Gender Equality in the Energy Transition: Gender-sensitive Energy Policies

>>Vickie: Hello, everyone I’m Vickie Healey at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and I welcome you to today’s webinar cohosted by the Clean Energy Solutions Center and the Global Women’s Network for the Clean Energy Transition Today’s webinar will focus on the topic of gender-sensitive energy policies Before we begin the presentations, I will go over some of the webinar features and provide an overview of the Clean Energy Solutions Center and GWNET We will then proceed with presentations from our esteemed group of panelists, followed by a question and answer session moderated by Caroline McGregor Once we end the webinar a short survey will pop up on your screen, and we thank you in advance for taking the time to answer a few questions about your impressions of this webinar A few things to know before we begin For audio you have two options You may listen through your computer or over your telephone If you choose to listen through your computer, please select the “mic and speakers” option in the audio box, and if you want to dial in by phone, select the “telephone” option and a box on the right side of your screen will display the telephone number and an audio PIN A gentle reminder to our panelists to please mute your audio when you are not presenting To illustrate the features a bit more clearly, we have taken a screenshot of an example of the attendee interface You should see something that looks like this in the upper right corner of your screen You can submit text questions to the presenters by typing your questions into the question panel You can send your questions at any time Caroline will collect these and address them during the Q&A session And when you submit your question please include the name of the professor you are addressing your question to Today’s event is being recorded If you would like to review the webinar or share this information with others, an audio recording will soon be posted to the Solutions Center YouTube channel Also, you should receive an e-mail within the next day with a link to access the webinar recording Now, a little bit about GWNET GWNEET aims to advance the global energy transition by connecting and empowering women working in sustainable energy in both developed and emerging/developing countries They do this by connecting women through networking, through their advocacy by generating and sharing information, and providing mentoring, coaching, and consulting services The Clean Energy Solutions Center is an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial The Solutions Center is structured to help governments design and adopt policies and programs that support the development of clean energy technologies This help is provided through an Ask an Expert technical assistance service, which is offered to governments free of charge and is designed to allow experts to respond quickly to questions The Solutions Center also engages in capacity building activities such as the webinar you are attending right now Now, it is my pleasure to introduce our panelists First up is Ana Rojas Ana is a Sustainable Development Specialist with over 20 years of experience She is a Senior Gender and Energy Consultant with Nedworc Foundation, where she has guided the provision of technical support on gender mainstreaming in policies and projects to different international organizations Following Ana we will hear from Monica Maduekwe Monica is a Sustainable Energy Specialist and works at the ECOWAS Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, where she serves as the focal point and coordinator for the ECOWAS program on gender mainstreaming and energy access Monica has led the charge in developing the ECOWAS policy for gender mainstreaming and energy access, the regional directive on gender assessments and energy projects, and subsequent national action plans After Monica, Sam Saunders, an associate at Sullivan & Cromwell, a leading international law firm, will tell us about his work on the ECOWAS directive and the national policy action plans Sam and his team provided legal aid throughout the process and he will speak to us about his team’s experiences and the procedures and developing legal frameworks that enable policies to be applied and implemented successfully Following Sam, Jennye Greene, Managing Partner at Sustainable Energy Solutions, will speak to us about a project underway in Nigeria where the Clean Energy Solutions Center is providing support to the Rural Electrification Agency on facilitating gender mainstreaming in their mini-grid program

And last but certainly not least, we will hear from Joy Clancy, a Professor of Energy and Gender and a member of the Department of Governance and Technology for Sustainability at the University of Twente Professor Clancy will talk to us about gender audits, focusing on energy, as experiences with gender audits in the energy sectors of Kenya, Senegal, and Nepal, with supporting evidence from eight countries in Sub- Saharan Africa and Asia Upon conclusion of the presentations we will launch into a question and answer session where our panelists will respond to questions you have submitted The Q&A will be moderated by Caroline McGregor, a consultant who has spent her career working at the intersection of climate change, clean energy, and international development You likely know Caroline from her leadership and work at Sustainable Energy for All, where she was lead specialist in energy access and gender and spearheaded a range of initiatives including a multi-stakeholder coalition for gender equality, social inclusion, and women’s empowerment in the energy access arena And now, with the introductions complete we will begin our presentations Ana, over to you >>Ana: Thanks, Vicki First, let me thank you, the Clean Energy Solutions Center and GWNET for this opportunity It’s amazing to be here with this panel of great professionals and some very, very dear friends So, thank you for the opportunity Today I want to talk to you about “Energizing Equality,” which is a report that was launched in late 2017 “Energizing Equality” is a collaboration – or it was born as a collaboration between IUCN and ENERGIA And the reason why we wanted to do this report was because both organizations were wondering “Do we still – or can we still say that there are close to no energy policies, strategies, or plans who are addressing gender one way or the other in their text?” So, what we did is that we went on the net and we identified 192 energy frameworks which were either in English, French, or Spanish, and we ran them through what we call – what is called the EGI methodology – the Environment and Gender Information Platform – so, that information on whether terms like “women,” “gender” were coming into the text so we can go later on into the context and understand to what degree these mentions were coming into And to our surprise we realized that 61 frameworks of the 192 that we were able to look into actually addressed women or gender in their texts So, this is definitely something that went beyond what we were expecting, from just knowing there was a handful of frameworks to knowing that at least 61 of those that we found addressed gender And when we went looking into more on the texts and where actually these frameworks were coming from, it was very interesting to see that Sub-Saharan Africa was producing not only in terms of numbers but also percentages the most, the biggest number in terms of examples And this was also interesting, because at IUCN they had done also research on gender in mitigations particularly, NDCs, and again, Sub-Saharan Africa came up as the frontrunner in terms of the mentions And the same happened when a similar assessment was conducted on the SEforALL country action document So, this region is particularly productive in terms of the text, but I am already happy to know that Monica and Sam are here to also help us understand how that goes further into also implementation Another interesting thing that came up is that from the OECD countries only four of the frameworks that we were able to find addressed gender, but most of those mentions were related to women’s participation in the energy workforce, which again is interesting because in most other countries one way or the other references also have to do with energy policy, but in OECD countries that link towards energy policy having a gender face was not made And I know Joy has several comments on that, if she could And then, for the Latin America region we found out there were only three policy

