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I didn’t have any eggs sometimes So he set this cage over a couple of milkweed plants Caught a female butterfly He said I think probably she’s found a boyfriend He didn’t know for sure He put her in the cage and left it in there from 11 in the morning until 7 at night This is in one of the videos When he finished, he very carefully pulls, yeah, he let the butterfly go, he pulled the cage up, and found some eggs on his milkweed that had been covered with this cage His wife is doing the videoing and she’s saying, “Rich, this is more than you’ve ever had before.” Well, he got done counting eggs and [laughing] he had 90 eggs, every one of which hatched [audience murmuring] And his wife said, “What are you going to do about this?” He said, “It’s a work-in-progress.” [laughter] I want to do that this year If I can’t find any that’s a great way to do it But anyway that’s the story of my journey I hope some of you will try to take on a journey too because if we don’t, we’re not going to have any more butterflies Parenthetically This is my last point and I’m so excited I went on Journey North yesterday, looked up sightings At this point, as of yesterday, adult butterflies have been sighted in Wisconsin Rapids, New London, Black Earth, Waunakee, and Waukesha Guess what, guys? We’re going to start a new journey! [laughter] Thank you [applause] – Good morning, everyone It’s my pleasure to welcome you here to out next talk: Songbirds of Your Woodlands I’m Steve Swenson with the Aldo Leopold Foundation in Baraboo, Wisconsin And it’s my pleasure to introduce our next two speakers, Yoyi Steele and Mike Mossman Yoyi is a wildlife biologist and a natural resources planner with the Wisconsin DNR and serves as the Important Bird Areas and Southern Forest Coordinator for the Wisconsin Bird Conservation Initiative The Wisconsin Bird Conservation Initiative is a statewide partnership of over 180 groups working to advance bird conservation across Wisconsin She has worked on bird conservation and forest management issues in the driftless for the past 10 years Mike Mossman is a newly retired DNR ecologist who has studied the effects of forest management and land use on birds, amphibians, and small mammals He often works with landowners and land managers and has a special interest in the relationship between human history, landscapes, and wildlife populations Mike lives on a retired farm near where he grew up in the Baraboo hills And on a more personal note, I know both of them very well through our own important bird area around Leopold’s Shack called the Leopold-Pine Island Important Bird Area And Mike and Yoyi have been extremely influential in helping us make the most of that land So, with that, I welcome Mike – Thanks, Steve Let me get right onto the slides here A lot of things we’re going to talk about today

will be things you’ve heard already today Our goal here is basically to familiarize you with birds, their habitats, and how you can help understand your woods more by looking at the birds and using the birds to engage you and draw you into that forest more and your management Birds depend on habitat entirely Anything that happens with the habitat, whether it’s succession or things that we do to it purposefully or not, affects what the bird community will be And we’re going to talk about some of the processes and the sort of principles that govern that, and not so much about what to do on your own land As you’ll see, there’s many factors that can be involved in how you want to manage your own land and how it would affect the birds or what birds you might choose to manage for or not We do have a couple handouts We have one on principles of land management for birds over there, and another one that’s one some resources that might be useful to you for managing land And a third one that’s a little bit more technical on birds of different sorts of habitats in the driftless area So, there’s a great richness of birds in the driftless area, and a lot of them really need help, conservation help Their populations are declining And for many of those species, the driftless area is one of the best places in the world to manage for them So, we’re going to focus a little bit more on those But when we talk about birds we’re also really talking about whole plant/animal communities The birds kind of represent those We know a lot about bird biology, about the effects of management on birds, but we also know that, what’s good for a particular bird is good for a whole suite of other species where they’re talking about plants, small mammals, or insects In our selection of birds to talk about and to emphasize, those are birds that generally represent entire communities So just keep that in mind Here’s the principles I mentio and I’m not going to go through those now, but our slide show will follow those And, again, they’re in that handout, and there is a kind of a little explanation for each of these The primary kind of most important point is birds respond to habitat, and birds within a forest, birds sort of assume different niches in the forest And this is an example of this If you just look within a particular stream gorge in the Baraboo hills, for example, where I did studies for my master’s long ago, looking at flycatchers So, this is one group of birds, one family of birds They look a lot alike They feed a lot alike They perch on a limb, fly out, grab an insect, come back, or fly up to a leaf, fly next to the leaf, grab and insect, and come back to perch So, they’re very similar ecology in a lot of ways, but certain woods have different species than other woods would have And here’s this sort of a schematic representation First of all, there’s a difference in the heights that they feed at You can see the crested flycatcher, is the largest of the flycatchers, tends to feed up above the canopy or in big openings in the canopy They’re sort of adapted to– Because they’re the biggest, they fly the farthest, get the biggest insects They’re more adapted to openings and I guess, because of that, they nest in cavities They’re likely to occur in places where there’s dead trees Eastern pewee is the next largest, and it’s a species that tends to feed in this layer, lower layer of the canopy Then you have least flycatcher and Acadian flycatchers feeding and nesting and successively lower levels, and the Phoebe, which is more generalized, but is always limited by nest site, so it’s always near a cliff or a building If you look at the kind of structures that favor each species, you can see here, let’s assume these are oak trees here, it’s fairly open canopy, some space between the canopies, some light coming down The pewee loves these oak, lower oak canopies where there’s space between the branches where they can forage and build their nest on sort of a horizontal oak limb It’s a typical place for them And, actually, their nest looks like a– They decorate it with lichens It looks like a knob on a white oak limb In this case, the understory that’s responding to this gap here is low It creates a lot of feeding space for the pewee If you get to a situation where it’s a little more farther along in succession from the disturbance or whatever or the fire that has allowed this canopy opening to be there and some of these trees grow up higher, you get these saplings invading that space, pewees tend to either disappear or just get lower density Least flycatchers love those spaces in the sapling layer So, that’s where we get the Least flycatchers

Acadian flycatchers occur more on the right there where you see the Hemlock maple type canopy, full canopy, almost no vegetation on the ground, and some scattered Witch Hazel shrubs or Sugar Maple saplings that they nest in You can find a woods that has all these birds, if it has all those kind of variety of structures And the Phoebe has very– because it’s so limited to its nesting site, it really doesn’t have very many requirements for what sort of a canopy there is They’ll be where there’s full canopy, they’ll be where there’s open canopy, but they pretty much need that nest site So, that’s what limits them Some of these habitat niches that the birds take, they can be broad or they can be very narrow according to the species In Wisconsin, the Black-capped chickadee would be an example of a bird that has a very broad niche Just about any wooded or semi-wooded habitat would have chickadees Whereas something on the other end of the spectrum, the Yellow-throated warbler on the left, which occurs in Wisconsin only in a few sites, like the Baraboo hills and Wyalusing area, where there’s mature oaks with super canopy white pines Some species respond to specific characteristics of the habitat Woodpeckers, or cavity nesters, are one We’re talking about a pileated woodpecker that needs these large trees to nest and feed in, where the Prothonotary warbler, down on the lower right, that lives only in flood plain forests and nests only in broken off snags that are either in the water or right next to the water Or, on the left, the Winter wren, which occurs especially in old growth forests where the large trees have fallen over, and it needs those large trees to nest in, and that’s where they feed in those kind of complicated understory of stilt roots and fallen large trees Some species will respond to kind of general habitat structure Two examples here, this is in northern Wisconsin, but we have the same sorts of structures here In the upper left, an old pine stump with a Sugar maple forest that’s grown up in an even-aged structure all at the same time, very simple forest You have kind of a small set of species living in there because the structure is so simple, but the Red-eyed vireo does fine Down in the lower right, you have the wood thrush, which requires a lot more kind of a diverse pattern of understory structure, like this, which shows another tree that’s fallen down It could be a site that has been managed and the canopy opened and some structure in the understory that’s developed And usually the wood thrushes won’t be in that opening until the understory gets to be sapling age Canopy openings are really important part of our management They’re created, of course, naturally They were created by lightning strikes, windthrows, old age of old canopy trees, et cetera, and now mostly by management, but also by disease and windthrow These are very important for a number of birds that like openings within woods A lot of times a species that are benefited by this don’t care that much what that understory is So, the grouse is probably more, cares about aspen, perhaps, more But these other species would be, like the Blue-winged warbler, Hooded warbler, and Chestnut Sided on the top, Indigo Bunting and Eastern Towhee on the bottom They’re responding more to that structure So, whether you’re creating an opening and it’s coming back to oak or whether it’s coming back to sugar maple might not make a lot of difference, but, of course, it makes a huge difference in the future with where that forest is going Let’s not forget oak savannas Armund talked a lot about this this morning And there’s a whole suite of birds that are adapted to the pre-settlement oak savanna that now oftentimes will do fine in grasslands with scattered trees, such as the Bluebird Red-headed woodpecker, Orchard oriole, Field sparrow, and Brown thrasher Let’s not forget that some places that we might be able to convert into forest also have a special place for a lot of these birds and other wildlife A rare community worldwide But oaks, in general, are really important component of the forest, whether we’re talking savanna or woodland or oak forest Here we have an example of a site in the upper left that is succeeding to maple woods, a site on the lower right which is oak woodland managed by cutting and burning

