An Hour With Blender: Learning materials, texturing and UV maps

hi it’s Mike again from scratch and welcome back today we were going to spend one more hour with blender I’ve done two parts of the series already more or less the idea is we spend one hour covering a very specific topic as much detail as we possibly can cram it in that single hour on a topic in blender the very first hour we spent was on dealing with blender itself navigating around the UI what everything does this different modes the you know basically kind of an hour-long guided tour of here’s blender here’s how to use it I’ve taught you basic things like navigating the camera resizing windows switching between windows different modes different such and I assume you’ve watched that or you already know how to move your way around blender at this point so that’s the first error we dealt with the second error was specifically about modeling that is essentially taking things like this cube right here and making something out of it we learned about things like vertices edges edge loops polygons extrusions beveling etc so basically all the little building blocks you’d use to make up a 3d object in 3d space today we are going to look at coloring that object specifically how you add something to the surface of it and more or less that breaks down to a couple of specific topics they all are inter Lingle intermingled first off you’ve got something called a material a material is you can think of it as the container or the description of a surface it’s got really important information in it stuff like what color is this thing it’s kind of important right a material is sort of the top-level description of how this surface works now I have a very game centric approach I run a slight cut game from scratch I assume the majority of my audience are interested in game specific development not necessarily plunder development so blender using blender for games in that case you kind of have to use a subset of what’s available in blender because it’s ultimately coming down to your game engine what’s supported and what that generally means is texture Maps UV maps and a few other things like normal maps etc there’s all kinds of stuff built into blender that simply will not be exported outside things like procedural seems like programmatic generation of sky maps or marble or these things that are kind of like if you’re only ever working in blender building it in blender for blender they work fine but we want to deal specifically with stuff that can be exported to a game engine so that means texture maps surface maps maps are basically just 2d graphics of some kind generally images or pictures or textures that we then want to wrap onto a surface now wrapping something onto a surface is just really well it’s called a UV map and quite literally map it’s what they mean it’s taking something that’s 2d and mapping it to 3d space now the question is how is this done and that is again called UV mapping UV stands for actually at UV means absolutely squat the thing is x y&z are already taken x y&z describe you know this vertex right here this vertex right here I’ll bring up the tool and show you what I mean all right that properties let me switch over so if I grab this vertex right here okay we can see that it’s located at 1 minus 1 1 so this X this Y and this is that location so a coordinate in 3d space I find that just to find a location well you would be are the exact same thing but they’re just a 2d coordinate in a picture so what you’re saying is this pixel at this location on this map goes here so now the challenge is how do you take something that’s 3d and map it to 2d and the simple answer is you make it 2d and that’s the very first thing we have to cover in UV mapping now in order to get there though we have to kind of talk about something else very quickly first and let’s go on back get rid of all this stuff so here’s our basic scene we’re not going to need animation at all so let me just get rid of the timeline today all right so here’s our basic cube as it stands right now there is a material applied to it automatically when you work in something in blender it’s automatically got a material applied and we come on over here to our properties window here and the material is this guy the editor is this chequered sphere here icon and as you can see we’ve got our cube and this is the material that’s attached to it you can create new ones you can get rid of them etc just plus as a – to add and subtract them but here’s a preview of what your material is looks like it’s just a gray surface right now and you can see right here the end result and every surface

has a material in blender and a lot of these properties can actually make it out and this is your simple stuff your fundamentals like your color the way you react to light it’s on transparency etc like that and let’s play with a couple of those things right now as you can see here you’re starting with a sphere you have your preview be a box a monkey etc so I mean just we’re dealing with a box all at the preview via box and let’s play with it we come down here there’s a couple of different settings and they’re all broken down into panels like so this first one is defuse defuse is a mathematical term is it’s more or less how the surface reacts to light in the real world terms if you want to think about it and never think about math again diffuses color the color of your surface is determined by diffuse so I come in here and you see this got this nice little um I did it color box right here we can come in and click it and then pick a color for our surface so if we want this cube here to be blue just come in here and set its diffuse value to blue you changed the intensity this is basically the I think it’s kind of about the light level of the material itself not as opposed to a scene lights just in general like that the brightness of the material sorry that’s a better way of saying it next up is you have your specular specular is sort of how light is gonna respond to it for the most part if you’re really with a Gammage you probably aren’t going to export a specular material it’s not something to know about to need to know about anyways but it’s like um you know when you say you’ve got a chrome ball and you’ve got a light next to it and it creates those rings or circles on it that is the specularity in effect not only something we need to touch on too much here just be aware of it over here you can actually change the shader Veit types again this is not really going to be exported well to a game engine so that’s our only really kind of useful if you’re working directly in blender itself but you can change the way that the diffuse color is calculated so I can switch this over to a toon shader and then you’ve got sort of different values different ways it goes but we’ll stick with the default lamb bear of shading so that’s the programmatic shading model again if you have no reason to change it stick with lamb bear next up we go down here so that’s the thing is when you’re gonna want to go with again is diffuse and diffuse you can literally think of as color let’s close that one down shading you can have it so that it emits light see so it’s kind of glowing and this would be handy because if you had another surface right here this surface now with this emit value set would actually color the other surface as well so it basically turns your surface into a light source as well and get translucency then is how see-through your object is so now it is 85% trans or 87% translucent I think I need to switch to a higher fidelity viewport mode for you to even see okay so no translucency needs another you set okay I’m not really sure what we’re gonna use that one for we’ll just turn that off for now I get out of here oh by oh you could switch over to a rendered mode which renders your changes on the fly actually leave it in there for now so this is like a mini renderer that’s rendering the surface using the lights etc in your scene to show you the effects of what you’re changing next up you got transparency transparency and translucency are sort of overlapping we can come here and go transparency and