frameworks that were addressing gender, but we knew from working in the region that there were other policies that were not coming up in the research So, what we did is that we went up and extended some of the keywords that we used and found out that from the 192 frameworks that we had, 6 actually addressed human rights within their text, 5 of which were actually in Latin America So, even though you do not see them in this graph it’s interesting to see that this region had almost all references to human rights in the energy sector And the other thing that may be interesting for you to know if you have not dived into the report is that we went in to try to understand how women were portrayed in this text, and to the left on this screen you will see women being visualized as vulnerable or beneficiaries, which is a very passive position But interestingly enough, there – the most mentions are actually of women as stakeholders, as important members that have to be included into the discussions and decision-making processes in the energy sector This is, again, something that we were very interested to find out And when we did more dive into the text, we also realized that the mentions to gender were coming into several topics, whether it was time poverty, rural areas, or well-being, which had quite a lot to do with reliance on biomass and energy poverty, which were very, very dominant but not exclusive So, for example, in rural areas we were able to find at least three policies that were addressing electricity, rural electrification, one of them having a gender angle Gender seems not to be seen as an urban issue when it comes to energy Only two of the frameworks that we had actually had particular mentions to women working in – sorry, living in urban areas And perhaps the positive and interesting insight that we’ve had is with the reference to women being relevant to technology and innovation and their inclusion in the energy sector, whether these policies were acknowledging the fact that there was a gap in participation or that women – or that they were actually putting forward information for reducing these gaps And as I know, time is of the essence I just want to leave you with the conclusions from our side in terms of first calling for renewable energy policies in particular to address gender in their text When we looked into the sample which was only renewables we saw that only 18 percent of them addressed gender The research also allowed us to see that there is a need to see that there is action taking place, and we mapped that so that there is no evaporation of the text And that we need to understand also what are the enabling conditions and the motivations for mainstreaming gender and the policy framework And with that, I want to thank you for your attention And also, I would like to pass the torch to Monica, who I know can speak for hours about how you can motivate and enable conditions to have gender mainstreaming into energy policies Thank you >>Monica: Thank you very much, Ana Okay, so I’ll do my best not to speak for hours Hello, everyone My presentation is on the program ECOW-GEN, which produced a regional policy for gender mainstreaming in energy access, as well as clarity on gender assessments on energy projects After my presentation I would like you to leave with two key points One, that regional harmonization works As an African proverb says, “If you want to go fast, you go alone But if you want to go far, you go together.” Now, the second point is that the regional level is just one step The closer the person is to the people, the more effective It is for this reason that at ECREEE we promote a two- pronged approach One is a top-down approach where countries say, “This is what we want to do.” And the second is the bottom-up approach where we have a wider group of

national stakeholders coming together to say, “This is how we are going to do it.” Now to my second slide The purpose of this slide actually is to introduce those who are not yet familiar with ECOWAS to the countries that we cover It also helps a person understand how deep an impact a well-designed development intervention can have on the West African population Now, ECREEE For those who don’t know about us, ECREEE is a specialized agency for renewable energy, and our mandate is to help address sustainable energy issues in West Africa ECOW-GEN is one of the programs through which ECREEE achieves its mandate And ECOW-GEN came about from having gender as a component in one of the projects implemented by ECREEE, so it’s becoming a flagship program The reason for this was because we saw that it was important for us to give gender more visibility in order for us to achieve a stronger result Now, there are three levels where we see an inequality issue as far as gender is concerned in the energy sector The first is at the political level, and this one decides whose arguments or experiences are framing energy policy The second has to do with at the supplier level The question we ask is “What is the workforce composition? Who is getting paid by the energy sector?” And at the third level, which is the energy supplies level, the issue has to do with how is energy access affecting households and businesses across gender lines? Now, based on these gaps we came up with four key objectives which the program aims to address, with the first one being enabling policy environments that are gender- responsive Now, the program itself has five high impact initiatives Three of them are women-specific and the other two concern the needs of men and women of all age groups Now, going to the policies So, what we were able to do was to bring together the experiences from the region as it concerns these three persistent gaps I mentioned, which is at the policy level, the energy supplier level, and the energy consumer level, bringing these together with several actions that we thought would address these regional issues Then we got the authorities, the heads of states of the ECOWAS conference, to convince these actions by them adopting this policy Now, how did we obtain their commitment? We went for that to develop this guide, the ECOWAS guide on gender assessments in energy projects The directive is simply the legal framework for the policy’s implementation And I won’t go into the directive because you’ll be hearing about it from the Samuel, the next speaker On to my last slide, which is on the national action plans that we’re currently analyzing Now, this is the second part of the two-pronged approach I had mentioned earlier, where we are now talking to a wider group of stakeholders and asking them “How do you want us to achieve this regional objective?” Now, the process is still ongoing, but we have some countries that have finished their national action plans and they’ve also validated them And I think it’s very interesting to see how the different countries are coming up with their own strategy on how they want to tackle the regional problem Take Togo, for example Having validated their own action plans, the cabinet of ministers came home with an order, a directive saying they are going to have a gender focal point at the Ministry of Energy level So, that focal point, that focal institution will be attached and reporting to the cabinet of ministers So, now that we are seeing that gender and energy are moving from the Ministries of Energy into the cabinet of ministers, where it can cross