All these species illustrated here are some that either require or do much better in oak forest rather than central hardwoods or maple forests, like the Blue-gray gnatcatcher down the left, feeding during the pulse of, during migration, during that pulse of catkins emerging They love, like a lot of warblers, a lot of migrant songbirds, their migrations are pretty much timed to that emergence of catkins and all the caterpillar larvae and eggs and so on that are associated with those Oaks are especially diverse with prey items like that, moreso than the other hardwoods that we have There’s the Eastern pewee then to the right of that in that nest that I said looks like an oak knob Worm-eating warbler that basically is a very rare bird It occurs only in the driftless area in Wisconsin, and is specific to stream slopes and kind of stream gorges in the upper stretches of them where you have really mature oaks and a lot of oak litter Cerulean warbler in the center right is a species we’re very concerned with Yoyi will talk more about that A species that likes really mature trees, but it also really like oaks So, there’s a big of a dilemma there in terms of it needs these mature, big trees that like sort of a semi-open canopy, but if we’re going to keep the oak trees it really loves, we have to think about where we’re going to destroy its habitat, temporarily perhaps, to let it– And hope there will be something for it somewhere else So, when we’re talking about management like this, a lot of these– Our discussion is– These systems are all dynamic We’re talking about having space for these species on the landscape one place or another, and sometimes to manage them the habitat will become unsuitable for some of the species that we’re actually managing for, at least for a while Tanager is another example of a species that just likes oak trees or maple woods as well, but there’s more of them in oak woods Down in the bottom, we have a blue jay with an acorn because there are some of these species that really do, you know, focus in on acorns Blue jay being one, at least during the fall and winter, and Red-headed woodpecker being another one Another reminder that what we do for one species to favor will disfavor others, and it’s nowhere more obvious than what to do with that hay field on the ridge top Do we want to keep it as a hay field on the upper left, or do we want to plant it to oaks or something else on the lower right? It’s a great opportunity to plant it to oaks That’s one way we can maintain oaks on the landscape to some extent But, again, you’re trading the Bobolinks for other birds eventually Bobolink being another bird that needs help, but a grassland specialist And we can just look at that, the same concept, in a local spot in the woods where we have something like this Acadian flycatcher nest on the right, right above the lady’s hand, in a Witch Hazel in what you can see is kind of a typical Sugar maple woods with very little understory And that’s a threatened bird in Wisconsin, and the driftless area is its home Another bird whose home is the driftless area in Wisconsin is the Kentucky warbler on the left, which will never live in the woods on the right, but if you were to open that up and if it was a large enough woods, rich enough, you might get a Kentucky warbler to come into that opening, which is its preferred habitat One more example of the same thing Oak dominated woods or woodlands that are invaded, like on the lower left, by ashes and hickories, Yellow-bud hickories, and exotic shrubs are great for Rose-breasted Grosbeaks But whereas that woods had it and Rose-breasted Grosbeaks don’t need a lot of help, they’re doing fairly well, whereas, on the right, you’ve got an oak woodland that’s been managed by fire and cutting, which is open on the understory and is the sort of habitat that we need to maintain Whip-poor-wills, which are really in need of help We also need to think about the context and size of the habitats or of your land You may have two woods that are very similar in nature A 40-acre piece, for example, whether it’s situated in a large forest makes a big difference for the birds and other wildlife than if it’s isolated among agriculture And, as an example for how birds respond to this, the Great Horned owl is pretty much an edge species and would almost certainly be in that landscape in the upper left Pretty agricultural but there’s some scattered wood lots It’ll find a place to nest, and it has plenty of edge to feed in, in open areas Whereas the Barred owl, in the lower left, likes extensive forest, has a big territory, like the Great Horned does,

but that territory has to be wooded So, in that sort of typical driftless area scene in the middle, you might get both Great Horned and Barred owls But if you go down to the Baraboo Hills, on the lower right, with these massive extensive forests, there’s no place for Great Horned owl there, although it may exist on the edges of some of these woods But it’s basically Barred owl habitat So, that’s an example of context and size, but it also applies to birds that may have a really small territory, like an Indigo Bunting or a Hooded warbler whose territory may only be an acre or two centered around an opening in the forest These are both species that like that shrubby response to canopy opening You may have that same structure of, say, a half-acre opening in each of these three woods that looks very similar The Bunting would be in all of them The Bunting is generalized It’s in all openings, edges in the driftless area It’s a bird that doesn’t need help because it does have such a general habitat Whereas the Hooded warbler is one that likes these shrubby openings but only in extensive forests Even though, again, its territory doesn’t go much beyond that opening So, up in the upper left, you’d never have a Hooded warbler, that center landscape maybe, and that lower right-hand almost every opening of a quarter acre of more with scattered with semi-thick shrubs in the Baraboo Hills will have a Hooded warbler in it So, I’m going to leave it up to Yoyi next – So, I’m actually going to go back a minute, start my talk, my part of the talk here This concept of sort of the site and the neighborhood is one that may seem unusual, especially for little birds like this that they actually are affected by what may be outside the specific site that they’re occurring And so, the best analogy, I think, that I can make for this is the example of real estate I mean, if you think of the little site where a bird might nest as the house and what exists outside of that is the neighborhood, anybody here that’s going to buy a house would never just look at the house You’d always look at the neighborhood, right? Because you want specific characteristics in your house, but it also has to be in the right neighborhood, right? It’s got to be next to schools or close to your job or close to family or whatever your needs are, your desires You would never You’d probably never be interested in a gorgeous house that was in a crappy neighborhood Probably So the same goes for birds If you’re a Wood thrush, say, and you’re looking for some property and when bird conservationists think about habitat, what we’re interested in is maximizing production Is really making sure that the species not just occurs there and not just nests there but nests there successfully, is able to raise young successfully, and that those young can survive to the next generation So, it isn’t just enough that the bird is there or that the bird is nesting there but that it’s productive and that it’s reproducing successfully In order to provide habitat for a bird like this, you really need to look at all these different scales You need to look at the landscape And what this shows, the map with the weird colors on it, is a habitat suitability model showing where are the best places in the Upper Midwest where you might want to manage for Wood thrushes Basically, where’s the forest? And then this photo up here showing sort of a local forested landscape where Wood thrushes might occur And then the little forest patch in the middle is, similar to what Mike said, the kind of habitat at the site scale that they’re attracted to where they need little patches of saplings in a larger forested context It’s really important to have all three of these together in order to successfully produce populations of birds Especially birds that we’re concerned with, like the Wood thrush So this is why we– The only rule of real estate is location, location, location The same is true for bird habitat So we always want to think global and act local or set our priorities from the top down It’s really useful to do this, super informative for you as a landowner to situate yourself in a larger context and figure out, where am I on the landscape? What are my opportunities here? What are the unique opportunities that exist here

that maybe do not exist elsewhere? And so that’s kind of what this slide is about I think Rick said something very similar in his talk, and Armund Bartz did in his talk as well This concept of figuring out where you are on the landscape and what that might tell you about what’s likely to be successful for your management, what you might want to do with your property So when we think about birds, there are, like Mike said, a great diversity of birds in the driftless area The species that you see here are special because they’re of high conservation concern Many of these species are in trouble Actually, they’re all in trouble All of these here are in trouble The key thing about this particular grouping of birds is that they only occur in our southern forests in Wisconsin We have a lot of northern forests These birds really do not have any opportunity up there for the most part There are a couple of exceptions here on the slide But if we’re going to keep these species in Wisconsin, we’re going to have to keep them here We’re going to manage for them here And when you think about forests in southern Wisconsin, there’s a little forest in the southeast We still have the kettles out there, but the driftless has the most, the greatest, and the best So if we’re going to keep these species, we got to manage for them here As I said, these species are not doing well This is a bulleted list of some of the species you saw on the previous slide And this is population change over a 44-year period, 1970-2014 This just came out in the latest revision to the Partners in Flight Landbird Conservation Plan for North America This is the proportion of the global population of each of these species that’s been lost in that time Some pretty shocking numbers ranging from 25% for Kentucky warbler, 67% for Whip-poor-will, 73% for Cerulean warbler So that’s a tremendous amount of the population that’s been lost So this is why we’re concerned with these species Getting back to understanding where we are on the landscape, we’ve got this map of the driftless area It is a four-state area, but Wisconsin has the most of the driftless area We also have the biggest, best, and most connected chunks of forest that are remaining in the driftless area And so we have the best opportunity We also have the highest responsibility I also want to make the point, just getting back to Mike’s ridge top field example with the Bobolink versus the Oven bird, the driftless also has a lot of great grassland opportunity Most of that is down here in this part where there really some very extensive wide open landscapes, working landscapes primarily, that are great for grassland birds There’s where you see the differences is in terms of situating yourself on a landscape and thinking, gosh, what are the opportunities? If I’m down here in the southwest grasslands, I mean, that’s really, should be pointing you in the direction of, gosh, you know, savanna prairie, maybe a nice little woodland in a draw Whereas, if you’re up here, maybe primarily sort of north of the Wisconsin River, that’s really a great forested landscape That’s how you can use sort of landscape context to help you make decisions and figure out, what you might want to do on your property for birds Another thing to realize is that birds’ needs change throughout their life cycle Up here, in the north, we get them during the breeding season, but if you notice, in the red, that’s just a very, very short period of time in the yearly life cycle of a bird It is a very important time in their life, of course They’re breeding They’re producing young This is the next generation Of course, most of these birds do not stay here They come, they breed, they raise their young, and they leave It’s very important to understand that a lot of the birds that we’re concerned with have to make these very long journeys They spend the winter in other places where they can run into many different conservation problems That passage back is very important, not just for birds that may breed, that stay to breed in the driftless area, but think of all of those, neotropical warblers that pass through the driftless area and they don’t nest here They nest in northern Wisconsin and Minnesota and Canada But as they’re passing through, and Mike mentioned this, the food resource that oaks represent in the spring for these birds is extremely important It’s important for the birds that stay to breed here; it’s also important for the birds that are passing through