your alpha level like so we now have a 30% opaque model so you can only see 30% of what you’ve got or you can go back to a hundred now the reality is again these values it’s questionable if your game engine is gonna support them or not so it’s kind of up to you if you want a real high fidelity if your rate rating you’re creating a scene rendering it for creating a say a cutscene or a movie or a single still frame you switched a rate race and caused your transparency effects to be calculated very precisely very mathematically with a lot more details you can set the glossiness up of your transparency you can make neat glass-like effects etc but we’re not again we’re going to ultimately be exporting in real time a lot of the rest of this really is kind of meaningless to you from a game perspective now what you do occasionally have is this guy this sometimes needs to be checked for certain game engines but it’s way beyond the script what we’re talking about here just be aware of if your if your game engine has limitations on how how textures can be exported you may have to set face texture on in your material but for the most part that’s all you’re really gonna come in here for you can change the way that you know you can have it so it doesn’t receive shadows doesn’t receive transparent affects shadows only etc so how it basically interacts with the rest of the scene but again that’s only really useful when

you’re dealing in blender so that’s that’s the essence of material every single object has a material you can even know if you’re working in game mode 99.9% of this even if especially if your surface is 100% textured you don’t even need a diffuse map you can have this completely meaningless and doesn’t matter but just be aware there is a material for every surface and if you want to set simple things like the transparency level or the color this is where you do it okay now the important part here though is your mapping now this is where you can add multiple maps onto your 3d object now as I said earlier a map is a way of taking a 2d image and applying it to a 3d surface and it’s very simple things like I say in a 3d game you might have your face mapped to a head or you might have you know I’ll show you a very simple concept now I won’t you could have like a the map like if you took a globe in the real world this is actually a real world application of texture mapping somebody’s physically done this it’s basically you know a globe is just a circle with a picture of the world basically plastered on top of it it’s the exact same process in 3d but it’s done via this map now that kind of boils down to the earth there’s unfortunately the word map is used too often because you’ve got like normal map texture map etc and those basically are just saying picture or texture now the map the actual thing that plots one item to another is the UV map and that is critical now let’s go back here well go back to say textured mode here and this is a basic cube and I’m gonna go ahead and we’re gonna make something very very simple today and we’re going to make a dice or die die I think it’s a die just very simply take this cube unmapped it so that we can paint it in three dimensions you’ll see exactly what I’m talking about here then we’re going to go ahead and create a texture map pretty much to apply on the color channel here okay so first thing we need to do is create the UV mapping and this is a little confusing because we actually have to do this in edit mode so we’re gonna need another window here we need less of this window here I’m gonna switch this guy over to UV image editor so this guy is performing I kind of wish they didn’t do this I wish they’d split these up into two different tasks but uv/image editor is used as the image editor in blender the image painter slash viewer etc in blender and also is used for UV mapping now UV mapping like I said it’s that process of taking something that’s 2d and so it’s 3d and 2d and making a map between the two so go back to the idea of a globe the globe it isn’t just a normal image put on a map you can’t just take a square image and map it around a globe it doesn’t fit it doesn’t work so what you kind of essentially have to do is take that flat surface or the globe itself before its turn into a globe and you flatten it out and then you can plaster your picture overtop of it and then you can turn it back into a like a 3d shape well we’re gonna essentially do the same thing with our cube here what we need to do is turn this guy flat and that process is creating something called a UV map now let’s do that first thing we do switch over here to edit mode yeah I’ll bring my tools windows back up here we’re gonna ultimately use this menu right here and what we want to do is think of what this guy and this is something I’m actually not very good at mine my brain does not work well in these parameters but what you want to do is take this guy right here and flatten it somehow now picture yourself having a virtual pair of scissors we’re switching over to edge mode and what we want to do is they’re gonna way to cut this guy so that it would be a single flat shape and that we’re gonna do we’re gonna take this edge this edge at this edge right so picture you just took a pair of scissors and you cut here here and here so now that this guy once that was cut would be able to flop down here right like so and the next thing we need to do now just figure out how to do it with the rest of the surface well if we took this guy here here and here we could now flop this end down here right so we could have flattened it here flatten it here now the problem is we still have this square here that’s all connected so we need to make at least one more cut alright so we’ll grab that edge and I’m picture where the pair of scissors you cut here then so you cut here you cut this section here this section here alright so this end can fold down this way this end can fold down this way and with this cut this guy could fold this way and then this guy this guy and that guy can all fold flat coming out this way right so if you

picture that in your head these are the scissor lines you would cut now those are the seams that we want to on map with now we just sit here we go mark seam right so now if you sit here I’ll unselect everything we now have these red lines where the seams are being marked and those are where our UV maps are basically going to be cut okay so now all we do is we select everything so hit a see I’ve got all of my surface selected it I’ll just come over here and I go mesh okay UV unwrap and then unwrap and then boom is exactly what it’s just done so you can see right here this cut is see me that probably that guy right there then the loop came and created this cut and this cut so now what we’ve shown blender is how to treat a 3d surface as a flat surface so now this face right here will get mapped onto this guy now I’ll actually show you a little trick here it’s kind of neat and very useful to know when you’re in here in uh I missed my ass but our pivot somewhere back to normal you’re here in the UV editor you can now click this guy keep UV edit and edit mesh’ in sync so I grabbed him eyes okay now I got that turned on whatever I select over here let’s see so now that I’m in that so the midnight press that you saw right here we’re dealing with UV coordinates each one of these little dots it’s sort of like a vertices but it’s actually a UV it’s a 2d think again UV is just like X&Y it’s a 2d coordinate and that’s all there is no magic or no special meaning to the words UV is those literally X wines that are already taken I don’t know why they didn’t like W so that’s why you they’ve used U and V that’s all you have II mean they’re just like X&Y they’re just x and y-coordinates in 2d space with you know going from zero to 1 and 0 to 1 whereas zero and zero is a very top left one and one is a very bottom right it’s literally just a simple 2d coordinate system that’s all a UV coordinate is and it’s saying we’re in 2d space to put whatever image is below and we haven’t applied a texture yet so that’s gonna be important you’ll see how that works in a second but by clicking