curation?” I think, as I said, it’s kind of key You need your own sensibility You need your own approach to this big pile of stuff that you’re confronted with every day And the trick is not to keep your blinders on, not to rely too much on your individual taste The danger of not being open to new forms is really immediate, you know, and one that I have found myself struggling with But nothing exists without that bedrock of taste, and I think that bedrock of taste is developed experientially You just have to watch and watch a lot of movies You find your judgment improving, you make comparisons almost subconsciously,

and your sense of what is good develops, changes over time And I hope that process never stops I hope I continue to shift my understanding of this medium as it grows and branches out benglon on Instagram asks, “Which film first got you interested in cinema and movies in general?” And I have the most boring answer of all, “Citizen Kane,” Orson Welles I had always loved movies as a kid But “Citizen Kane,” when I, in fact, probably saw it I was maybe 10 or 12 years old was the first one that made me think, “People make these. There’s a director there There’s somebody making these choices and making these images.” And that’s what really got me excited It’s in the realization that these things aren’t just handed down, that somebody has to create them, and I became fascinated by that Who were these people? Who were all those names in front of the film? I think a lot of people have an experience with Orson because he’s such a forceful personality, such an immediate director But after you see some Orson Welles films then you can start to appreciate, say, Howard Hawks, or Yasujiro Ozu, directors who don’t have that kind of aggressive style, are much more subtle or restrained It’s what they’re not doing that becomes expressive And yeah, that’s always been my point of view from very early on has been the director And I know for other people, I have good friends who are interested pretty much entirely in stars, tracing star careers I think that’s a very valid approach, too People who are interested in the history of a genre, the western and detective movie, also a very valid approach Yeah, again, this is something you find for yourself, I think, and you have to identify your own interests and follow them out Someone named chezfoxyjam on Instagram wants to know about MoMA’s film still collection Does it ever go on view? Well, I wish it could but it’s several million stills This is a gigantic collection, again, that dates back to the mid ’30s when MoMA started collecting film material A big part of what we have is the photo files from “Photoplay Magazine,” which was kind of an upper middle brow publication in the ’20s and ’30s and wasn’t the scandal magazine it became later But it was famous for featuring just beautiful photography on every film, beautiful photography of the stars We have just a gorgeous collection of original large-format prints from that era, and these things are stunning And there are just lots of them We haven’t actually ever been able to do a complete catalog of the film stills collection, and I don’t know if we ever will There are just so many of them Right now they all live in our film archive out in Pennsylvania but we make them available to researchers who can make an appointment through the moma.org website and we will send for the photos you’re interested in and you can look them over in our Film Study Center But yeah, that’s something we’re very proud of and we’re very happy to be able to make available to scholars and publishers And on Instagram, iyoweia asks, “How do you select the topic and context to show?” Yeah, also it’s not a question of coming up with abstract ideas mostly It’s you get a sense of what’s available, what new restorations people are working on, what studios might have, a new group of films available We have just done a series of films made by a poverty row studio called Republic Pictures in the ’30s, ’40s, and ’50s The studio has been out of business for years but now the rights are owned by Paramount Pictures And they’ve spent a great deal of money making nice new copies of a lot of these films, and