that are making, in many cases, just fantastic journeys One-night migrations across the Gulf of Mexico Then they get to the coast, and they got to cross the corn and soybean desert to get up here Or they’re coming across the Great Lakes These birds are wanting to reach their breeding grounds in as best condition as they possibly can As soon as they get there, they got to defend a territory, attract a mate, and raise young And so that food resource that they encounter here, as they’re moving through, is very, very critically important And so the prospect of losing oaks on the landscape is frightening It really has conservation implications, again not just for the birds that breed here but for all of our birds that pass through here and require that food resource in the spring – So you’ve seen this basic instruction, I guess, many times today, probably, about having goals for your property What we hope is that wildlife in a broad sense and plant/animal communities are part of that as represented by birds But it’s very important when we’re asking people to think about birds in managing their property that partnerships are really essential and multiple goals I mean, to have clear goals but to have management is going to fulfill as many of your goals that you might have as possible For us to ask someone or even on our own property to manage it specifically for birds is not going to happen I mean, that has to fit in with the finances It’s got to fit in with other things that you want for your property And so this is where it’s really important to sit down with someone that can help you and figure out– Do some reading, get to know the birds, get out there, see what’s out there, get together with people that can help you plan, and try to make goals that are going to work If you’re managing with goals, no matter what your goals are, this is sort of what makes sense to follow this sort of cycle of planning, implementing your management, going out there and monitoring it, using whatever you want, whatever is important to you and useful as a gauge for the success of your management, and then adapting And if you’re monitoring birds or other plants and animals, it really helps draw you into the land It helps you understand more of the complexities, not just what you’re monitoring, but the other things that you learn along the way And there’s help for this, if you’re interested in learning how to do it and interpreting it Also, remember that in our goals, our goals aren’t necessarily for an end result All these woodlands and landscapes in the driftless area are dynamic, so your goal should be for a process as much as for an end result And I just use this as an example of savanna restoration Of all the phases that a piece of land might go through, from an oak woods there on the upper left and you want to get to that center place where it’s a savanna or a woodland, it has to go through all these what may look like horrible expressions of land change You may be cutting down entire pine plantations, like in the lower left Burning, cutting And, actually, all these phases have benefits for birds I mean, there’s a lot of cool birds that’ll exist in just about every phase of this And if your end goal is a savanna and know that’s going to be there for a while, who knows how long it’s going to last, what storm is going to come knock it down Always be ready for change and embrace that change as best you can There’s also things that happen that are just basically beyond your control around your landscape You may be in a site where you’re fairly isolated Your wood lot may be fairly isolated Well, maybe over the next 20 or 30 years we start getting more abandoned fields growing up to woods around you It changes your options It makes it more– Maybe you can bring in more woodland-loving wildlife as a result of that on your piece Or opposite, if the woods start disappearing around you or changing in some way with time, you may want to adjust your goals to fit into that Finances, you know, the economy of the region They all make an influence, and so our goals need to be adaptable But, still, goal is something that you want to adhere to as best you can On the lower right is an example of Baraboo Hills openings up on top of the bluffs, which would have been formerly forested and savanna but had been turned to agriculture in the 1800s Well, this field in the lower left, that guy died I don’t know if you can see the shrub encroachment that’s happening there, a woody encroachment That’s going to be a woods eventually, which is going to change the value for grassland birds for the neighbors And it also will improve the forest capacity of the woods

right around where that field is now Last thing to leave you with, I guess, is just that appreciating birds, using them as a way to draw yourself into the land and see the effects of your management Birds are a really good way to watch the effects of management or of non-management Whatever happens on the landscape or doesn’t happen So we encourage you to give that a shot And, as an example right at the end, we want to give you two woods that were managed sort of using these principles in part but in different landscapes with different goals and how they both had desired effects but quite different ones We’re going to compare the John Nielsen tract Some of you know him, a former DNR forester His 200 acres is in a really heavily forested area of Richland County The Mossman-Hartman tract that I own with my wife is at the edge of the Baraboo Hills but in an area that was naturally prairie and savanna A much more open landscape We developed different goals We have slightly different histories on these tracts, but kind of different potential that we’re trying to meet On our tract, it was, as I mentioned, savanna, marsh and prairie A history of pasturing everywhere, of course, and some cropland And our goal was savanna, ecosystem restoration, and some forest products We’re limited to what we can get in forest products It’s not very conducive to it Steep slopes, not real fertile soils, and some of it’s wet and a lot of it’s rocky The Nielsen tract, that 240 acres was pre-settlement maple/oak forest, and the history was high grading So a lot of forestry that John wanted to sort of recover the woods from, as well as pasture and cropland His goal was more forest oriented He wants sustainable forestry, wood products and wildlife So, we’ve worked with John on his plans and monitoring his property His goal, basically, is, he’s not really concerned with grassland birds He wants some deer, turkey He wants good forest, good productive forest That’s, I think, kind of his main thing And so his fields are being planted to oaks That’s a big oak plantation where he just overplanted, you know, seeded acorn and got way above the deer browse right away And that field will be an oak forest before too long Lower left, he’s letting some of his, representing sort of central hardwoods He’s letting some of his oak woods go, or what would have been oak woods, to central hardwoods just in places where it’s going to be too hard to maintain oak on these north slopes, et cetera In the center is an area where he is trying to regenerate oaks with more open, more extreme logging and opening it up Lower right, this shows sort of these young forests recovering from the forest, from the high grading in the past And so, also, he has to, like on any piece of land, cut and treat invasives is also an important part You can see the other forestry practices he’s done on the list there Our tract is much more geared towards open habitats But again, oak is one of the main goals And so, we’re burning We’re cutting off cedars We’re cutting out basswoods and mesophytic species We’re leaving almost all the oaks We have some oak woodland, white oak woodland, down in the lower left We have savanna on some of the more extreme sites Some goat prairies here on the lower right This woods, when we bought the property in ’95, was covered with red cedars and buckthorn, and you didn’t even know there were hardwoods in there hardly until we got going For example, these are all hardwoods, almost all oaks that were hidden by the cedars Different goals We both used birds to help us gauge the success You see in the Nielsen tract on the left, he has Acadian flycatcher, Hooded warbler, Acadian flycatcher, Hooded warbler, Cerulean warbler, Red start, Wood thrush, Forest interior, a large block forest species Whereas, for us, instead of increasing the forest species, when we bought the property we thought about can we ever get these species that Nielsen got? It’s like, no, not unless we really, really spent a lot of work and we still wouldn’t be guaranteed to get it because the landscape isn’t right around them So we went to the savanna because there was still lots of opportunities for that savanna restoration there, lots of oaks And we’ve been getting what we want as a result Red-headed woodpeckers, Field sparrows, Orchard oriole, Whip-poor-will

We’ve been able to at least keep them, keep them there, keep one there And Willow flycatchers down in the shrubs along the stream, and Eastern King bird, for example And we both have a lot of the generalized forest species on both of our properties, like the Red-eyed Vireo, Scarlet tanager, Eastern pewee, and Blue-gray gnatcatcher Two landscapes, two sets of goals Trying to match your goals to the capability of the landscape and trying to match your bird goals to the other– What you’re into, what’s important to you And use the birds sort of as a method of gauging your success and also to get you more involved in the property There’s a whole lot of other birds out there that aren’t on this slide as well Any questions? [audience applauds] Captioning sponsored by NEWSHOUR PRODUCTIONS, LLC >> Woodruff: GOOD EVENING, I’M JUDY WOODRUFF ON THE NEWSHOUR TONIGHT, THE PUNISHING COLD LINGERS OVER THE MIDWEST, WITH TEMPERATURES PLUNGING TO RECORD LOWS NORMALLY FELT ONLY IN THE ARCTIC THEN, EUROPEAN NATIONS MAKE A PLAN TO DO BUSINESS WITH IRAN DESPITE PRESIDENT TRUMP’S SANCTIONS WILL THIS NEW ARRANGEMENT KEEP IRAN’S NUCLEAR AMBITIONS IN CHECK? AND, A CONVERSATION WITH CHRIS CHRISTIE ON HIS NEW BOOK “LET ME FINISH,” CHRONICLING HIS TUMULTUOUS TIME AS HEAD OF THE TRUMP TRANSITION TEAM PLUS, N.F.L. PLAYERS CAN RAKE IN MILLIONS OF DOLLARS, BUT CAREERS IN THE LEAGUE OFTEN ONLY LAST A FEW YEARS MAKING SENSE OF THE ECONOMICS OF LIFE AFTER THE GRIDIRON >> IF THE AVERAGE CAREER IN THE N.F.L. IS THREE AND A HALF YEARS, AND THE AVERAGE LIFESPAN IS SEVENTY SOMETHING YEARS, THAT IS A TINY BLIP ON YOUR LIFESPAN IF THIS IS ALL THAT YOU REALLY