across different sectors of the economy That is all I have to speak about Thank you very much for your attention >>Sam: Hello, everybody This is Sam Saunders from Sullivan & Cromwell It’s great to speak to you all about a little bit more of the – one part of what Monica has led, which is the ECOWAS directive on gender assessments and energy projects We are involved with this – Monica was looking for legal support and we were happy to support ECREEE in coming up with this novel legal instrument on gender assessments It requires ECOWAS member states to adopt into their own domestic law appropriate legislation or regulations to ensure that gender assessments and gender management plans are prepared before energy projects are approved And there’s flexibility by the different member states on what projects it would apply to and what levels of approvals and management plans are required, but it applies to all the member states And once it’s effective they will have two years to implement it, and it’s part of the national action plans that Monica just discussed I won’t go into – I won’t read all the slides I have a lot of slides which you can look at later that go into detail about what’s actually in the directive I’ll just touch on a few things But kind of the first starting point is what’s the legal basis for this? And actually, if you look around at the international treaties that are applicable to any project but including West African countries, there’s actually quite a lot And there’s a strong legal basis There’s a strong legal basis in the ECOWAS treaty and other treaties that affirm that the member states need to be considering gender in energy But despite that, we couldn’t find, really, a precedent directly on point for this type of legal instrument So, what we did was we – and that just testifies to kind of how the – ECOWAS has been a leader in this front And we did consult with policies that various development banks and other organizations have about – around projects, funding of projects and gender And we also used what are analogous instruments under the European Union on environmental impact assessments, which don’t cover gender but do have a framework for when assessments are needed for development projects I won’t go into detail about – there’s some – there was a lot of discussion about kind of what form of a legal instrument it should take under ECOWAS law We ultimately decided on directives, which give the member states flexibility, as I said, to enact their own policies and procedures while still being aligned on the overall objectives and the overall requirements So, just a little bit more detail on what the directive has It applies only to energy projects, but the member states aren’t precluded from applying it to other types of development investment projects And it requires gender assessments and mitigation of gendered impacts and reporting requirements It’s also possible for member states to apply it to other groups besides – or other vulnerable groups It’s also possible they could include measures around – that would also promote gender equality, not only assessments but other measures like training, education, et cetera So as I said, I have several slides here about what specifically it requires, which I won’t go through I mentioned gender assessment reports, gender management plans, gender performance, monitoring reports There is the concept of a competent authority Those of you that may be familiar with environmental social impact assessments and approvals – again, this is analogous to that

And we gave the member states flexibility to incorporate the gender assessment process within their environmental and social impact assessment processes and use the same government agencies to oversee that There’s public consultation requirements There are duties on project developers to comply with the directives and conduct assessments in accordance with the directives There’s a provision on cross-border cooperation, because you can imagine there are often projects that cross borders There’s a requirement that there be penalties in place if developers or other sponsors of projects are not compliant Disputes can be settled with the ECOWAS court And so, it’s quite a comprehensive directive and, as I said, very unique And it’s very exciting to work on it And the text of it is available and I’d be happy to discuss further on it What we were very aware of, and Monica and her team very aware of, was how do we actually implement it? What’s the best way to achieve results? And the steps for actually implementing it are the member states need to pass legislation or regulations into their own domestic law, and then there needs to be practical steps taken to ensure that everybody is aware of these requirements, is trained on how you conduct gender assessments, how you review them and ensure compliance Developers need to start complying with the law The government agencies need to start administering the law Investors, lenders to projects would require compliance with the law, and affected citizens and civil society would be aware of it and be able to enforce the provisions of the law And there’s obviously practical considerations about how you could actually do that There are costs, some of which could be recovered from fees And so, what we’ve been doing recently, as Monica said, was supporting the national action plan development, a component of which is “How would you implement the directive?” There’ve been some very interesting discussions And each member state is taking somewhat different approaches to who should be – which agency should be responsible for it and how they will roll it out So, we’re continuing to work on that and it’s an ongoing process, and we’re very excited to see how it turns out I think with that I’ll turn it over to Jennye >>Jennye: Thanks so much, Sam Good day, everyone My name is Jennye Greene of Sustainable Energy Solutions And it’s been my pleasure to support Vickie Healey at NREL and this ongoing in this ongoing project looking at gender issues in the context of Nigerian mini-grids My collaborator, Phil LaRocco, who is an instructor at Columbia University in New York, is also on the webinar today, and I have to give him credit for doing most of the intellectual lifting on this assignment The climate for this work is the Nigeria Rural Electrification Agency, or REA, and perhaps some of the colleagues there, Victor and Semi and maybe some others who have offered outstanding support and guidance throughout this project, may also be on the webinar today So, these friends at REA are hard at work now, not just trying to close the electricity access gap in Nigeria but also the urban/rural access gap Here you can see a snapshot of the electricity access situation, with 54 percent overall access, but that divides into 87 percent in urban areas versus 23 percent in rural ones And to the right you see a population density map, and just below that a picture of electricity distribution infrastructure As part of their efforts, REA is engaged in a major mini-grid development program that’s totaling around $150 million And in the last year the first group of projects through the door have been commissioned There’s around half a dozen of them And now REA is poised to drastically scale up its operations in 2020 And getting ready for this scale-up they requested from the Clean Energy Solutions Center to have us take a look at how gender mainstreaming can be incorporated into