this guy so here we’re dealing in UV s UV Islands selections like so I can click here and now we switched nor dealing with vertices edges and faces so I come here and this particular UV I click in oh I’m in I’m an edge let me click over to face mode so I click this face and you’ll see it corresponds that face I click this face it’s the bottom one so you can see how our cut works so I can actually come down I’ll go get the edges so this was the one why are you giving me multiple there the one selection of edges that we cut and you can see over here the selection isn’t there so this is how that mapping between those two works and if you want your selection over here so I put a over here it selects everything over here this is what makes the connection between your 3d view and your UV editing view live so that when you update one the other one updates now I’m gonna turn that right back off and I’m gonna show you something kind of confusing about how blender works so if I’m sitting over here I’ve got my UV editing on but I’m over here in edit mode and I select let’s go over it up base mode and select a single fit you’ll see over here everything else disappeared so you will only see the UV maps that are currently selected without that being turned on so I turned that back on you can see all of them turn that off you can only see this currently selected so here select all you see everything select none you see nothing so that’s a point of confusion the UV map is still set but it just isn’t shown or so the the selection that you have selected in the 3d view if this isn’t turned on it’s going to only show you in the the UV view what is selected over here so the important thing to understand it’s not really changing anything it’s just showing you only the selected again unless that’s turned on so when you unwrap also that’s important to understand too when you do hit unwrap make sure you have everything selected or you’re only going to unwrap a portion now I can also come through here I could change the orientation I got to change these seams etc that I set first time so here’s our current UV mapping and let me just go back to object mode over here and go back to edge mode and I shall grab so this was the scene we selected those were the two edges right and then we have that one single cut so now I’m gonna clear those cuts and now we have a single cut here that’s gonna create a rather odd so make sure you select everything like so and then go mesh UV unwrap all right and you’ll see cuz we only have a single

line it’s gonna create this really stupid version well last time we had this side cut now let’s say we wanted to like the orientation to be slightly different we want to change our UV map I’ll just come back over here all loops here let me just select everything clear the seams so we now have no seams marked now instead of doing those particular angles I’m gonna do say it’s all doing the exact same thing I’m doing here I’m just picking from a different direction so that that and then we’ll grab that guy is our exact same logic it’s just turned a bit just showing you how you can change an existing UV map whenever you want so we’ve selected those seams I mark them and I on select everything and unwrap and it all it did realize that change the orientation that this map came at and that’s it now it’s important to realize that this guy over here also go back over here for now this layout this map that’s generated you can manipulate the hell out of this thing and it’s the same controls you already use so for example let’s say we wanted to lay this out vertically so instead of changing everything I just did I can actually just use same controls be for a box select grab everything I’m going to do a rotate like so I’m gonna reorient it it up a bit and then I’ll do a grab move it up slightly scale to make it fit a little bit better just rotate it slightly more so that it’s straight at the top damn shift give me a precise rotate there we go so you can manipulate the way that the UVs are laid out using the exact same tools you already know grab rotate scale box select circle select etc they all work exactly as you expect and you can also grab an individual UV and move it around this is literally just a tutu 3d mapping now let’s let’s move on and actually map something and that means we need to have a texture map applied so we have a UV map that’s very important so now we can map something into 3d space let’s create that texture that we’re gonna map on I come over here you’re gonna see there are hundreds of options here so yeah well actually there’s like 14 so that might be a little hyperbole everything you see here is completely useless for exporting externally this stuff is all excuse me only really useful inside a blender period ok so what you see here this ocean well some things might support noise but for the most part these are all mathematic procedural textures and again if you’re working only in blender you’re creating a scene that you’re gonna render yourself or you’re going to render to texture then apply that texture when you export use anything here you want but for the most part 99.99999% of the time all you want is this guy as that’s to map an image or a movie onto the surface and let’s do that so i just created a new as you can see you have multiple textures on a single material we head and created a new texture right here and here’s a preview of it because there’s nothing to it and you’ve got pretty much one of two options here you can either create one yourself from scratch or you can go ahead and load an existing if you have an image file any of the supported files at blender supports including actually movies now the movie textures generally aren’t supported by game engines but if you want to texture map mp4 or an avi or whatever to the surface of an object you can’t again most game engines probably don’t support it but that is your option so we just created a new texture made it of type image or movie and now what we want to do is go ahead and I’m just going to create one program I’m gonna create one inside a blender as opposed to loading one from existing tech sure so new and that brings up this little window here you can name it so we’ll call this image texture next up is your dimensions this is going to create it as 1024 by 1024 pixel so you can make this value whatever the hell you want however a lot of game engines like it to be a power of two in size in both directions that means 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 one of my 256 512 1024 2048 4096 and then really you don’t want to go much past 4096 because a lot of hardware doesn’t support it so essentially you want your x-coordinate to be or your X width to be one of those values and you want your height to be one of those values now you can do 1024 by 512 whatever it’s fine you can also share a texture across different surfaces so if you have one image with multiple textures in it totally fine you can use a portion of a texture no problem in fact that’s a very common thing to do you have one image that’s used across the surface where you have all different kinds of things like you could have part of the image it’s dedicated to the gun part of its to the hair part of its to the eyes to the face of a character etc totally fine pack things in there however you want just try to keep your dimensions as power-of-two if you’re going to a game engine if you’re staying in blender doesn’t matter do whatever the hell you want so we’re creating a new way a texture called image texture we will make the