CARE ABOUT, AND THIS IS WHO MAKES YOU WHAT YOU ARE, THEN YOU’RE GOING TO SUFFER FOR A LONG TIME IN THE GRAND SCHEME OF LIFE >> Woodruff: ALL THAT AND MORE ON TONIGHT’S PBS NEWSHOUR >> MAJOR FUNDING FOR THE PBS NEWSHOUR HAS BEEN PROVIDED BY: AMERICAN CRUISE LINES FLEET OF SMALL SHIPS EXPLORE AMERICAN LANDMARKS, LOCAL CULTURES AND CALM WATERWAYS AMERICAN CRUISE LINES, PROUD SPONSOR OF PBS NEWSHOUR >> BABBEL A LANGUAGE APP THAT TEACHES REAL-LIFE CONVERSATIONS IN A NEW LANGUAGE, LIKE SPANISH, FRENCH, GERMAN, ITALIAN, AND MORE >> AND BY THE ALFRED P. SLOAN FOUNDATION SUPPORTING SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND IMPROVED ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE AND FINANCIAL LITERACY IN THE 21st CENTURY >> CARNEGIE CORPORATION OF NEW YORK SUPPORTING INNOVATIONS IN EDUCATION, DEMOCRATIC ENGAGEMENT, AND THE ADVANCEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY AT carnegie.org >> AND WITH THE ONGOING SUPPORT OF THESE INSTITUTIONS: AND INDIVIDUALS >> THIS PROGRAM WAS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOUR PBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKE YOU THANK YOU >> Woodruff: FOR THE MIDWEST TODAY, THERE’S BEEN LITTLE RESPITE FROM THE DEEP FREEZE THAT WILL COME THIS WEEKEND, AS THE POLAR AIR MASS PUSHES ON BUT, IT LEAVES AT LEAST 15 DEAD AND A LONG LIST OF ALL-TIME LOW TEMPERATURES >> THIS IS APPLETON, WISCONSIN IT’S NEGATIVE 22 IT FEELS LIKE NEGATIVE 42 >> Nawaz: DAYS OF DANGEROUS COLD CAME TO A HEAD EARLY THIS MORNING FOR MUCH OF THE MIDWEST IN NORTHEASTERN WISCONSIN, WIND CHILLS OF 43 BELOW ZERO FROZE HOT WATER IN MID AIR IN ILLINOIS, A STATE-RECORD BREAKING MINUS-38 DEGREES IN MOUNT CAROLL, NOT COUNTING THE WIND CHILL IN HOUSTON, MINNESOTA, MINUS 37 DEGREES NEGATIVE 49 WITH THE WINDCHILL AND IN MICHIGAN, WIND-CHILL READINGS IN THE NEGATIVE 40’S, COMPOUNDED BY A FIRE YESTERDAY AT A NATURAL GAS STATION NORTH OF DETROIT >> WE MADE IT THROUGH THE NIGHT >> Nawaz: GOVERNOR GRETCHEN WHITMER AND MICHIGAN’S MAIN NATURAL GAS UTILITY HAD TO ASK PEOPLE TO TURN THERMOSTATS DOWN TO 65 DEGREES AUTOMAKERS GENERAL MOTORS, FORD, FIAT-CHRYSLER, AND OTHER BIG ENERGY USERS SUSPENDED PRODUCTION AT 18 PLANTS >> I WOULD JUST SUGGEST THAT THE VOLUNTARY EFFORTS AND THE CURTAILMENT EFFORTS THAT DROPPED THE LOAD BY ABOUT 10% WAS NEEDED IN ORDER TO BE ABLE TO WEATHER THE PEAK THAT WE SAW THIS MORNING >> Nawaz: MEANWHILE, CREWS SCRAMBLED TO RESTORE ELECTRIC GRIDS AND GAS LINES ELSEWHERE, INCLUDING TO SOME 60,000 CUSTOMERS WHO LOST POWER AROUND CHICAGO YESTERDAY THE CITY WAS ALREADY FROZEN OVER, AND MAYOR RAHM EMANUEL WARNED OF A NEW STORM >> WITH MORE SNOW ON THE WAY WE’RE NOT OUT OF THE WOODS YET >> Nawaz: BUT MOST VULNERABLE TO THE LONG STRETCH OF COLD, THOUSANDS OF HOMELESS PEOPLE ACROSS THE REGION IN MADISON, WISCONSIN, FIRST UNITED METHODIST CHURCH HAS BEEN RUNNING AN EMERGENCY SHELTER SINCE MONDAY KAREN ANDRO IS IN CHARGE >> HERE, IS THAT IN THIS KIND OF CRISIS, AND IT IS A CRISIS IT REALLY IS AKIN TO A HURRICANE, A TORNADO, A FIRE, LOSING YOUR HOME WHAT’S HAPPENING RIGHT NOW IS THAT CONDITIONS THAT ARE ALREADY STRESSED >> Nawaz: ANDRO SAYS HER GROUP AND OTHERS COULD USE FINANCIAL CONTRIBUTIONS, VOLUNTEERS AND SHIPMENTS OF HAND WARMERS AND BLANKETS >> OUTERWEAR WE SEE PEOPLE COMING IN WITH VERY ILL-EQUIPPED OUTWEAR LIKE THE THIN MITTENS, THE THIN CLOTH MITTENS, THEIR SOCKS, THEIR APPROPRIATE SOCKS ALL OF THAT OUTWEAR >> Nawaz: AND, AS THE COLD BLAST REACHES THE EAST COAST, OFFICIALS FROM WASHINGTON TO NEW YORK ARE URGING CAUTION >> SO STAY IN, STAY WARM, HELP

YOUR NEIGHBOR >> Nawaz: NEW YORK GOVERNOR FOR THE PBS NEWSHOUR, I’M AMNA NAWAZ >> Woodruff: IN THE DAY’S OTHER NEWS, PRESIDENT TRUMP AND HOUSE SPEAKER NANCY PELOSI FACED OFF, IN THE FUNDING FIGHT OVER THE PRESIDENT’S DEMAND FOR A SOUTHERN BORDER WALL IN A TWEET STORM, MR. TRUMP DISMISSED NEGOTIATIONS IN CONGRESS, AND WARNED “REPUBLICANS ON THE HOMELAND SECURITY COMMITTEE ARE WASTING THEIR TIME.” LATER, AT A WHITE HOUSE EVENT, HE VOWED TO REJECT ANY DEAL THAT FAILS TO FUND A BORDER WALL >> IF THEY DON’T HAVE A WALL, I DON’T EVEN WANT TO WASTE MY TIME READING WHAT THEY HAVE BECAUSE IT’S A WASTE OF TIME, BECAUSE THE ONLY THING THAT WORKS FOR SECURITY AND SAFETY FOR OUR COUNTRY IS A WALL >> Woodruff: SPEAKER PELOSI WAS EQUALLY ADAMANT AGAINST A BORDER WALL, BUT SHE DID NOT RULE OUT OTHER TYPES OF BARRIERS >> THERE ISN’T GOING TO BE ANY WALL MONEY IN THE LEGISLATION NORMANDY FENCING WOULD WORK, BUT LET THEM HAVE THAT DISCUSSION BECAUSE IT’S ALL ABOUT TWO THINGS: COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS, WHAT’S THE BEST WAY, AND WHAT DO YOU GET FOR YOUR DOLLAR IN ORDER TO PROTECT THE BORDER >> Woodruff: CONGRESSIONAL NEGOTIATORS HAVE A FEBRUARY 15th DEADLINE TO REACH AN AGREEMENT, BEFORE THE NEXT GOVERNMENT SHUTDOWN DEADLINE FEDERAL OFFICIALS CONFIRMED TODAY THAT AT LEAST 15 DETAINED MIGRANTS ARE STAGING HUNGER STRIKES AROUND THE COUNTRY, AND SOME ARE BEING FORCE FED IMMIGRATION AND CUSTOMS ENFORCEMENT SAID SIX ARE BEING FED THROUGH NASAL TUBES IN EL PASO, TEXAS, UNDER COURT ORDER THE HUNGER STRIKERS ARE MAINLY FROM INDIA AND CUBA THEY SAY THEY FACE VERBAL ABUSE AND THREATS BY GUARDS U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION HAS ANNOUNCED ITS BIGGEST-EVER BUST INVOLVING FENTANYL AGENTS IN NOGALES, ARIZONA TODAY SHOWED OFF 250 POUNDS OF THE DEADLY DRUG THEY FOUND IT SATURDAY, HIDDEN IN A LOAD OF MEXICAN PRODUCE ENTERING THE U.S THE SYNTHETIC OPIOID HAS CAUSED A SURGE IN FATAL OVERDOSES IN THE U.S. SENATE, REPUBLICANS AND DEMOCRATS JOINED TODAY IN CHALLENGING PRESIDENT TRUMP’S PLANS TO WITHDRAW TROOPS FROM SYRIA AND AFGHANISTAN MAJORITY LEADER MITCH McCONNELL OFFERED A RESOLUTION THAT WARNS AGAINST ANY SUDDEN PULL- OUTS REPUBLICAN MARCO RUBIO SAID TERROR GROUPS STILL POSE SERIOUS THREATS IN BOTH SYRIA AND AFGHANISTAN >> IF THE UNITED STATES AND THE ANTI-ISIS COALITION IS NOT IN SYRIA AND OPERATING UNTIL ISIS IS COMPLETELY WIPED OUT THERE WILL BE NO SUSTAINED PRESSURE ON ISIS OR ON AL QUAEDA AND THEY WILL BOTH GROW BACK STRONGER AND HAVE THE CAPABILITY TO PLOT AGAINST THE HOMELAND AND AMERICAN INTERESTS AROUND THE WORLD >> Woodruff: THE PROCEDURAL VOTE ADVANCED THE NON-BINDING McCONNELL MEASURE WITH REPUBLICAN AND SOME DEMOCRATIC SUPPORT THAT VIRTUALLY ASSURES FINAL PASSAGE SEPARATELY, A FEDERAL COURT HAS ORDERED SYRIA TO PAY $302 MILLION IN THE DEATH OF AMERICAN JOURNALIST MARIE COLVIN, IN 2012 THE COURT FOUND SHE WAS DELIBERATELY TARGETED BY SYRIAN ARTILLERY THE U.S. MILITARY SAYS AN AIR STRIKE HAS KILLED 24 AL-SHABAB MILITANTS IN SOMALIA WEDNESDAY’S RAID WAS THE NINTH ALREADY THIS YEAR OFFICIALS SAY IT TARGETED A CAMP USED BY THE EXTREMIST GROUP NORTH OF MOGADISHU AL-SHABAB WAS BEHIND AN ASSAULT ON A HOTEL COMPLEX IN KENYA THIS MONTH THAT KILLED 21 PEOPLE THE U.S. AND CHINA WOUND UP TWO DAYS OF TRADE TALKS TODAY, AIMING FOR AGREEMENT BEFORE MARCH 2nd, WHEN A NEW ROUND OF U.S. TARIFFS KICKS IN PRESIDENT TRUMP MET WITH CHINA’S VICE PREMIER, AND PRESENTED A LETTER FROM PRESIDENT XI JINPING SAYING HE HOPES CHINA AND THE U.S. CAN MEET HALFWAY MR. TRUMP SAID HE AND XI WILL LIKELY HAVE TO MEET BEFORE THERE’S ANY FINAL DEAL AND, STOCKS WERE MIXED ON WALL STREET TODAY THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE FELL 15 POINTS TO CLOSE AT 24,999 THE NASDAQ ROSE 98 POINTS, AND THE S&P 500 ADDED 23 STILL TO COME ON THE NEWSHOUR: EUROPEAN COUNTRIES TRY TO RESCUE THEIR BUSINESS DEALINGS WITH IRAN A CONVERSATION WITH CHRIS CHRISTIE ABOUT HIS NEW MEMOIR STATE-LEVEL DEMOCRATS MAKING ABORTION MORE ACCESSIBLE, AND MUCH MORE >> Woodruff: THE U.S. AND ITS EUROPEAN ALLIES WORK TOGETHER ON MANY ISSUES, BUT THEY DIVERGE DRAMATICALLY OVER IRAN’S NUCLEAR PROGRAM WHEN THE U.S. WITHDREW FROM THE IRAN NUCLEAR DEAL LAST YEAR, AND THEN SNAPPED BACK SANCTIONS ON IRAN, THE EUROPEANS OBJECTED