this scale-up So, I want to start off the discussion of NRELs’ gender mainstreaming support to REA using the analogy of a value chain So, if a value chain is a set of activities carried out by firms that together add value to a product and then deliver that product to customers, then just as there’s a physical value chain in the energy sector, there’s an equally important chain that needs to be built between policy, legal frameworks, and incentives for the private sector So, Phil LaRocco, who worked the most on this project, he terms this the “policy to practice” value chain, and I think it’s a really fitting term for capturing our approach to assisting REA with gender mainstreaming in its min-grid portfolio So, you’ve just heard from Monica and from Sam about some of the history of the West African regional policy and the directive, both concerning gender and energy So, the question is if the policy exists and the directive exists, why go to all the trouble to do such a niche assignment on gender mainstreaming in one energy subsector in one country of the ECOWAS bloc? And I think the point is our work with REA is really about extending the policy to practice value chain a bit closer to the ground level So, what we actually ended up doing was performing some of the implementation activities that were suggested under objective two of the ECOWAS policy, and then we customized the guidance offered in the directive, since both of these instruments are high level and very general in tone So, for the policy – and this is a verbatim set of activities taken from the policy itself, we developed a gender assessment checklist for agencies to use with mini-grids We included a gender dimension into procurement announcements and terms of references And we prepared a gender assessment toolkit for implementing partners, again limited to the mini-grid portfolio And importantly, the gender assessment checklist that we developed, they conform to the minimum requirements that have been set forth in article five of the directive So, here you can see our project objectives We had a couple of different audiences that we wanted to produce tools for So, these included surveyors doing baseline data analysis We wanted to help REA mainstream gender into its operating documents We wanted to offer guidance materials to private sector partners And then, also just helped strategically REA think more about its work going forward with gender and mini-grids So, in order to do this we had the opportunity to review documents, and we spoke with five private sector developers And then, we tried to translate the core concepts from the policy and the directive into the appropriate formats, harmonizing the message across all platforms but really customizing the tone and the user experience in each of those So, here’s an excerpt from the assessment checklist that we made for surveyors It’s completely coherent with the provisions in the ECOWAS directive, but it’s been adapted for mini-grids, which are the smaller end of the scale for projects that the directive was designed to cover This assessment has also been turned into a simplified screening or benchmarking tool that REA can use to identify projects that have a strong gender component, or to propose measures to assist projects that lack a strong gender component at the outset Based on the research that we’ve done so far, some preliminary findings have emerged One finding is that there’s very little mention of gender mainstreaming in the national energy policies, laws, and regulations that govern mini-grid development But, two, a lot of local developers are already pretty advanced in their understanding of gender issues and they’re already trying to be proactive And then, three, even though developers are trying to be proactive faced with the situation on the ground, there’s a lot of variation between different locales in Nigeria, which is going to impact the extent to which gender equality measures can be pushed, what those measures will look like, and how far they can go Lastly, we identified the highest impact opportunities for gender in mini-grids as being in employment and in demand stimulation, including productive use support So, we heard from several developers that they appreciate having a diversity of problem solving styles on their team, and they feel that gender balanced teams help them connect better with customers A lot of developers recognized and are working on including women in the equation to increase average revenues per customer; to shift loads, which is obviously