background actually white because like I said I’m making a very quick dice dye dye so I’ve got a whitish color we want an alpha Channel that means we want so it’s not just gonna be red green blue it’s gonna be red green blue alpha and alpha is ultimately your transparency channel so yep go ahead and create that now your other option here you could have it create a UV grid or a color grid this is just like a this is a black checker pattern and this is a color kind of checker pattern and it just shows you if there’s any weird warps or bad definition in the way you view the unwrap this so that’s generally where a lot of textures start from and then they paint over top of it in this case we’re just gonna go with a standard white and keep it as blank and now that we have our texture generated let’s click OK and boom we now have this texture called image texture now I will cover that in a second so come back over here we got our surface and we have our own mapping and we have a texture now let’s kind of make it active you come back here and there’s this guy this is a list of all of the images currently available inside of this blend file and we’re just gonna go ahead and we’re gonna add this image texture and now you’re gonna start seeing how texture mapping works see this is a blank 2d image all white this is in the background over the top you can see the the UV mapping overlapped on top of it so kind of that’s the extent of it so now if we come back here and I go to I’ll show some material you’ll see this is guy right here is white now let me show you a little trick with material now when you’re dealing here like why the hell is this surface black well that’s because we have a light in our scene all right so the default scene has a camera and a light in it and we’re seeing the effects of that light on our object so if I grab this light right here oh man edit mode okay so which the object mode grab that light and I move it around you’ll see it affects the scene differently now sometimes though you don’t want this at all it’s very irritating trying to see something that you don’t want the world’s lighting to affect of course you could delete your light and you’ll end up for the scene looking someone like this because that’s only because let me grab this guy I think I have actually no it’s not emitting okay I’m kind of sure it’s got any color at all but if you want the CETA undo that bring our light back there if you want the lighting in the scene the blender seem to have absolutely no effect on your surface at all you can with your objects fly to come into your material right here and select shadeless and boom now you will have no lighting effects at all from blender now this property may or may not be picked up by the game engine so you probably want to ultimately turn it off but this kind of essentially says don’t cast shadows don’t cast light intensity etc so the lighting of the scene essentially doesn’t work and everything is lit evenly and basically 100% when you have shadeless selected and it’s very handy when you’re just doing work like this straight normal texture stuff so now we come back in again you’ll see though I have the UV editor over here active but I don’t see my UV anymore well that’s because I switched out of edit mode so I come back over here switch back into edit mode and then I’ve got everything selected I can see the mapping as it’s gonna happen now what we’re gonna want to do a couple things I’m gonna go ahead and save our file so I want to show you how something works in blender this is going to be very critical when you start exporting things out of blender is how files are done so we’re gonna save our file right now and we’ll just call this C colon slash temp that will create a new directory and we will call it dice and going to dice and we will call this guy like so all right so we now have just saved our blunder file somewhere it’s kind of important to what we’re about to do you come down here you see this in the image editor here so we went ahead and we created this white image and we can make changes much to it but we’ve never actually saved it so you didn’t save it either externally or inside of the blend file if you save an image or a texture in blender inside of the blend file it’s actually literally stored in your dot ble and e-file your blend file becomes bigger your texture is thought right inside of it all great and dandy except a lot of game engines are going to want you to use it as an image file so you’re gonna want your textures to actually be externally available some game engine will actually support it so I’m like FBX and Colada the two most popular file export import versions both basically owned by Autodesk these days FBX is literally owned by audio Autodesk Colada is a an industry standard but Autodesk is pretty much dominating the industry so those are the two big game engine formats and almost every single game engine uses one or both of those two file formats and they do both have the ability to actually know FBX might not but Claddagh has the ability to pack images

internally now the really your game engine actually support that who knows now your other question is if you have a texture that you want to support across multiple different game objects then you’re gonna have duplication if you embed it so a lot of times what you’re gonna want to do is make your um your image external so if this guy called image texture but there’s no name there’s no file locations I’ll come down here and I go and look at the texture itself its location is nowhere it’s embedded inside of the blend file now what we want to do is come down here and go save as image and since we have our location it’s right there it’s called image texture PNG automatically I’ll just go ahead and save that that’s perfect so now our our source is actually defined it’s no longer just embedded in the blend file it’s its external now if you want to do this otherwise you could also have gone back image if I select pack image then that image will now be pulled out of being a file and packed inside of the blend file and at the same time you can come back in later on and go to file external data and unpack all in the files and it’ll push all of the embedded content back out of the blend file so you can switch back and forth however you want to do it and sometimes you know especially if you’re gonna want to share a blend file or with like you got 30 or 40 different textures you wanted to send it to somebody else packing all of it into a single file definitely has its advantages so those are your two options okay so anyways we have our this is a 2d image and this is an overlaid view of the the UV coordinates on top of that image now what we want to do is we want to go ahead and paint this damage we’re gonna create a simple dice texture now the neat thing is blender actually has painting tool built right in as well and let’s use them now so right down here we go down to the menu should pull this over a little bit oh I suppose to show you one last thing before I go now over here a 3d view remember how you got your tools and properties right so T or is it this side guy with all these different context-sensitive tools and then n brings up all of these little settings that are appropriate to an object in the 3d scene we’re just kind of ruined my my surprise there alright so in 3d you have these options well if you come into your UV view here your 2d view you’ve also got the same thing so if I press T it brings up context-sensitive tools on this side I press end it brings up UV specific properties on this side you use this these two panels a little bit less often than you will use these two but with the tool we’re about to use oh I’m slows down and also remember there’s a little checkbox you can use to expand it as well if you wish when we get into paint mode this guy is very important so we’ll turn that tool off right now so all you do is you come down here and you go from the View mode right here and we’re just gonna switch that over to paint that’s it so now we’re in paint mode and you saw I don’t know this seems like a bug to me there’s like this cursor well it’s only active when I’m not over my image I do think that’s a bug Ashley I don’t think it used to do that but anyways I don’t know no lock won’t do it yeah so I don’t know why I’m not actually getting my tool over top of the actual image again I think it is a bug where the version I’m running 2.73 because I should see this surface like this selection when I’m over top of my image to paint but I don’t so anyways now that we switch them to paint mode over here you’ll notice down here so this guy here is where we can switch between the images we want to have active but our menu just changed a little bit so we can switch between draw