STRONGLY TODAY, THEY TOOK A MAJOR STEP TO TRY AND HELP IRAN GET AROUND THOSE SANCTIONS HERE’S NICK SCHIFRIN >> Schifrin: WHEN THE U.S., IRAN, AND THE EUROPEANS SIGNED THE 2014 NUCLEAR DEAL, IRAN FROZE ITS NUCLEAR PROGRAM IN EXCHANGE FOR BILLIONS OF DOLLARS OF ECONOMIC BENEFITS THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION’S WITHDRAWAL FROM THE DEAL MEANT IRAN NEVER RECEIVED MUCH OF THE REVENUE IT WAS PROMISED WHICH IS WHY THE EUROPEANS TODAY ANNOUNCED A COMPANY, FINANCED BY GERMANY, FRANCE AND U.K., THAT’S DESIGNED TO ALLOW IRAN TO BOTH GAIN SOME OF THAT REVENUE, AND KEEP THEM IN THE NUCLEAR DEAL THE NEW COMPANY ALLOWS IRAN TO BARTER GOODS WITH FOREIGN COMPANIES WITHOUT ANY MONEY EXCHANGED THAT MEANS THEY AVOID U.S. BANKS AND U.S. DOLLARS, SO THEY COULD AVOID U.S. SANCTIONS THE EUROPEANS SAY THE FIRST GOODS THAT IRAN WILL RECEIVE INCLUDE DRUGS AND MEDICAL DEVICES, WHICH IRAN NEEDS TO TALK ABOUT THIS I’M JOINED BY DAVID O’SULLIVAN, E.U AMBASSADOR TO THE U.S AMBASSADOR, THANK YOU VERY MUCH, WELCOME BACK TO THE “NEWSHOUR” >> THANK YOU >> Repo.ARE YOU TRYING TO UNDERE U.S. EFFORTS IN IRAN? >> ABSOLUTELY NOT I THINK THE MOST IMPORTANT THING TO UNDERLINE IS THAT WE, IN THE EUROPEAN UNION, BELIEVE THAT KEEPING IRAN IN THIS NUCLEAR DEAL, AND THEY ARE COMPLYING WITH THIS DEAL AS WAS ANNOUNCED JUST THIS WEEK BY THE C.I.A IN RETURN FOR THAT, THEY ARE ENTITLED TO EXPECT SOME ECONOMIC BENEFIT AND SOME INCREASED TRADE AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITY, AND THE PURPOSE OF THE ANNOUNCEMENT TODAY TO ALLOW THIS TO HO HAPPEN AS YOU SAY, THE PRIMARY FOCUS IN THE BEGINNING WILL BE ON GOODS WHICH ARE NOT ACTUALLY UNDER SANCTION AT ALL, WHICH ARE HUMANITARIAN GOODS, EXCEPTIONS TO THE SANCTIONS REGIME, BUT WHICH IS SOMETIMES DIFFICULT TO TRADE BECAUSE OF THE RELUCTANCE OF FINANCIAL BODIES TO DEAL WITH ANYTHING TO DO WITH IRAN, SO THIS WILL MAKE THAT, I HOPE, EASIER >> WHY RISK, EXACERBATING THE DIFFERENCE WITH THE U.S.? >> WE RESPECT THE ADMINISTRATION’S DECISION TO WITHDRAW FROM THE AGREEMENT BUT I IMAGINE THEY ALSO RESPECT THE FACT THAT WE ARE STILL SIGNATORIES TO THE AGREEMENT AND FEEL BOUND BY IT, AND IT IS ALSO PROFOUNDLY IN EUROPE’S SECURITY INTEREST TO PREVENT IRAN FROM DEVELOPING OR OBTAINING NUCLEAR WEAPONS BUT, OF COURSE, WE ALSO SHARE MANY OF THE CONCERNS OF THE ADMINISTRATION ON OTHER IRANIAN ACTIVITIES AND INDEED RECENTLY ANNOUNCED SANCTIONS IN RESPONSE TO SOME OF THE TERRORIST PLOTS UNCOVERED IN EUROPE SO WE’RE TRYING TO WORK WITH THE ADMINISTRATION EVEN AS WE HAVE SOME DISAGREEMENTS ABOUT THIS PRECISE DEAL AS YOU SAY, THE POINT OF THIS IS TO KEEP IRAN IN THE DEAL DO YOU THINK IT’S ENOUGH? MANY COMPANIES THAT DEAL IN IRAN HAVE ALREADY SAID THAT THEY WON’T TRY AND USE THIS VEHICLE BECAUSE THEY FEAR U.S. SECONDARY SANCTIONS? >> WELL, AT THE END OF THE DAY, YOU KNOW, COMPANIES WILL HAVE TO DECIDE WHETHER THEY FEEL COMFORTABLE TRADING WITH IRAN, AND WE KNOW THAT SOME COMPANIES MAY TAKE THE DECISION NOT TO FOR FEAR TO HAVE THE SECONDARY SANCTIONS, BUT WE, ON THE EUROPEAN SIDE, ARE DETERMINED TO MAKE EVERY EFFORT WE CAN TO CONTINUE TO ALLOW IRAN TO HAVE THE COMMERCIAL BENEFIT FROM THIS DEAL WHICH WAS PROMISED >> Schifrin: BUT IF THE FOLKS FS IS ON DRUGS, HOW DO YOU GET IRAN THE ECONOMIC BENEFIT YOU SAY IT NEEDS TO STAY IN THE DEAL? >> WELL, I THINK THE FOCUS IS ON DELIVER STUFF PERMITTED UNDER HUMANITARIAN EXCEPTIONS, BUT WE ARE ALSO LOOKING AT WAYS TO IMPROVE ECONOMIC CONDITIONS WITH IRAN THERE ARE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED EUROPEAN COMPANIES THAT DON’T NECESSARILY TRADE HEAVILY WITH THE UNITED STATES OR AT ALL WHO MAY BE INTERESTED IN DOING BUSINESS OF COURSE, IT’S CHALLENGING, NO POINT PRETENDING IT ISN’T, BUT WE STILL BELIEVE IT IS VERY MUCH IN OUR NATIONAL SECURITY CENTERS TO PRESERVE THIS DEAL AND DELIVER SOME OF THE BENEFITS IRAN IS ENTITLED TO EXPECT >> Schifrin: LET ME READ A STATEMENT FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, ENTITIES THAT CONTINUE TO ENGAGE IN OBSERVEDDABLE ACTIVITY WITH IRAN RISK LOSING ACCESS TO THE NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM AND THE ABILITY TO DO BUSINESS WITH THE UNITED STATES OR U.S COMPANIES DO YOU FEAR THE U.S. COULD ACTUALLY SANCTION THE U.K., GERMANY OR FRANCE? >> I THINK THE U.S. AND THE EUROPEAN EUROPEAN UNION ARE VERY STRONG STRATEGIC PARTNERS, WE RESPECT FULLY THE DECISION OF THIS ADMINISTRATION TO WITHDRAW FROM THE NEW NUCLEAR DEAL WE BELIEVE THEY SHOULD ALSO RESPECT THE FACT THAT THE EUROPEAN NATIONS HAVE DECIDED TO REMAIN PARTY TO THIS, WHICH IS SANCTIONED BY U.N. RESOLUTIONS >> DO YOU THINK ANY OF THE U.S PRESSURE ON THIS EFFORT IS MISPLACED? >> WELL, WE DON’T SHARE THE ADMINISTRATION’S ANALYSIS, BUT WE UNDERSTAND THAT THEY TAKE A DIFFERENT VIEW, AND WE ARE FRIENDS AND ALLIES, BUT SOMETIMES WE TAKE A DIFFERENT VIEW, AND THAT IS THE CASE IN THIS INSTANCE >> TWO MONTHS TO BREXIT DAY IS THE E.U. WILLING TO RENEGOTIATE THE DEAL AS PRIME MINISTER THERESA MAY OPPONENTS IN PARLIAMENT PUSHED HER TO DO >> WE BELIEVE THE DEAL SIGNED AS GREED IS THE BEST DEAL THE SO-CALLED BACKSTOP, THE PROVISION DESIGNED TO PREVENT THE REEMERGENCE OF A HARD BORDER