important when talking these solar and hybrid mini-grids; and then they also – there’s a perception among developers that female businesses represent a good credit risk So, even though developers see the inherent business value in pursuing both of these angles and some are making significant progress, they are at the end of the day mini-grid developers with limited time, with limited gender expertise perhaps, and operating within their business financial constraints So, the potential to form long-term partnerships with other capital and service providers who specialize in things like female education and professional development, enterprise creation, and support, this will speed progress on the employment and the demand stimulation fronts, hopefully to everyone’s benefit Well, that does it for me today Thank you very much And next, we’ll hear from Joy Clancy on the topic of gender audits and the degree to which they’re effective in integrating gender issues into energy policy Thanks again >>Joy: Hi Thanks, Jennye That’s – right I’m going to talk about something from the bottom-up rather approach, which is a particular tool known as a gender audit, which is an approach that ENERGIA, the International Network on Gender and Sustainable Energy, developed for engendering energy policy Just a little bit of background: The presentation I’m giving is based on – is a very narrow part of a fuller report, and it’s based on a paper that’s available in a journal which is open access, so you don’t have a subscription to the journal And it’s – so, it’s a little bit narrower I’m only going to talk about the gender mainstreaming and energy policy and not in the programs The – we have – the problem when you write a paper for a journal is that you end up having to be sometimes a bit pushed around by the journal reviewers, and that’s happened to this paper And we ended up having to say specifically about whether the audits resulted in any mention of, say, gender or women’s issues being incorporated into energy policy But also, one of the things that you’ll hear about in the findings is related to the building of the capacity of national actors to contribute to the gender mainstreaming in the energy sector Now, the audits have the origins in another topic that some of you may be familiar with, which is a topic called gender budget, which is a tool to identify and analyze the factors that hinder efforts to mainstream gender in policy And this concept of gender budget emerged from the Beijing conference in 1995, and it’s a range of activities that are actually not very specific There are a very large number of them, and I think that’s also one of the problems when you talk about gender budgeting And there’s also – there are gender audit budgets, and so the whole – even the naming is a bit confusing But in general the gender budgets have set out to both – to raise awareness about gender issues in policies about trying to make governments accountable for their budgeting, in particular in relation to commitments to the Beijing Platform for Action And I would say nowadays, of course, one would include the SDGs, which I’ll come back to And also, to try to get governments then to commit to these policies But why then did ENERGIA set about going to do something entirely different? If you’ve got something that works, why do something different? Well, there’s some very good, strong arguments for gender for doing something different It’s that to do a gender budget it’s very dependent on specialized skills – for example, understanding how to use computable, general equilibrium models I mean, I can just about say that phrase, let

alone know how they would work So, they’re a highly specialized set of skills And we’re finding that countries in the south had to rely on external experts, and so that’s also not very satisfactory And also, it’s a very narrow approach It’s not a very inclusive approach And so, the majority of citizens don’t get an opportunity to influence the way that they think the policy should be formulated And of course there’s – the data is not available And you can do an audit – I’m sorry, a budget at any government level So, while we’ve been hearing from Monica about what’s been going on at the regional level, you can do it national, you can do it at sub-regional level, you can do it for an organization But certainly, as I’m sure many of you will know, that there’s very little gender disaggregated date Now, there came then, based on this, somebody who you may know: a woman called Caroline Moser, who developed the gender audits as an alternative to gender budgets And they – this started basically as an internal evaluation of an organization’s gender mainstreaming approaches And later on it then became actually having an external evaluation So, you would start with your internal, then you get somebody else to look at it for you from outside There’s no standard methodology Again, the methods are primarily qualitative and you’re recognizing these checklists, case studies, focus group discussions So, ENERGIA, it’s a network and it has a number of members and it’s going back now 10, 15 years Network members were concerned about the lack of progress with gender mainstreaming in the energy sector, that it’s – the energy sector has generally been very late to adopt gender mainstreaming So, these audits were seen as a method of raising governments’ awareness about mainstreaming Also, providing tools, because often people are aware they need to do something – there comes a mandate from the SDGs, or we saw Sam list a whole range of things – but they don’t know how to, so this was to give them a set of tools And also, one of the other important elements of ENERGIA’s approach was to provide a group of local gender and energy consultants – so, to stop having to rely on external consultants So, then ENERGIA designed its own approach with a training program Just very quickly, the audit has a facilitator It then has a team which is made up of a number of different actors, the most important of course – not surprisingly – is the Ministry of Energy, then other energy sector organizations, like the REA we just heard Jennye talking about, other government departments – the Finance Ministry and Statistical Office are two very important ones to try to get involved, and academia And the approach starts with data collection analysis And basically, you are looking at – to identify factors that are hindering mainstreaming and also to look at gaps, gender gaps in energy policies The audit is spread out over six months because these people are also doing other things And they – it completes with a report, with recommendations, and a gender action plan It finishes with a validation workshop in which ENERGIA assumed that the Ministry of Energy takes ownership of the report And I think that’s an important thing, that – the assumption that was made The audits have been done in a number of countries – the three main ones, Kenya, Botswana, Senegal Then – they were the first ones; they defined the methodology was developed They’ve been later taken on by other network members, including some of – in Monica’s region And each country chose its own focus And interestingly, India also did a gender budget analysis Now, did the approach work? Well, it’s very – of course in this sort of things it’s very difficult to trace causality You can give some correlation and have to rely on what people tell you And I mean, Ana’s report actually was really very helpful in this – it’s an important document in this piece of work There were certainly direct reports that we could see