soft and smear clone fill and mask pretty common 2d painting things you can zoom in zoom out etc but I’ll bring the tools back up alright here you can also switch between the various different options so we’ve got a clone brush we can color fill mask over an image smearing soft in and texture draw and we’re gonna wanna do texture job which is also known as painting and pick my color normal typical color wheel I want black so it works for me I don’t want it to spray it all I want it to be like on or off like so and the radius is well this is that circle I want slightly smaller radius like so and it should be showing over top of the image I don’t know why it isn’t but so you can come down here you can you can paint a texture you could actually create a single texture and paint it over and over again like if you had a blade of grass or I could create a more fancy circle that I’m about to use and paint use that particular image texture to paint with you change the way your stroke worked your the angle that you’re painting from your paint stroke methods so you can have like airbrushing etc so there’s a lot of actual painting stuff in here like you would see from a pretty fancy your your curvature of your painting effect so a linear fall-off or so sharp fall-off etc this is actually quite a powerful paint package actually built into blender and you can also have your blend modes this is sort of like your sink you know dodge and burn you can change just the color add additive

subtractive mixing hue specularity dodging etc so this is where you can decide how what your painting is going to affect existing color in my case we’re just we’re painting mix so this is going to literally add the color I paint onto the surface and I’m just going to create the faces of the die our surfaces right here there’s one there’s two now you’ll notice over here in 3d view our texture is actually being updated live so it’s paint three if there’s actually a layout to how dice work I apologize I don’t actually know and there’s four and then there’s five and then finally six world’s ugliest dice but you’ll see we just created this 2d texture like so and it is being applied to this surface here that’s quite literally it so I come back here so we edit our image you’ll see right here brightness X the image there’s an asterisk here that’s because it hasn’t been saved let’s go ahead oh I missed oh crap I’m sorry this is just so fun to paint that I shall so as you just witnessed you can also reload your image if you click the wrong button let’s try that one more time and I shall be a little bit more accurate with my mousing so five and finally six alright so there’s our dice like so there is our 2d image are overlaid UV map sitting on top you can actually also and sometimes you want to just treat this as an image as opposed to look so this right here is an overlay of our UV map very handy so you can see how things will apply to the dice because all of this white space outside of the UV map is completely useless like I said here and I can do whatever the heck I want with it it’s not actually being drawn on anywhere so you see our 2d image is ultimately changing but only the things inside of the UV map are actually going to be of any use at all do that cuz I don’t actually want to do that so this guy here is an overlay of what the underlying UV map is so this selection here is going to be mapped here that’s all you’re kind of corresponding thing is if you don’t want that however you come over here to view and see it says draw texture paint you v’s you turn that off so then you’re just dealing with a 2d image editor if that’s what you wish to do and turn that back on and the majority of the times you’re going to want that enabled and then update automatically is showing you the updates over here that’s what’s actually controlling that so if you didn’t want to do that you can turn it off right there I don’t know particularly why you would do that so now I’m gonna come back here and I get a very carefully not press reload image so I’m just gonna sit here and go save image so now our texture right here says C temp dice image texture dot PNG has been saved and just show you that so we’re gonna go into dice and now you’ll see we have our blend file and our texture file like so that’s it so now if I come on back here over in a blender our blender is unsaved so let me just save that and we could go ahead if you really wanted let’s go to our 3d view and we’ll switch to the camera mode like so and let’s just render that guy ah okay very key point I have not done something wrong and then the editor is hiding my mistake okay so we set everything up I have not said something yet so it actually should not be mapping over here it is not right yet and this is a very handy thing to actually learn I’m glad I just screwed up so you guys can see it I haven’t set the UV map up yet so I created this texture I created the UV map but I did not tell the texture which UV map to use now in the editor here it’s snowing because I’m I’ve got both of them set but the map itself needs to be set to so let’s go on back over here so again you’re in your texture setting here’s the image we just created now let’s scroll down a little bit more on that guy and you’ll see right here mapping and his coordinates there’s generated and we don’t want generated we actually want UV right and then when you click down here and just go click and there’s map and you pick UV map and now it’s gonna know to actually use the UV map that we assigned so you have to set this you literally have to set this or you will get a render result like we just saw so I come back here and go back to the render result you’ll get this and obviously this is because your your texture mapping is very wrong basically it’s just mapping everything to the top of the square which is not what you want let’s go back to our image so again as I saw now you can see it all of the things including the most recent render all the

images etc in in the particular blend or linked to the blend are available in this drop-down menu right here so that’s how I was able to switch back to the render result let me go back to the image texture like so so now that we’ve set this UV map now I come back over here and we’ll render and you’ll see it’s done right so important lesson glad I ran into that that one’s pretty important okay so that is now yeah basically there is your first ever image texture mapped 3d object in blender you could export this out to a game engine of choice you know actually I’ll show you so file now let’s export that to X we’ll call it died out FBX leave it in the same folder just go in here and I think I have an FBX viewer yeah right here so this is a Autodesk 3d viewer I just come in and do an open and this is a very weird okay so it’s on my downloads oh all right drive see oops wrong temp temp dice open and there you go our image is not textured are you not textured oh my menu thank you I want textured well isn’t that a kick in the ass make sure okay why did you not load the texture you know what this might actually be one of those examples I just head back in I shall go back to the material I told you some engines require this face texture to be set so file export FBX make sure there’s not any weird options here so I want which everything path mode sometimes this is absolute pathing that’s the path mode to files etc and let’s export that guy go back to our editor and open oh that’s infuriating okay very bad example I don’t know why it is not export incorrectly it’s set up right it’s textured right UV mapped one second okay a little bit off on a tangent here but I figured out what’s going on here that’s it’s the FBX is viewer issue not blenders but if you’re going to export out of blender to FBX format and for some reason the file isn’t working out do your export this way so if your object select it or not slash it doesn’t really matter we export everything come on over here to your FBX export and we’re actually exporting the mesh only so I’m just gonna select mesh here the kicker is down here ultimately what we want to do it set the path mode to copy so we’re going to copy in the files