BETWEEN NORTHERN IRELAND AND THE REPUBLIC OF IRELAND IS A FAIL-SAFE IT’S NOT THE END POINT WE HOPE TO REACH WE HOPE TO TEACH THE OBJECTIVE OF NO BORDER I THINK PEOPLE WILL LISTEN TO WHAT MRS. MAY HAS TO SAY AND IF THERE IS SOMETHING IN THERE THAT COULD BE DONE TO BE HELPFUL, SUCH AS THE DECLARATION ON THE FUTURE RELATIONS, I THINK PEOPLE WILL TRY TO BE AS HELPFUL AS POSSIBLE BUT IT TOOK US 18 MONTHS TO NEGOTIATE THIS DEAL AND, IN FACT, THE FINAL VERSION OF THE BACKSTOP WHICH WAS CONTAINED IN THE DEAL WAS VERY MUCH DESIGNED BY THE U.K. ITSELF, NOT SOMETHING IMPOSED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION >> ANOTHER OPTION, WOULD THE EUROPEAN UNION BE WILLING TO EXTEND THE DEADLINE IF THE BRITISH PRIME MINISTER SCDZ FOR THAT? >> THIS IS POSSIBLE, IT REQUIRES THE UNANIMOUS AGREEMENT OF THE OTHER 27, BUT IF THERE WERE TO BE A REQUEST, I’M SURE PEOPLE WOULD LISTEN CAREFULLY TO THE REASONS FORCE SUCH AN EXTENSION AND PEOPLE WILL TRY TO BE HELPFUL, BUT I THINK THEY WILL NEED TO UNDERSTAND WHAT HOPED TO BE ACHIEVED >> Schifrin: >> Schifrin: DAVID O’SULLIVAN, E.U. AMBASSADOR TO THE U.S., THANK YOU VERY MUCH >> THANK YOU >> Woodruff: THE REVOLVING DOOR OF THOSE IN PRESIDENT TRUMP’S ORBIT HAS SPARKED A BOON IN BOOKS ATTEMPTING TO OFFER INSIDE ACCOUNTS OF PERHAPS THE MOST TUMULTUOUS CAMPAIGN, TRANSITION AND PRESIDENCY IN MODERN AMERICAN POLITICS OUT THIS WEEK, “LET ME FINISH: TRUMP, THE KUSHNERS, BANNON, NEW JERSEY, AND THE POWER OF IN- YOUR-FACE POLITICS.” ITS AUTHOR, FORMER REPUBLICAN NEW JERSEY GOVERNOR CHRIS CHRISTIE HE RAN FOR PRESIDENT IN 2016, THEN BECAME A VOCAL SUPPORTER OF MR. TRUMP AND, FOR A TIME, OVERSAW THE PRESIDENT ELECT’S TRANSITION TEAM GOVERNOR CHRISTIE, WELCOME TO THE “NewsHour” THERE’S SO MUCH GROUND YOU COVER IN THIS BOOK, SO MANY STORIES, THERE’S ONE ANECDOTE I WANT TO ASK YOU ABOUT, THOUGH YOU SAY THIS IS A PERFECT CAPSULE OF PRESIDENT TRUMP THIS WAS THE FIRST TIME YOU HAVE BEEN WITH HIM YOU HAD DINNER WITH HIM IT WAS 2003 AFTERWARDS, A WOMAN COMES UP, WAS A FAN OF HIS, WANTS TO TAKE A PICTURE WHEN THE CAMERA DOESN’T WORK, WHAT HAPPENS? WHAT DOES HE DO? >> WELL, THIS WAS IN MAY 2002, JUDY, OUTSIDE THE JOHN GEORGE RESTAURANT, WHICH IS IN ONE OF PLUMP’S HOTELS IN NEW YORK CITY, AND IT WAS A WOMAN AND HER HUSBAND, OBVIOUS TOURISTS WAITING OUTSIDE THE RESTAURANT, PLEADED WITH HIM FOR A PHOTO WITH HER HUSBAND, AND THAT’S BEFORE THE DAY WE WERE ALL WALKING AROUND WITH HONES IN OUR POCKETS ON OUR CELL PHONES SO NO CAMERA, SHE HAD A DISPOSABLE CAMERA, ONE OF THOSE BLACK AND YELLOW KODAK DISPOSE ALSO SHE KEEPS HITTING THE BUTTON, IT WON’T GO OFF YOU COULD SEE DONALD IS GETTING MORE AND MORE IMPATIENT HE FINALLY JUST STEPS AWAY AND SAYS TO HER, SWEETHEART, LET’S DO THIS NEXT TIME WE GET TOGETHER TURNED, GOT INTO HIS LIMOUSINE AND REFER TO AND THE WOMAN WHO DID NOT KNOW ME AT THE TIME AT ALL, TURNED TO ME AND SAID, BUT WE’RE NEVER GOING TO GET BACK TOGETHER I SAID, I THINK THAT’S THE POINT AND HE CALLED ME THE NEXT DAY TO SAY, HEY, THAT WAS A PRETTY GOOD LINE, HUH, GOT ME OUT OF THERE IT WAS JUST A REAL PICTURE OF DONALD TRUMP, DELIVER AND FUNNY, INTERESTING AND ALSO DOING WHATEVER HE CAN DO TO GET WHAT HE WANTS >> Woodruff: AND AS YOU SAY, HE ORDERED YOUR DINNER FOR YOU THAT NIGHT >> HE DID EXTRAORDINARY ORDERED ME TWO THINGS, ONE I WAS ALLERGIC TO AND ONE I DETESTED IT WAS NOT AN AUSPICIOUS BEGINNING >> Woodruff: GOVERNOR, IN THE BOOK YOU TELL YOUR OWN STORY AND TALK ABOUT HOW CLOSE YOU BECAME TO HIM OVER THE YEARS YOU HAD DINNER OFTEN WITH YOUR WIFE MARY PAT, WITH PRESIDENT TRUMP AND HIS WIFE WELL BEFORE HE RAN FOR PRESIDENT, BUT THEN YOU GET TO 2016, THE TWO OF YOU ARE RUNNING AGAINST EACH OTHER HE COMES TO NEW JERSEY, AND YOU CITE A SPEECH HE GAVE WHERE YOU SAY IT WAS FULL OF WHOPPERS AND UNTRUTHS, AND YOU WROTE — YOU SAID I HAD NO PROBLEM WITH HARD BALL POLITICS, BUT KNOWINGLY LYING? YOU SAID, TO ME, THAT WAS OVER THE LINE YOU DON’T DO THAT TO ANYONE, LET ALONE A FRIEND OF LONGSTANDING YET, YOU’VE GONE ON TO SUPPORT HIM >> WELL, LISTEN, JUDY, WHAT HAPPENED AFTER THAT, AS YOU KNOW FROM READING THE BOOK, IS THAT I WENT AFTER HIM PRETTY HARD HE DID THAT IN THE AFTERNOON IN SOUTH CAROLINA I WENT AFTER HIM VERY HASHED THAT EVENING OVER THE LYING IN IOWA THE NEXT DAY, HE CALLED, AND HE SAID, I WAS ANGRY, I WENT OVER THE LINE, IT WASN’T TRUE, I KNOW IT WASN’T TRUE, I APOLOGIZE AND, YOU KNOW, IN MY VIEW, WHEN YOU’VE HAD SOMEONE WHO’S A FRIEND FOR 14 YEARS, YOU UNDERSTAND THAT, IN POLITICS SOMETIMES, THE EMOTIONS RUN HIGH, YOU’VE GOT TO DECIDE YOU ACCEPT THE APOLOGY OR DON’T YOU, AND, BASED UPON 14 YEARS OF FRIENDSHIP, I ACCEPTED THE POLLINGY THE IMPORTANT THING IS HE NEVER SAID THOSE THINGS AGAIN EITHER IN PUBLIC OR PRIVATE

>> Woodruff: BUT YOU WORKED HARD FOR HIM YOU WORKED HARD FOR HIS ELECTION HE THANKED YOU AND SAID HE WOULD CONSIDER YOU FOR VICE PRESIDENT HE DIDN’T FOR ATTORNEY GENERAL, THEY TOOK YOU OFF THE TRANSITION WHY STAY WITH THEM, WITH HIM WHEN YOU’VE HAD — AGAIN, WHEN YOU’VE HAD THIS KIND OF CLOSE RELATIONSHIP BUT NO PAYOFF, SO TO SPEAK, FRANKLY >> FIRST, I HAD A JOB AT THE TIME, I WAS THE GOVERNOR OF NEW JERSEY, SO I DIDN’T NEED A JOB AND SECONDLY, LISTEN, WE HAVE ONE PRESIDENT AT A TIME, AND WE HAVE ONE COUNTRY, AND THE FACT IS THAT I THINK MY RELATIONSHIP WITH THE PRESIDENT HELPS HIM I THINK IT’S GOOD TO HAVE FRIENDS OF OLD STANDING AVAILABLE TO YOU TO SPEAK TO, TO BOUNCE IDEAS OFF, TO GET SUGGESTIONS FROM >> Woodruff: LET’S BRING YOU TODAY IF YOU WERE HE, WOULD YOU BE MAKING THE ISSUE HE IS RIGHT NOW OUT OF A PHYSICAL BARRIER AT THE SOUTHERN BORDER? >> WELL, I’M NOT HIM WHAT I WOULD TELL YOU IS IT’S VERY IMPORTANT TO HIM THE FACT IS, YOU KNOW, HE COMPROMISED BY REOPENING THE GOVERNMENT, AND, NOW, I THINK IT’S TIME FOR DEMOCRATS TO THINK ABOUT HOW THEY WANT THIS TO END MY CRITICISM OF THE PRESIDENT IN CLOSING DOWN THE GOVERNMENT WAS THEY HAD NO END GAME >> Woodruff: BUT I’VE ALSO SAID, GOVERNOR, THAT YOU THINK THE IMMIGRATION ISSUE SHOULD BE SETTLED IN A WAY THAT HONORS OUR NATIONAL HERITAGE IS THE PRESIDENT DOING THAT? >> LISTEN, I THINK THAT’S MUCH BIGGER THAN JUST A WALL I THINK THAT’S TOTAL IMMIGRATION REFORM WHICH IS WHAT I TALKED ABOUT IN MY CAMPAIGN FOR PRESIDENT AND WHAT I PREFER CONGRESS DO RIGHT NOW IS COME UP WITH A TOTAL IMMIGRATION REFORM PACKAGE INCLUDING BORDER SECURITY THAT THEY COULD SEND TO THE PRESIDENT FOR HIS CONSIDERATION, AND THEY COULD DO THAT, IF THEY WANTED TO, JUDY, AND PART OF THE PROBLEM IS THEY DON’T WANT TO DO THAT BECAUSE IT’S HARD,ETH REALLY HD, BECAUSE YOU’RE GOING TO OFFEND ON STITCH WEDNESDAYYS NO MATTER WHWAY YOU TURN, BUT THAT’S WHY — I THOUGHT THAT’S WHY YOU RAN FOR THE JOB WAS TO GET THINGS GONE, AND I WILL TELL YOU THAT, ON THE PRESIDENT, I’M CONFIDENT THAT THE PRESIDENT WOULD BE WILLING TO COMPROMISE — >> Woodruff: WITHOUT — IN OTHER WORDS, YOU THINK HE’S READY TO SETTLE FOR AN AGREEMENT THAT DOESN’T HAVE MONEY FOR A WALL? >> NO, THAT’S NOT WHAT I SAID HE WANTS $5.7 BILLION FOR A WALL, AND IF THE DEMOCRATS DENY HIM ANY TYPE OF PARTIAL COMPROMISE FOR WHAT HE WANTS, THEN THEY’RE GOING TO LEAVE HIM WITH NO ALTERNATIVE BUT TO TAKE ACTION ON HIS OWN, THAT WILL WIND UP IN THE COURTS, AND THAT’S NOT GOOD FOR THE COUNTRY >> Woodruff: MOVING AHEAD, IF YOU’RE PRESIDENT TRUMP, WHO DO YOU LEAST WANT THE TO FACE AS A DEMOCRATIC CHALLENGER? >> WELL, LISTEN, FIRST OF ALL, IT’S IMPOSSIBLE TO TELL, RIGHT? BECAUSE IF YOU LOOK AT THIS TIME FOUR YEARS AGO, THE REPUBLICAN FRONTRUNNER WAS JEB BUSH SO YOU CAN’T JUDGE THIS THING IN JANUARY OF 19 >> WHAT ABOUT ON THE REPUBLICAN SIDE DO YOU THINK THERE WOULD BE A CHALLENGE TO THE REPUBLICAN NOMINATION AND PARTICULARLY YOU LONG-TIME FRIEND MARYLAND GOVERNOR LARRY HOGUESON NOT RULING IT OUT? >> I DON’T BELIEVE THERE WOULD BE A CHALLENGER TO THE PRESIDENT WHEN I LOOK AT THE MOST RECENT POLLS OF REPUBLICAN PRIMARY VOTERS, SHOW THE PRESIDENT WITH AN 81% APPROVAL RATING, THAT ONLY LEAVES 189% WHO DON’T APPROVE OF HIS JOB THAT’S NOT A LOT OF ROOM TO BUILD A PRIMARY CAMPAIGN ON SO I THINK GIVEN THE CIRCUMSTANCES RIGHT NOW, I DON’T SEE ANY TYPE OF PRIMARY CLALG TO –CHALLENGE TO THE PRESIDENT I THINK HE WILL BE THE REPUBLICAN NOMINEE IN 2020 >> Woodruff: YOU TOLD STEPHEN COLBERT YET YOU THOUGHT YOU WOULD BE A BETTER PRESIDENT THAN DONALD TRUMP HOW SO? >> WELL, JUDY, I RAN FOR PRESIDENT, SO IF YOU DON’T BELIEVE YOU WOULD BE BETTER, YOU HAD NO BUSINESS RUNNING THE FIRST PLACE SO I DO THINK I WOULD BE A BETTER PRESIDENT, BUT IF I DIDN’T THINK THAT, I HAD NO BUSINESS ASKING FOR PEOPLE’S MONEY AND VOTES TWO YEARS AGO >> Woodruff: HOW WOULD YOU BE BETTER? >> LISTEN, JUDY, IF YOU’RE GOING TO GIVE ME HALF AN HOUR, WE’LL DO AN INTERVIEW AND GO THROUGH IT CHAPTER AND VERSE >> Woodruff: OKAY BUT I WOULD SAY ONE THING AS AN EXAMPLE IN ORDER TO NOT TOTALLY EVADE YOUR QUESTION, I TALKED WITH MY EXPERIENCE AS A GOVERNOR FOR EIGHT YEARS DEALING WITH A DEMOCRATIC LEGISLATURE WHEN YOU DO THAT DAY IN AND DAY OUT, YOU DO LEARN THINGS ABOUT HOW TO WORK WITH THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH OF GOVERNMENT, HOW TO FORGE COMPROMISE AND HOW TO MAKE SURE THAT THOSE COMPROMISES ARE NOT DEBILITATING TO FUTURE DEALS I THINK THAT EXPERIENCE WOULD STAND ME IN FAIRLY GOOD STEAD IN TODAY’S POLITICAL WORLD BUT AS FOR THE REST OF IT, WE COULD DO A WHOLE HALF HOUR, SOMETIMES >> Woodruff: THE BOOK “LET ME FINISH.” THANK YOU >> THANK YOU, JUDY >> Woodruff: STAY WITH US, COMING UP ON THE NEWSHOUR: THE ECONOMICS OF LIFE AFTER THE N.F.L HOW NEWS MEDIA LAYOFFS ARE PARTICULARLY HARMFUL TO LOCAL COVERAGE