There are signs of the word “gender” and “women” appearing in energy policy And certainly, we saw, as we heard from Jennye, that you begin to see more gender- aware methods being used, not necessarily in ministries but other organizations More indirect effects: Employment policies are becoming more inclusive You’re seeing more women involved But also, what I’ve noticed also over time is that men are getting more ready to accept mainstreaming when the focus is on gender rather than on women They then also begin to see that there are benefits We see more gender desks in Ministries of Energy, but I have to say that the budgets are not really changing It’s very difficult to find gender budgets The training program has been very – was very positively received We got lots of very positive feedback We could see this also in work I see getting published, that the number of people who are coming from outside OECD countries who are publishing reports, papers on gender and energy is certainly increasing, which is good to see However, there are barriers There are pragmatic barriers I think one of the things that’s – and this, the idea was to learn lessons from this piece of research One thing we realized was that ENERGIA didn’t have a budget for follow-up activities, so the gender action plan remained a piece of paper There was no money to do any of the follow-up – the activities mentioned in that, so they just sat on the table There are lots of conceptual barriers Gender as a concept is reduced to the gender division of labor, so for people who see empowerment as a much broader concept, this is just not happening for changes in women’s – towards gender equality And it’s still seen in many quarters as a Western-imposed concept and therefore resisted There are political barriers I think really – ENERGIA really didn’t understand the political processes, that they – that by targeting civil servants in the Ministries of Energy rather than political actors, they don’t have the power to change; they only have the power to advise And in some countries – not everywhere – in some countries the relationship between government and civil society is not always one of trust and cooperation, so it doesn’t work everywhere And I think it’s interesting to see what is happening in the ECOWAS region because this is much more peer-to-peer influencing, and I think it would be interesting in a couple of years’ time how far that has gone So, in conclusion, does ENERGIA’s approach work? Yes, up to a point, but not always as intended However, what I see as changing – and I mean, I’m talking about this method was introduced 15 years ago, so of course the whole context has changed We now have the SDGs, which give us an enabling environment, that there is a synergy, there is meant to be a link between SDG5 on gender equality and SDG7 on energy access And that also drives the requirement for sex-disaggregated data One thing that I’ve noticed quite a lot, and it’s not just with ENERGIA, but a lot of the mainstreaming efforts in the energy sector ignore the Ministry of Women or Gender – countries vary in this So, they don’t get involved And also, women in the past were not very interested in the energy sector and now, again, because of the SDGs they’re taking a really proactive role I would also say that it would be to shift the objectives of a gender audit, make it supportive rather than being seen as criticism Civil servants don’t like being told that they are not – there are huge policy gaps That’s – that doesn’t work I think telling people “Here’s a tool that can help you meet policy objectives” is much more readily accepted So, that finished my presentation I have a number of people to say thank you to: Yacine, Lydia, Indira, who helped collect the data and write the reports; all the participants in our workshops and the key informants we interviewed; also, to ENERGIA and the UK’s Department for International Development, who funded this study; and also to you for listening So, I’m now going to hand you back >>Caroline: Thank you, Joy

I’m going to jump right in with questions in the interest of time and say thank you so much to these five presenters, six if you count Vickie I’ve been on many webinars and quite often people don’t stick as well to their time, so well done, you guys We have probably about ten minutes for questions We’ve had a couple come in So, diving right in, the first one for Sam I think maybe I’ll just read them all and then pass to you guys to field I think, Sam, this one is best for you The question is “When policy, laws, and regulations are being set, how can we ensure that they address gender – for example, NGO thermal projects or hydro projects?” Ana, for you, “Picking up on the human rights framing that worked so well in Latin America, does using that human rights approach make policymakers more open to including gender elements?” Interesting question Those are both from Carla Hernandez And then, Joy, for you, from Christie Jago, she’s wondering if you can give examples of “the gender-aware methods” that you mentioned as direct efforts Just some concrete examples So, maybe we can do it in that order: Sam, Ana, Joy >>Sam: Hi, hopefully you can hear me >>Christine: Yeah, great >>Sam: Thanks for the question Yeah, I mean, the directive is aimed at a project-by- project analysis, basically, so it would pick up something like geothermal or solar or a fossil fuel project on a project-by-project basis But your point and your question is very good as to how do we, how do you do it on a maybe sector-wide basis? And that would involve when policies are being set on those technologies or sectors ensuring that there is an analysis of the gender impact so there’s policies and that – that just takes some political economy and efforts by people like ECREEE and stakeholders You could also include in a legal instrument requirement to factor in gender into policymaking We didn’t take that approach with the directives but it’s certainly something you could do >>Caroline: Thanks, Sam Ana, over to you >>Ana: Thanks, Caroline Well, I guess the short answer to the question is not necessarily We didn’t see that the reference to human rights made it, made decision makers more eager to address gender and implementation When we cross-referenced the human rights references to the gender references, from the six that we saw that had human rights only two also included gender in their text And some of the countries that are perhaps doing the most interesting – or, one of the countries that’s doing the most interesting work in terms of addressing gender in practice, which is sort of why you – you can see that the drive comes from very different directions So, not only from the texts on human rights in the energy policy but also from a very strong structure for – on gender An institutional structure and drive Also, several years back, a very strong commitment from the highest levels at the policy level making so that this – these structure were not only based on the Institute of Women’s Affairs, but that every ministry including the one for energy had gender focal points, strong energy offices, so if – so that this was actually implementable So, the reference is not only – or the click is not only through human rights, but it could be an indication that a country is more eager but also more convinced and aware that there’s social inclusion that needs to happen, and from that angle of social inclusion that they may start developing gender-aware or gender-responsive strategies >>Caroline: Great Thanks, Ana Joy? >>Joy: Right Yes Gender-aware methods