and we’re gonna click on embed textures so we’re actually doing is we’re putting the texture into the FBX file FBX files going to grow a lot but that should be fine so we’re gonna head and do the export and now cook over here fire up our execute FBX viewer I just a matter the FBX viewer didn’t automatically import The Associated PNG file so if I brought the FBX into a unity unreal or max Maya etc Softimage whatever it would have grabbed the file it’s a little bit smarter than this viewer is but now that we’ve got that exported we grab this guy opened up and you will now see our texture is set like so that’s it now what you are seeing here this is kind of interesting so you know there’s like that pinkish hue because I actually set an on slightly off-white color here so it’s actually where I told you sometimes things are gonna pick up properties and deal with them sometimes they’re not going to the FBX export is actually using the diffuse property so if we didn’t want that that tinge just make sure that this is actually set to full white and that’s why we were getting that pinkish so if I come back here and then now and we export back out the X settings already done like so now if we look at it residental II this is a free FBX viewer available from Autodesk it’s a good way to preview if if you have problems if you doing export from one tool to another and your animation isn’t working or something you’re like why the hell isn’t it working this gives you another tool to actually just bring it in and preview it to see if there’s

something wrong now not to say that this tool isn’t wrong sometimes but as you can see now that diffuse color is no longer affecting it there’s not that pinkish tinge anymore so that’s a 3d object export it outside of blender and usable this could be thrown into a game or whatever and that’s the process of actually making it so let’s close it down back into blender so that is essentially it now we go back to our folder that we exported as once again this guy here on this texture that we generated then we worked on entirely inside of blender it’s just an image like so so I could have just as easily opened it up in or in my case I’ll use paint.net and we just go ahead and grab zoom in a bit one of my tools not over here I’m gonna zoom in on one of these dots I think that’s the first dot let’s give our dot a candy-coated Center so make a quick change to our image like so and click Save bla bla bla bla bla that’s fine alright so we just saved it come back here your image and we do that reload that we actually intend to do this time and you’ll see boom it’s updated like so switch here back to our 3d view and we go to the one side of the dice you will see it’s changed here so you can edit your maps however you want you can do the main your own third-party program totally your option however you want so that’s ultimately the crux of it this is the basics of how a texture map happens now you saw we did the UV editing the cutting and we were dealing with a pretty simple shape to start with a cube and ultimately when you when you’re doing a UV unwrap of an object you want to make it as you know clean as possible otherwise you can get weird tearing and texturing and such but the process is also kind of a pain in the ass as I said myself I am not particularly great at UV on mapping it’s not something I don’t visualize how to unwrap things from 3d to to very intuitive I can do a cube obviously because there’s only like six sides it’s not that much of a it’s not rocket surgery by any means but with more complex images it’s a little bit trickier now there are some tools that can make your life a little bit easier let me just show you that just your brand new scene you got no animation so I’ll just pop that guy out there and we’ll get rid of him and we’re gonna want to do is create something just a little bit more complex than a cube we’ll go over the your the sphere UV sphere like so and we’ll jack up the segments and I’ll check up the Rings a bit like that alright so switch into edit mode him and I’m just going to quickly add some detail to this guest I’ll switch into off base mode here go mesh and I’m gonna go into fortunately editing and enable that so why am I in vertice mode still face alright so let’s grab a couple faces here and I will just pull that out here all right and little those out too I just want a kind of a bit more complicated surface than what we had before I so grab the pole here so I’m using something called proportional editing which is automatically going to crab nearby surfaces as well just creates kind of a smoother selection phase and so let’s grab that guy and pull that down so there’s a kind of a non-standard shape a lot harder to UV unwrap than what we’ve got now you can do your urine wraps pretty simple make a crude job a bit quite easy so let’s switch over to here to edge mode grab everything and we could just do like there and there right so that’s gonna cut those two should I just kind of expect me to do more all right there and say there as long as you continuous and it worked all the way to the pole this will fillet this shape into four corners and then let’s do one kind of about the center like so so we could really quickly do a UV unwrap that way it’s not gonna be good so go over here to UV image so we can see the wrapper generating so there’s our scene we could go ahead with those switch over here to our shading UV sets and we’re going to mark that seam so those were gonna make our cut lines select everything and unwrap and then boom there’s always gonna cut into so now you could kind of grab each one of these surfaces so if I go over here and I’ll I’ll make it live so you can see what’s affecting what this this set of UVs over here controls this chunk of the face etc so and you could do this now you’re just going to create kind of issues when you’ve got a shared surface from here and then now you’re gonna have these guys over here

on this guy here your image would have to be smooth across those two and ultimately what you would have to do is if there was a shared face here and then here normally what you’ll end up doing is taking these guys – that selection so alright my proportional editing is screwing everything up let me just turn that back off you grab this island over here you can also set it to so I’ll turn this off for a second because it’s very annoying off I want Island face violent alright on so I can automatically select so an island is a selection of you V’s like this each chunk is an island so you can set it though it’s a select mode over here over to island and you can select all of these so if I can switch now back to here yeah there’s not an easy way to switch these two that’s annoying about what you would ultimately want to do is have this edge here right beside this edge over here because I’m gonna share an image across them and that’s where you get something called like a UV seam and that’s a very messy icky process but that was a crude Greek way of UV unwrapping this I put no real logic into how this cut would go and I could also have gotten rid of this seam right here so let me just switch back edge click clear scene and select everything and unwrap and we end up with a lot less different chunks so you have less different themes to deal with the texture spinning across them UV mapping is definitely an art form something you’re gonna learn in time it takes a while you have a few options over here you can change the way that it calculated everything you change the thresholds it use to do things but the end result is going to take a lot of work – getting used to how to unwrap things as nicely as possible now if you’re just doing something quick and dirty or you don’t care about nice fast or good resulting UVs you have other options available to you so I’m gonna just select everything I’ll clear all seams so there’s no one mapping so if I now that there’s no seams done if I unwrap this guy so select everything UV unwrap and unwrap we should get nothing why do um getting anything all right doesn’t really matter so now we want to take this guy right here and instead of us doing the unmapped we haven’t we haven’t