some very, very nice stuff that hasn’t been seen in years and years Martin Scorsese took in an interest in it and has selected a group of 15 films that will be showing starting in early August, personal favorites of Mr. Scorsese’s, most of which have not been seen, at least in good prints, for 30, 40 years now So that’s the kind of opportunity you look forward to and you really wanna jump on that when it comes to you Where it gets complicated these days is that it’s becoming harder and harder to find theatrical-grade prints, by which I mean 35 millimeter or good digital copies, high-resolution digital copies that you can show in a large theater, like the one you see here, and have the contrast and the detail to really hold an audience’s attention Those are becoming harder and harder to find Studios now are mostly interested in television sales for those things They’re not doing 35-millimeter prints any longer The old prints are starting to wear out, so it’s becoming more and more difficult just to do a basic retrospective of director X, or actor Y You’ll have big holes in your program, important films that just will not be available, and that’s regrettable So yeah, you learn to program around that Luckily there’s still plenty of choices out there and plenty of programs we can do with the things we can find and bring to our audience But I do feel that frustration when I can’t do well, I’d say Ida Lupino, very interesting director Not many of her films are currently available in good 35-millimeter copies or nicely produced digital editions We’re working on one now that we have in our collection, a film called “Never Fear.” We should have that available in a few months UCLA Film and Television Archive had done a couple, the Library of Congress has done one or two, and eventually we’ll have critical mass on Ida Lupino We’ll be able to show her 15 films all together at once People get an idea of what her accomplishment was, I think the most gifted woman director of the 1950s But we can’t do it right now It’s gonna take a little while longer until we get those elements back together and put them in the kind of shape that we can show publicly Let’s see, did this just come in? Nuha Su on YouTube asks, “Do you think that visual spectacle is taking priority over quality storytelling in mainstream cinema today?” Yeah, I kind of do It seems like the narrative impulse is drifting more toward those long-form television programs and theatrical films are becoming more and more about spectacle, about the special effects, about the big sound Yeah, you know, certainly I miss the more narrative, dramatic-driven storytelling in theatrical films, but it’s not like it has vanished It’s resurfaced in those long-form Netflix and HBO series, and such like Again, this is a moment of sorting, I think, in film culture New mediums that arise that can tell stories in different ways Maybe the old mediums are receding a bit Again, this is something that we’re gonna have to pay very close attention to for the next 5 or 10 years and you’ll see what direction things go in But it almost seems like that visual spectacle that you’re talking about is what people will pay money to see That’s what they’ll put down their 10 or 12 bucks and go to a movie theater to see rocket ships, and they won’t spend that kind of money to see a story Somehow the expectation is that that’s what you get on television for free these days, and to me that’s unfortunate But no point in being pessimistic because these things are changing, and again, I don’t see that that impulse is being suppressed I think it’s just being channeled in a different direction now

And well, here’s a question about our restoration of “Rosita” I was just talking about from Annabelle Zakaluk “I just got the opportunity to see your restoration of ‘Rosita’ at the San Francisco Silent Film Festival! Truly amazing.” Thank you very much “I have many friends who couldn’t go, and will you be releasing it on DVD or streaming?” Indeed, this is something we are working on right now Expectations have changed, I think, for, excuse me, archives in the last few decades in that MoMA was always oriented toward showing movies basically in this room in a basement on West 53rd Street in New York City, and that was enough I mean, people had no wider expectations than that But now that we live in an era of YouTube, and streaming, and mass produced DVDs, that doesn’t feel like enough And I know there are lots of people certainly watching this feed who are not within striking distance of New York City, and we are looking for ways to make our stuff available to you, too It’s not something we can do overnight because we have to digitize the films in the collection, which is an expensive and time-consuming process We have to figure out how to set up our streaming system, or what kind of disc distribution if we end up doing that It won’t be happening in the next few months but I think it will be happening in the next few years We definitely are gonna make a more concerted effort to get our work out in that form, so hopefully we can share it with more people than who just live in this zip code Instagram from michaelpaulphillips “Film is widely perceived as entertainment, that being true in a lot of what is on the screen today Do you think film is a fundamental tool with education purposes, and why?” I think that’s one thing that movies can do, certainly, is educate I don’t think it’s the only thing they could or should do I’m grateful that that’s a medium that admits to so many different uses, so many different perspectives you can take Personally I don’t much care for a didactic cinema I like to be able to reach my own conclusions about what the characters are doing or what the politics of the situation might be But there are contexts where that’s important We have a large collection of propaganda films made during World War II made by the U.S. government, and you can see some very stirring propaganda pieces, which if they were employed in the put in the service of less credible ideologies would be very disturbing, because that kind of insistent, didactic tone is oppressive Yeah, you know, I’m not a person who likes to make rules I’m not a person who’s going to say, “The movie can only do this, do that.” But certainly film can definitely teach And perhaps a good example of that are Frederick Wiseman’s documentaries where he just drops you into a situation, the workings of a hotel, or a high school, or a prison just for hours at a time And it’s really left up to you to, again, make sense of what you’re seeing, establish parallels, see what this person is doing as opposed to what that person is doing It never feels didactic, but certainly after you’ve left a film like that you’ve learned a lot about what that life is like, what that region is like, what that profession is like So to me, that’s, yeah, educational in the best way And from YouTube, Luis E R asks, “What is the process of admitting a film into the museum’s collection?” It’s actually a fairly formal process We have, what’s called the film committee, which is a group of advisors and donors who meet every two to three months, to review films that have been proposed by staff, by the curators,

whether or not we want to purchase those films, or accept them as gifts into the collection It’s the same process that’s used to acquire painting and sculpture at the museum, so it’s something that’s taken quite seriously It’s not just anything that comes across the transom is automatically accepted There’s still a sense that if it’s in the collection at the Museum of Modern Art that that means something, and it definitely is true here Yeah, these works are vetted It’s not a random collection It can certainly look that way if you looked at a list of what’s being proposed at any given moment, but we’re fairly confident that a film gets into the collection it’s there for a good reason And a lot of people have looked at it, have passed on it, and we think it’s something that we wanna save for posterity and we’ll do our best to make sure that it is available for future generations So it’s something we take very seriously And a live question from Mikhail S. on YouTube “Do you think that with the cinematic direction of TV shows, specific episodes or whole TV Definitely