Well, I would suggest that if you go to the ENERGIA website there are a number of training manuals which give examples of gender-aware methods And similarly, the World Bank’s REA program also has some So, that’s – but I will suggest that – that rather sounds like I’m not going to try to answer the question But one example is to start with an organizational assessment So, for an implementing organization or a policy organization, it’s to look at its own way of doing things What’s its gender employment policies? What are its promotion polices – so, from its employment? And once you start to do that it becomes – the whole gender aspect starts to become more visible What’s our way of working? If we’re doing field work, do we send only men or do we send women as well? And also you have to remember, do the women feel comfortable going to more remote areas? It depends where you are, which country you are from And also, if you are from the policy side, do we have a reasonable male/female balance in our – in any policy frameworks we’re developing Is there any quality of opportunities to influence? So, that’s a very quick example of the ways of doing things But as I say, if you’re going to the ENERGIA website or to the World Bank’s REA, you’ll find lots of examples in the training manuals there >>Caroline: Awesome Thanks, Joy I’m going to do another quick round, recognizing that we’re just about at the hour but wanting to get through all the great questions that came in We have two for Monica Monica, one question on politics, which I think is very astute: “How does ECREEE and ECOWAS deal with the lack of women in the political space, because that of course creates a barrier to legislation that would be kind of a stronger path forward for this – kind of for the gender agenda?” Second question is a request for sort of more details on the women technology exchange program around number of women, number of companies I think possibly this is something that you could answer in the question field if there’s a link to that or something like that, because it looks like we might not get to all the questions And Joy, a question: Kind of very specifically, “How can ENERGIA help us –” the questioner’s organization, I’m inferring – “with gender assessments and training?” Maybe you could say a little bit about how ENERGIA gets engaged and kind of works in the field So, Monica first and then Joy >>Monica: Thank you very much, Caroline Concerning the question on how ECOWAS deals with the lack of women, we’ve built space I think if you were to look at how ECOWAS itself is trying to make sure that the institution is gender-balanced, you will see that we are starting by leading from example So, for example, we have a number of commissioners at _____ and we have a very strong advocacy approach to bringing awareness to our heads of states and other leaders of the countries in ECOWAS on the _____ – so, promoting gender balance So, for example, the vice president of the ECOWAS commission is a female, and there are different advocacies or ground initiatives that are going to heads of states to talk about issues of women in power, things of that nature So, I think to just cap that up, to summarize that, we are leading by example by putting our _____ on ______ and going to the authorities to discuss the issues I would say that most of the – most times when we do have maybe energy ministers meeting or any meetings bringing together key people in government we see that there’s that gender awareness there People understand that there is a gap and that we need to solve that gap So, I would say that we are getting there Concerning the women’s technical exchange program, basically what we are doing right now is providing scholarship opportunities for women in energy participating in trainings and other capacity-building activities being implemented by ECREEE Definitely, the idea of the exchange program is to have women

working together, spending some time in different institutions and learning from that So, I would say that that is where we are going to right now But you can learn more about the exchange program on our website and also you can always write to me to know where we are But yeah, we’ve done a lot of scholarship programs for women to gain the skills to install and receive certification on solar technicians training and all that Yeah >>Joy: It’s Joy Can I just add something to what Monica’s been saying? First of all, I don’t think it matters in one sense I mean, in an equality sense, yes, that it’s not 50 percent women and 50 percent men But I think you mustn’t let men off the hook It’s also men’s responsibility to make sure that we have gender equality in the energy sector It’s not just women’s responsibility And having said that, I actually think there’s some pretty good – I’ve noticed this has changed over time – some pretty good male ambassadors, particularly in Monica’s region, on gender and energy at the ministerial level So, that is changing, fortunately Now, back to the question that I was asked: ENERGIA and training First of all, I have to say I don’t work for ENERGIA, so I cannot promise that ENERGIA will do anything for you So, you have to really contact ENERGIA directly yourself However, what I will say is that those resources that I mentioned earlier about the ideas of examples of gender- aware methods, these were written as training manuals They are written with a participant’s manual, with lots of resource material, but also with a trainer’s manual, that they were written so that people could take them off the shelf and run a training course based on them And you can adapt them and put your own material in them So – but yeah, I think ENERGIA, you have to contact Sheila Oparaocha directly and she will tell you what ENERGIA can do for you directly Sorry I can’t give you a much more positive, direct answer >>Caroline: That’s great, Joy Thank you So, I have the go-ahead from Vickie to extend this session around another ten minutes, but I just want to acknowledge for all the participants that we’re going a little bit past time, so please hang on with us if you can I understand if you have to jump We have another great question, and Jennye, I think I’m going to pass this one to you So, it’s from someone who works at the World Bank as an energy geographer, which is a very cool job title But the question is around data and data that can be included with the big models that they build, like around the global electrification platform, which she notes in her question is open source and available online – I’ll just read it out – at electrifynow.energydata.info She says, “We’re looking to include gender on the platform.” And so, the question is “What data could be used, either included as a layer or georeferenced data in the algorithm?” That’s a pretty big data-heavy question, but maybe, Jennye, you can take a stab at fielding And then, of course, welcome from anyone else on the panel as well >>Jennye: Thanks, Caroline And thanks for the question I am not a data expert and I can only venture the most cursory of guesses, but I think to get a fine look at who is where in exploiting which energy systems would be helpful I often struggle looking at countries trying to parse their census data and see if there’s been male/female discrepancies and outmigration from certain regions So, you might see a region as particularly underserved with regards to energy access It might also be gender-skewed, and it’s hard – that, I think, would be a really useful layer to have on some datasets I also know as mobile phones become more prevalent and people are tracking us everywhere, I would imagine that it could be useful to know such things as who is physically where, like who is in the home, who is on which agricultural plot, at what