to find any seams it doesn’t know how to cut it up or anything like that we’re gonna come over here and go mesh UV unwrap and we’re gonna use this smart UV project and this is gonna basically it looks at the surface using an algorithm from different angles and automatically creates a UV map for you so let’s go ahead and do that instead and here it’s doing its best job to cut things up in a way it’s to be honest they did a terrible terrible job it actually normally does a lot better you can change a couple of these values the way that you can change the way that the UV map is ultimately generated you change the angle it uses a through C they are now suddenly that is a slightly more usable map and that is a slightly less usable map so we’re going to change the angle threshold this is the angle that used to determine if it should make a cut or not and your waiting can change a little bit that doesn’t really do much to help you but your angle limit definitely makes it an effect but you have this you have this smart UV option here for having it do its best job that it can now your other options are down here now this guy is kind of gonna be you can do UV sort of at a time and this will just basically create the UV map based off of what it can currently see so here let me show you that so mesh UV unwrap project from view and see what it’s done it’s basically it’s just created a UV map based on what it can currently see so I could have done let’s see boom don’t back selector no no I don’t okay so let’s that off looks like so okay so I grabbed those faces right there so I’m only gonna map that set of faces right here that I’ve got selected and I get some of the camera set up here and I could go mesh UV unwrap project from view and now it’s selected those particular faces and clear the okay so now I have a completely useless map UV map reset mm-hmm that’s not what I want Matt UV unwrap why are you not clearing you should clear all right once okay I’m running really want to dwell on this subject let’s stop show you two other things very very quick and then I got to move on to another subject that I should have covered more so click a new one so you’ve got another shape here so let’s say add I’ll go back to a sphere mesh and you see R like so so you got a

sphere here in your scene like so and if you want to do a quickie UV unwrap so you got your through here you can also come in here go mesh UV unwrap and you can do if you had a cube you can do cube projection cylinder or sphere so sphere projection like so and let’s kick on over to or not that UV image editor and you’ll see it automatically unwrapped it knowing that it’s a spherical object now I did a piss-poor job let’s just grab that guy in and move that back in but that is let’s get that flatness or spherical on mapping that it’s done algorithmically it also then and this isn’t it’s gonna look ludicrous because it’s not a cylinder could just done cylindrical mapping using an algorithm or UV unwrap cube mapping makes sense if so fives actually let’s actually do a reload on that one using a cube switch it over mesh you the unwrapped cube projection and then you come on over here and you see the end result it unwraps it for you I so what it’s done here is there’s actually overlapping going on so there are I grab one of these see you can see they’re actually putting the same surface over the the individual damaged as you go so there’s different on mapping options you can unmount based off of your current view angle etc but for the most part you’re going to want to use one of two options you’re going to want to set your seams and use unwrap or you’re gonna want to a smart UV smart UV is basically if you’re lazy you come in and it will automatically try and calculate the best map for you it’s a good place to start until you figure out how you’re going to do your things so go from that for sure now let me just go back to our dice project I should have covered this earlier so here we are we’re editing our image inside of blender and we got this nice little overlay I told you about so right here I can sit back down and go draw texture paint UVs and this is controlling that overlay well if you’re working in something externally you’re gonna want this UV map to be honestly you’re gonna want as a background layer so if you’re working in Photoshop or paint.net or whatever you’re gonna want that and fortunately you can easily get it and you can just come up here and you go to I’m in the wrong setting one second I get out of paint mode and back into View mode and I go to UVs and I can do export UV layout we will call it die UV layout like so so paint on that’s still handle the opened it’s right here you can see we already have that I mean zoom oh we got our texture open automatically I can come here and create a new layer say layer yeah I’ll open how do i import a layer and blend in this one sec you don’t need to watch me fumble over it so I missed that it’s right here import from file and we’ll go here and go to temp and then we go to dice we can just grab it and there you go you can actually have this so then as your background layer so you know where to draw it you can get so you can get this UV outline you can export it and it’s available again using UV he’s export you Vallejo I hate to do this I really really screwed up here in I didn’t cover some things I really want to so I’m going to make this an hour in five minutes with blender so sorry about the five extra minutes my bad I ran out of time on what I was doing and there’s something else I need to cover and that is back to maps so you get this concept will do a quick quick quick overlap or over review of what we’ve just done and then I can cover onto another thing very quickly the first thing you got here right now is we come in you create your object like so you take your object and you set your seams or whatever and you unwrap it this creates this 2d mapping that can be used to create and map an image from here onto your 3d surface this is literally a two to three dimensional map you’re unrolling your 3d object to make it flat like this and then that map is overlaid over top of in an image file which then creates the texture map so that is how texture mapping works now we used a texture for the color image here but there are plenty of other textures and there are a number of lumps that are supported by different game inches and there’s a couple of them that are very key one of them I’ll follow up in a different video because it’s its own process it’s kind of convoluted I’ve actually covered it earlier somewhere else so if you go through a game from scratch there is already details on this but they’re something called a normal map you know a normal map is it uses it’s still an image it’s a color image it ends up looking there blue let me just pop open a new window and I will show you normal map so here you go these are normal Maps they’re always at this bluish tinge multicolored thing and what’s going on here and here’s a good example of how a normal map works from