Again, relating to something we were talking about earlier, we recently showed six episodes

of a TV series that Rainer Werner Fassbinder did in the 1970s He did two other series and we’ve shown those as well We have the structure to do that It’s not something we do regularly, and again, it’s coming from the perspective of this is what are we going to do about “The Sopranos,” or something like that which is clearly an important cultural event, current purview? be changing the next few years is And there are new examples of that all the time, so that remains very much an open question here and it’s something we’ll be thinking about and debating for years to come, I think But maybe it should Those are the first movies made in the United States here and I won’t enter that debate, but we have some of the first film that passed through his camera And here’s Alvaro and Anastazia who are asking, “What is the oldest film in MoMA’s collection?” Well, we have all of the movies that Thomas Edison made in East Orange, New Jersey thanks to Iris Barry who acquired all the surviving negatives in the 1930s going up to the mid teens There’s a lot of disputed claims about whether those are the first movies period I won’t enter that debate, but we have some of the first film that passed through his camera So that dates to, you know, 1893, 1895 A guy named John D. Collins, who has really been just discovered in the last two or three years made movies between 1915 and 1919 to the mid teens A fantastic collection, and we’re still working on that Early film is its own thing, you know, very interesting It takes a little more work because they don’t have all the tools that were developed later but there were definitely some important artists working in those films A guy named John D. Collins, who has really been just discovered in the last two or three years made movies between 1915 and 1919 when he died in the big flu epidemic that year And he clearly would’ve been a major filmmaker, but again, someone who was just unknown South Africa, Rome, Los Angeles, Dubai, Montreal, Bulgaria, Greece, Taiwan, and even New York City the collection at the George Eastman Museum in Rochester and uncovered this work So it’s a fascinating field and one I think that’s growing very quickly in academic circles And I feel a responsibility, I definitely wanna get our movies out beyond our immediate area So many, many things to look at, many things to study Looks like we have a little note here about the number of people who are tuning in We’ll be in Venice the end of next month showing a new restoration at the Venice Film Festival We’ll actually be back in Italy in October at the Pordenone Silent Film Festival, a great film festival to show a brand new restoration of an Ernst Lubitsch film called “Forbidden Paradise.” “Rosita” will be in Australia next year, San Paolo next year, so we’re starting to make some inroads out there I’m shocked, but very, very grateful that you were able to join us for this session And I feel a responsibility, I definitely wanna get our movies out beyond our immediate So I think we’re running out of time here, and I hope we’ve covered a few topics of interest to you, and I would love to be able to show our films in Greece, and Bulgaria, and South Africa in the comments section here on YouTube and elsewhere We’ll be in Venice the end of next month showing a new restoration at the Venice Film Festival We’ll actually be back in Italy in October at the Pordenone Silent Film Festival, a great film festival to show a brand new restoration of an Ernst Lubitsch film called We have a film playlist where we put together all of our how-to-see videos that we talked about today “Rosita” will be in Australia next year, San Paolo next year, so we’re starting to make some inroads out there and we’ll have a link for that in the description below And if we didn’t get to your question during this session please post them again and we’ll So I think we’re running out of time here, and I hope we’ve covered a few topics of interest to you, and I definitely appreciate all the great questions and comments you’ve been leaving in the comments section here on YouTube and elsewhere And if you enjoyed this video we’d like to urge you to check out the other videos we But certainly a film can definitely, definitely teach drops you into a situation, It’s not a random collection Here’s Alvaro and Anastazia who are asking, “What is the oldest film in MoMA’s collection?” For more on the history of film at the Museum of Modern Art you can check out the new film portal on MoMA Learning, and we’ll have a link for that in the description below And if we didn’t get to your question during this session please post them again and we’ll try to get to those in the next few days So thanks for tuning in Please keep sending us questions and let us know if you wanna see more of these things, and subscribe so you don’t miss our next offering And again, thanks very much, hope to see you next time