PLUS, ARTIST AND ACTIVIST MELISSA MALZKUHN GIVES HER BRIEF BUT SPECTACULAR TAKE ON HUMAN CONNECTION PROPOSED LEGISLATION IN THE VIRGINIA HOUSE OF DELEGATES HAS SPARKED OUTRAGE AMONG CONSERVATIVES NATIONWIDE THE BILL, SPONSORED BY A DEMOCRATIC LAWMAKER, WOULD LOOSEN RESTRICTIONS ON THIRD TRIMESTER ABORTIONS A WARNING THAT THIS STORY CONTAINS STRONG CONTENT THAT MAY BE DIFFICULT TO HEAR LISA DESJARDINS REPORTS >> I’M CHANGING THE STANDARD, YES >> Desjardins: THIS ONE-MINUTE EXCHANGE, WITH VIRGINIA DELEGATE KATHY TRAN DEFENDING HER PROPOSED LEGISLATION, SPARKED A FIRESTORM WEDNESDAY >> HOW LATE IN THE THIRD TRIMESTER COULD A PHYSICIAN PERFORM AN ABORTION IF HE INDICATED IT WOULD IMPAIR THE MENTAL HEALTH OF THE OF THE WOMAN? >> OR PHYSICAL HEALTH >> OKAY, OKAY I’M TALKING ABOUT THE MENTAL HEALTH >> SO I MEAN THROUGH THE THIRD TRIMESTER THE THIRD TRIMESTER GOES ALL THE WAY UP TO 40 WEEKS >> OKAY. BUT TO THE END OF THE THIRD TRIMESTER >> YEP, I DON’T THINK WE HAVE A LIMIT IN THE BILL >> WHERE IT’S OBVIOUS THAT A WOMAN IS ABOUT TO GIVE BIRTH, WOULD THAT STILL BE A POINT AT WHICH SHE COULD REQUEST AN ABORTION IF SHE WAS SO CERTIFIED? >> THAT WOULD BE A, YOU KNOW, A DECISION THAT THE DOCTOR THE PHYSICIAN AND THE WOMAN >> I UNDERSTAND THAT I’M ASKING IF YOUR BILL ALLOWS THAT >> MY BILL WOULD ALLOW THAT YES >> Desjardins: PRESIDENT TRUMP REACTED TO TRAN’S COMMENTS IN AN INTERVIEW WITH THE DAILY CALLER, ASSERTING DEMOCRATS WANT TO “RIP BABIES FROM WOMBS” AND THAT “IT’S TERRIBLE.” BUT IN A RADIO INTERVIEW VIRGINIA GOVERNOR RALPH NORTHAM, A DEMOCRAT, REFUTED THAT, SAYING THIS WAS FOR RARE CIRCUMSTANCES >> WHEN WE TALK ABOUT THIRD TRIMESTER ABORTIONS, IT’S DONE IN CASES WHERE THERE MAY BE SEVERE DEFORMITIES THERE MAY BE A FETUS THAT’S NOT VIABLE SO IN THIS PARTICULAR EXAMPLE, IF A MOTHER’S IN LABOR, I CAN TELL YOU EXACTLY WHAT WOULD HAPPEN THE INFANT WOULD BE DELIVERED, THE INFANT WOULD BE KEPT COMFORTABLE, THE INFANT WOULD BE RESUSCITATED IF THAT’S WHAT THE MOTHER AND THE FAMILY DESIRED AND THEN A DISCUSSION WOULD ENSUE BETWEEN THE PHYSICIANS AND THE MOTHER >> Desjardins: NATIONAL CONSERVATIVES FOCUSED ON HIS LAST TWO SENTENCES, ABOUT RESUSCITATION, AND REACTION WAS SWIFT SENATOR MARCO RUBIO EQUATED IT TO “OPENLY SUPPORT(ING) LEGAL INFANTICIDE.” ALL THIS UNDERSCORES ABORTION BATTLES PUSHED BY BOTH PARTIES IN DOZENS OF STATES, INCLUDING NEW YORK, WHICH JUST PASSED A LAW TO MAKE THIRD TRIMESTER ABORTIONS POSSIBLE TODAY, GOVERNOR NORTHAM SAID HE REGRETTED THAT HIS COMMENTS HAD BEEN “MISCHARACTERIZED.” TO PICK UP THE CONVERSATION FROM THERE, I’M JOINED VIA SKYPE BY MARY ZIEGLER SHE’S A LAW PROFESSOR AT FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY AND THE AUTHOR OF SEVERAL BOOKS ON ABORTION POLITICS INCLUDING: “AFTER ROE: THE LOST HISTORY OF THE ABORTION DEBATE.” SO, MARY, LET’S START WITH THIS MOMENT RIGHT NOW AND WHAT WE’RE SEEING IN THOSE TWO STATES DEMOCRAT-LED EFFORTS TO BROADEN OUT THE CATEGORY, THE HEALTH OF THE WOMAN WHO COULD BE ALLOWED FOR A THIRD TRIMESTER ABORTION CAN YOU HELP US UNDERSTAND HOW MANY ABORTIONS COULD THAT EFFECT IN THEORY AND WHAT ARE THESE LAWMAKERS TRYING TO DO? >> WELL, THE NUMBER OF ABORTIONS AFFECTED ESPECIALLY BY THE EXPANSION OF LATE-TERM I BORINGS WOULD BE QUITE SMALL SO THE VAST MAJORITY OF ABORTIONS IN THIS COUNTRY HAVE BEEN IN THE FIRST TRIMESTER I THINK WHAT SWLAIRTS ARE TRYING TO DO, IN MANY WAYS, IS TO PREPARE FOR A POST-ROE v. WADE LANDSCAPE, SO IT’S WIDELY EXPECTED THAT THE SUPREME COURT IS GOING TO SUBSTANTIALLY SCALE BACK ON ABORTION RIGHTS, IF NOT OVERTURN ROE ALTOGETHER AND PROTOTYPICALLY BLUE PRO-CHOICE STATES ARE MAKING SURE POLICY IN THOSE STATES IS WELCOMING TO WOMEN IN A POST-ROE WORLD >> TO HELP OUR VIEWERS, A REMINDER, WHEN WE’RE TALKING ABOUT A THIRD TRIMESTER PREGNANCY, WE’RE TALKING 26 WEEKS INTO THE PREGNANCY CAN YOU TAKE US THROUGH THE SCIENCE ON THIS? >> THIRD TRIMESTER ABORTIONS ARE COMPLICATED THE DISPUTE IS WHY THEY’RE OFTEN PERFORMED SO ABORTION RIGHTS GROUPS CLAIM, FOR THE MOST PART, THAT WHEN WOMEN HAVE LATER-TERM ABORTIONS IT’S EITHER IN CASES IN WHICH A CHILD HAS A CONDITION INCOMPATIBLE WITH LIFE OR WHICH A WOMAN’S OWN HEALTH WILL BE SUBSTANTIALLY IMPACTED IF A PREGNANCY IS CARRIED TO TERM ANTI-ABORTION GROUPS THAT ARE SKEPTICAL OF THIS CLAIM MANY ABORTION PROVIDERS WILL BE WILLING TO PERFORM PROCEDURES FOR ANY POINT IN PREGNANCY THE SCIENCE IS DISPUTED BUT ALSO, TOO, IS WHO IS PERFORMING THE PROCEDURES ON THE GROUND AND WHY, AND WE DON’T HAVE ENOUGH DATA TO ANSWER THAT IN A DIFIENTIVE WAY >> AS THE LEFT IS TRYING TO EXPAND ABORTION RIGHTS IN MANY STATES, THIS COMES OUT AFTER IN YEARS OF THE RIGHTS TRYING TO RESTRICT ABORTION RIGHTS AND THEY POINT TO STATUS AND TALK ABOUT WHEN IS A FETUS NOT JUST VIABLE BUT WHEN IS IT CONSCIOUS