Wikipedia these are you take a really really high density model and then a low-density version of it and the image map takes the contours in the shape of the high one and it generates a normal map which is a it’s an encoding of X and Y Z values of this into an image and each one of these pixels each the the red the green and the blue values of this texture map correspond to an x y&z coordinate for pixels that don’t actually exist so what it is is a way of your um your graphics card or whatever has built-in functionality that can add detail using these normal maps – you can have this very low resolution texture sorry low resolution now – that is using a normal map from a very high resolution so here’s a four million triangle mesh a five hundred triangle mesh with a normal map rendered for it and this is the end result you get because this guy appears to have so much more texture detail because it’s encoded in this normal map and like I said each one of these dots in this weird-ass color the red green and blue are each being used as the x y&z coordinates for each pixel on this image so it’s a way of encoding additional details into your your texture that don’t actually exist there so it’s a way of making very high res looking low definition models and generally the way it’s done is in your 3d application you model a high resolution version you model a low resolution version and then you do something called bake a normal map which generates one of these bluish looking color things and this is just it’s just additional information available that’s not in the low resolution version so it fakes it to look like there’s more geometry available now normal Maps have become very common you know first generation second generation hardware like the original iPhone or early Android devices did not support normal Maps pretty much everything does now and it’s a great way of getting additional resolution in for a very low cost because it’s built into the hardware again it’s a huge process all covered as a separate thing if there’s enough interest in it but be aware of that you have these additional map types and when we came in we created our textures right here we’re just using it right now if I scroll down here we’re using it to affect the so it’s influencing the color Channel now you see there’s all these other ones here though displacement normal right here so normal and displacement and then bump are a couple of the really key ones so then you’ve got also alpha you can have an alpha mask which basically is a transparency control so I could put an alpha map over top of this and then based on the color that’s in the map that’s how transparent the underlying image is and you can lay a whole bunch of these maps on top of each other now the key ones you’re going to see so obviously a texture map is this guy that we’ve created here it influences the color channel very key that that is the core fundamental texture map is a color map or diffuse map to be called one of those two things and they’re key every game every asset pretty much is going to have a texture map of some kind of that of a diffuse or a color map that’s well the normal what we’ve dealt with that’s what we just created on top there are three kind of major ones that are used quite often are the normal Maps which I talked about earlier it’s a way of encoding detail or higher resolution detail so I can fake properties into it but they actually the GPU is handling it and it’s actually creating more detail on the the end result there’s also a displacement and bump map now bump maps fake you can put a bump map on it’s just basically if there’s a color there it raises it up if there’s no color there it lowers it down and it’s working on the normal the normal is kind of how it’s it’s the direction of faces facing or the depth of a face if you want to look at it that way so when you’re saying something if it’s got a bump map and if there’s like a black pixel there it will or sorry if it’s a white pixel it’ll raise it up a black pixel it’ll do nothing and it’s a way of adding or faking additional kind of depth to an object so I could do a bump map here I could actually turn I could create an inverse of this guy right here so if I just literally inverted this channel so that where everything is black is white and applied that as a bump map that would make this a white circle this is white circle this way circle this is white circle and when the bump map is applied it would make it appear that each one of these things was recessed and that’s effectively what a bump map does it adds fake depth now there’s also something called a normal map a normal map is like a bump map sorry a displacement map it’s very confusing because a normal map doesn’t actually use normals a normal map encodes three-dimensional things so the x y&z coordinates well there’s something called a displacement map which again very confusing here but it actually physically moves the geometry when rendered along

the normal based off all I can do all that a displacement map can do is move the surface up or down so if I have a normal map and it’s fully on here when it’s rendered this this face will be that kind of pushed down or pushed up and it’s an old-fashioned way or an older way of applying depth to a surface that doesn’t have depth so that’s a displacement map so you got bump map which is a way of faking texture to depth on a surface so like say you had an apple or an orange and you want to be a little pitted you could literally create a surface of you know just blotted blackness on a white background and that could be applied to the surface and it’ll give it the illusion of being pitted you can have a normal map which encodes a whole lot more positional information from a higher resolution map or higher resolution object and encodes it and applies it to a lower resolution version allowing you to apply a lot more detail to an object that without a lot of geometry and finally got a displacement map which is kind of like a normal map but it doesn’t encode an XYZ it just encodes in the normal the up and down basically of any given of the applied face so those are three other kinds of maps that we kind of didn’t touch on I should have and they’re controlled here and as you can see there’s all these other different ones too you can how this thing will influence or handle the surface and they’re way beyond what we’re gonna want to get into but those are the three that are often supported by a particular engine now some engines will also support specular maps or ambient maps or a few other kind of different things if you get into unity or unreal you’ll you’ll see exactly what they support but it’s just pretty much it’s the same concept it’s just the value the pixel values that in the map do different things than just color it instead they’re often representing depth or a lot of times you’ll use a mask and they’ll represent how light refracts or how transparent or translucent something is etc but it’s the exact same process you do it the exact same way and it ultimately all depends on if your game engine supports it or not so sorry about that I just actually want seven minutes over I did not mean to so welcome to another hour and seven minutes with blender but I hope that was useful for you concept it’s really kind of simple you’re really just kind of taking a 3d object and smashing it down to be a flat surface and that creates something called a UV map and then you’ve got your material which sets the general way that light interacts with your surface things like setting the color reflectivity translucency etc and then on top of that you have a number of maps that you can apply the most important being image maps or texture maps which can be applied to different channels them also find the one channel you were going to use is going to be called either the diffuse or color Channel and that is what you could to basically consider a texture map but there are other maps that we didn’t really cover here cuz I ran out of time things like normal maps etc which I will cover in a later video I promise but those can also be applied to the surface all the way through the workflow is pretty much the same and it’s a pretty simple concept so you take 3d objects you tell it how you want to have it cut up and that process is called creating a UV map so once you’ve got that UV map then you take your image and you just sort of map the two together now I did not even get close to cover it this is a very simple process I did not I did not do anything here so if I had like duplication so if I had I had two faces I won them both to be threes I could have taken this guy here he’s got here grab moved it down like so like that and you’ll now see my three my one just became two three three so now I have two threes although was inverted so there was a lot of things you can actually do here that we never touched on but the basic concept isn’t the same you’re creating a 2d map that corresponds with how an object is how this image is applied to this 3d object and that is the essence of unwrapping and UV maps and what they do alright so I’m done now a minute 9 sorry about that wasted 9 minutes your life I apologize but hopefully that was useful that is essentially texture mapping UV mapping in blender enjoy have a good day bye