time of day, and think about different maybe more large-scale approaches to getting people the energy systems they need But I’m happy to spend another half an hour this afternoon thinking more deeply about that and maybe being in touch by e-mail But that’s a really great question, and I think there’s so much more that we can do now with data that we’re not doing yet in terms of gender >>Caroline: Yeah Jennye, I think that’s totally right, so we can be excited about kind of what’s on the horizon Hopefully in the next ten years we’ll have a whole different range of tools available to us I have a couple of my own questions that I’m going to go ahead and pose to you guys They’re kind of broad They’re kind of stepping back and looking probably at this space We’ve talked a lot about building policies, kind of following through on this great ECOWAS directive, but I think if you look globally, there are a lot of policies that get written and kind of put on the books but then don’t necessarily get enforced It’s kind of like a nice thing to say, the check box exercise has been kind of completed, and then there are some missing pieces that prevent the policy from being as powerful as the writers intended it to be And I just wonder if we could hear from anyone who is inspired to chime in, but maybe Joy, Monica, Jennye – anyone What makes the difference in countries where you have seen that follow-through? What was present? Joy, you mentioned gender focal points in cabinets You also mentioned budgets and how they’re sometimes lacking? What’s kind of – what’s the key to seeing this be realized? So, maybe I’ll open it up in that respect Joy, if you’re willing to take the first stab, and then anybody else, please jump in >>Joy: Okay Yes Yeah, I mean, that’s a good question What brings the change? Certainly – well, the first step is creating the awareness In one sense that’s rather obvious But what the ENERGIA work shows is that if you don’t have any sort of budget, then nothing’s going to happen; nothing’s going to change And part of the getting the budget is creating an awareness and a political voice at the level of the citizen And I think one of the things that you’re beginning – one of the places you’re beginning to see this and people are doing some work on looking at this is in India, that the government – or governments or political parties have begun to see women as a key stakeholder group within society, and they are then now starting to implement policies that also take into account women’s voices And that includes – and there are people who argue that the LPG program in India is linked to this So, it’s getting yourself recognized as a political force in a – where your constituency – that governments want – political parties want you to vote for them at elections, so they will begin to include your requirements into their policy frameworks That’s what I would – that’s one of the places that I would suggest I don’t know if anyone else has got anything to add to that >>Caroline: I think you’re right, though The political, the impetus, the political capital and leverage does make a difference We see that in our own countries [Crosstalk] >>Sam: Hi, this is Sam – >>Caroline: Yeah, Sam, go ahead, please >>Sam: I was just going to add based on our experience in working on the directive, it’s also about designing the policy in a smart manner And, for example, the directive is aimed at putting an obligation on sponsors of projects to conduct the assessment, and generally these sponsors will want to do the project and will have some money There will be some economic case for it And they’re going to already be paying fees or hiring

consultants to do assessments for environmental and social impact assessments And so, the idea is to integrate it already into that existing process and leverage the existing procedures and existing economics and fees to just kind of as seamlessly as possible implement the policy And then, the other aspect of it is that a lot of projects have funding from multilateral banks, international lenders that have policies Certainly, that would be requiring the developers to comply with law and also to comply with best practices in environmental, social impact assessment And so, when you need money from those lenders, then you have to comply with the policies and comply with the – and conduct the gender assessments So, the idea was to think about how we can get the private sector to build some momentum and implement the policy effectively on its own without as much need for political drive from the government >>Caroline: Great Did someone else want to come in? I heard another – >>Ana: Hi, yes It was Ana Right Yeah But I’m conscious about the time, so just let me say that I wanted to build on some of the things that Joy said during her presentation, in the sense that a lot of political will, especially at the highest of levels, is necessary I’m thinking about the case of Nepal, in which the mandate for addressing gender equality and social inclusion comes from the constitutional transformations that happened not that long ago, and how when you have such an anchor at that highest of levels, then there is no other way but for institutions to try and figure out how to bring that into implementation And it does take time, but is that – you need that structure, which is also what Sam was alluding to You need the entire structure that can give the push so that when you’re doing the work you’re not just putting in peril those persons at the ministry, who Joy was rightly mentioning I mean, they can just give advice, but you have this larger sense and process in terms of “This is what we need to do because we do have to show that this national mandate is actually happening.” >>Caroline: I think that’s great, Ana Thank you Vickie, I’m going to pass to you for the wrap-up >>Vickie: Great Thanks, Caroline And Caroline, thank you so much for your skillful moderation And I’d of course love to thank our panelists for sharing your expertise and knowledge, and absolutely thank our attendees for submitting your great questions We’ve all learned a lot from both the panelists and from you through the questions that you’ve shared So, just real quickly before we go, again, I’d like to extend a very hearty thank you to our attendees We really appreciate your participation and your time and we hope that you found today’s webinar valuable and you’re taking away some very good information that is going to be helpful to you in both your professional and your personal lives Just a quick reminder that a short survey will pop up on your screen after we end the webinar, and we appreciate you taking a minute or two to answer these survey questions Your feedback is very important to us With that, I send you all good wishes, and this concludes our webinar Thank you for attending