OF PAIN FOR EXAMPLE, CAN YOU TALK ABOUT THE SCIENCE ON THAT END AND WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT HUMAN LIFE AND ITS BEGINNINGS? >> SURE I THINK PART OF THE CHALLENGE IS SOME OF THESE QUESTIONS ARE ONLY PARTLY SCIENTIFIC, SO THERE’S NOT MUCH DISAGREEMENT, FOR EXAMPLE, ABOUT WHEN FROM A GENETIC STANDPOINT A HUMAN LIFE BEGINS, BUT WHAT THAT MEANS FROM A LEGAL OR PHILOSOPHICAL STANDPOINT REMAINS CONTESTED WHEN IT COMES TO FETAL PAIN, IT’S A MORE STRAIGHTFORWARD QUESTION OF WHEN PAIN IS POSSIBLE, BUT THERE THE CHALLENGE IS PRO-LIFE AND PRO-CHOICE GROUPS DON’T NECESSARILY TRUST THE SAME SOURCES TO ANSWER THE QUESTION SO PRO-CHOICE GROUPS OR ABORTION RIGHTS GROUPS HAVE EMPHASIZED THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF OBSTETRICIANS AND GYNECOLOGISTS AND MEDICAL AUTHORITIES IN THE U.K. HAVE FOUND THAT FETAL PAIN ISN’T POSSIBLE AS EARLY IN PREGNANCY AS MANY STATUTES WOULD PROVIDE AND BANNING ABORTION AT THE 20th WEEK ANTI-ABORTION GROUPS RESPOND THAT THOSE GROUPS ARE SIMPLY PUTTING POLITICAL CORRECTNESS AHEAD OF THE TRUTH AND MANY ARE, IN FACT, DOMINATED BY PRO-CHOICE OBSTETRICIANS SO IT’S DIFFICULT, I THINK, IN MANY OF THESE CASES, TO FIND A COMMON SET OF FACTS THAT EVERYONE IN THE ABORTION DEBATE CAN AGREE ON, MUCH LESS WHAT THOSE FACTS SHOULD MEAN IN TERMS OF THE CONSTITUTIONALITY OR MORALITY OF ABORTION >> SO WHERE DOES THIS MOMENT FIT IN HOW YOU SEE THE ABORTION DEBATE? ARE WE IN FOR THE NEXT ONE OF VERY HEATED, DIFFICULT BATTLES OVER THIS? OR WHERE ARE WE? >> IN SOME WAYS, I THINK WE’RE IN A VERY UNPREDICTABLE MOMENT, SO IT SEEMS THAT MOST COMMENTATORS, INCLUDING ME, THINK THAT THE SUPREME COURT WILL UNDERMINE ABORTION RIGHTS BUT WHAT HAPPENS NEXT, I THINK, IS SORT OF A BRAVE-NEW WORLD BECAUSE, FOR SO LONG, THE FIGHT ON BOTH SIDES HAS REALLY BEEN ABOUT PRESERVING OR UNDOING ROE IF ROE IS NO LONGER THE LAW, I THINK YOU WILL SEE A LOT MORE UNPREDICTABILITY IN TERMS OF WHETHER STATES WHETHER BAN ABORTION, WHAT THEY MEAN WHEN THEY BAN ABORTION, DOES THAT INCLUDE, FOR EXAMPLE, I.U.D.s, WILL BLUE STATES GO FURTHER THAN WE’VE SEEN IN PROTECTING OR FUNDING ABORTION? I THINK WE DON’T KNOW REALLY WHAT THIS FUTURE WILL HOLD MUCH BEYOND THE PROBABILITY THAT THE COURT WILL, IN FACT, TRANSFORM ABORTION LAW AND UNDO ROE >> MARY ZIEGLER, FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY, THANK YOU FOR JOINING US >> THANK YOU FOR HAVING ME >> Woodruff: IN JUST A FEW DAYS THE NEW ENGLAND PATRIOTS AND LOS ANGELES RAMS WILL BATTLE IT OUT IN SUPER BOWL LIII FOR THE PLAYERS ON THE FIELD, IT WILL BE THE PINNACLE OF THEIR N.F.L. CAREER BUT WHAT ABOUT LIFE AFTER FOOTBALL? OUR ECONOMICS CORRESPONDENT PAUL SOLMAN TALKED TO FORMER TIGHT END MARTELLUS BENNETT ABOUT HIS PURSUIT OF AN ENTIRELY DIFFERENT CAREER IT’S PART OF OUR SERIES “MAKING SENSE.” >> I’M WEIRD AS ( BLEEP ) I MEAN, WEIRD AS STUFF I MEAN, I’M WEIRD AS– >> Reporter: I’M VERY WEIRD HOW’S THAT? >> I’M VERY, VERY WEIRD >> Reporter: MARTELLUS BENNETT MAY BE THE MOST OUTSPOKEN PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL PLAYER OF HIS GENERATION HE ALSO EXCELLED AT TIGHT END FOR FIVE TEAMS, WON THE 2016 SUPER BOWL WITH THE NEW ENGLAND PATRIOTS, AND THEN, WHILE ON A SPIRITUAL RETREAT IN JAPAN RETIRED, AT AGE 31 >> I DON’T ALWAYS ANSWER BIRD CALLS, BUT WHEN I DO THEY’RE FROM TOM BRADY AND GRONK >> Reporter: BUT DURING HIS TEN- YEAR CAREER, BENNETT WAS KNOWN AS MUCH FOR CANDOR AND WIT AS WINNING PLAYS AND HE’S NOTABLY CANDID ABOUT THE ECONOMICS OF PRO SPORTS WHEN DID YOU REALIZE THAT FOOTBALL WAS A BUSINESS? >> WELL ONE OF THE MOMENTS WAS WHEN I FIRST HAD TO WRITE A CHECK FOR TAXES I DIDN’T KNOW WHAT THE ( BLEEP ) TAXES WERE, YOU KNOW WHAT I’M SAYING TAXES, I THOUGHT THEY TOOK THAT DIRECTLY OUT MY CHECK YOU MEAN, THEY ONLY WITHHOLD 20% WHEN THEY SUPPOSED TO DO ANOTHER 17%? NOW I GOT TO WRITE CHECKS TO THIS GUY I HAVE HEARD OF, BUT I NEVER MET PERSONALLY, UNCLE SAM LIKE WHAT THE HELL’S GOING ON? YOU GROW UP, NO ONE REALLY TEACHES YOU ABOUT TAXES, ESPECIALLY AS AN ATHLETE >> Reporter: EVEN IN BENNETT’S MIDDLE CLASS FAMILY, FINANCES WEREN’T DISCUSSED BUT HE DID LEARN A LASTING ECONOMICS LESSON AT AGE 14, WHEN THE ENERGY HIGH FLYER ENRON WENT BUST DUE TO CORPORATE MALFEASANCE, AND PUT HIS DAD OUT OF A JOB >> I JUST REMEMBER THAT ECONOMICALLY CHANGING IN OUR HOUSEHOLD TOO MY DAD COMES OUT, HE’S A BLACK GUY THAT’S IT, THERE’S 15,000 PEOPLE ALL WANTING THE SAME JOB FOR HIM TO TRY TO FIND A JOB IN THAT SPACE, NOT BEING ABLE TO FIND WORK FOR A LONG PERIOD OF TIME– >> Reporter: IN HOUSTON? >> IN HOUSTON. AND AT THAT MOMENT IS WHEN I REALIZED I WAS GOING TO BE A ENTREPRENEUR THE REST OF MY LIFE I NEVER WANTED TO WORK FOR ANYBODY BECAUSE THE CIRCUMSTANCES THAT WE WENT THROUGH AS A FAMILY WASN’T BECAUSE OF MY DAD, IT WAS BECAUSE OF THE PEOPLE AT THE TOP OF A COMPANY THAT HE WORKED WITH >> Reporter: SEVEN YEARS LATER, BENNETT WAS A HIGH DRAFT PICK IN THE N.F.L WHAT WAS YOUR SIGNING BONUS? >> WAS IT 2.5 OR WAS IT 1.5?

WHATEVER IT WAS, IT WASN’T ENOUGH >> Reporter: YOU’RE TALKING 1.5 OR $2.5 MILLION? >> YEAH, MILLION DOLLARS, YEAH >> Reporter: AND WHAT DID YOU DO WITH THE MONEY? >> I DON’T HAVE ANY OF THAT MONEY FROM THAT CONTRACT, AND I DON’T KNOW WHERE IT’S AT, DON’T KNOW WHERE IT WENT TO, WHERE IT, HOW IT WAS SPENT I WAS A 20 YEAR OLD KID DIDN’T REALLY HAVE PEOPLE AROUND ME WHO MANAGED THAT AMOUNT OF MONEY IN THEIR LIFETIME, SO THEY COULDN’T REALLY TELL ME HOW TO MANAGE IT AS WELL >> Reporter: WHAT HE DID WITH THE MONEY WAS STRAIGHT OUT OF FANTASYLAND >> SO, YEAH, I CASHED A BIG CHECK, AND I GOT A BRIEFCASE AND I HANDCUFFED MYSELF TO THE BRIEFCASE, AND I TOOK IT HOME, AND I JUST THREW THE MONEY IN THE AIR AND IT’S LIKE, “I’M RICH, ( BLEEP ) !” YOU KNOW, JUST THROWING MONEY IN THE AIR AND I LAID IN IT AND I WOKE UP, THERE WAS LIKE 20S ON MY FACE FROM SWEATING IN THE MONEY THEN I PUT IT ALL BACK, AND TOOK IT BACK TO THE BANK I TURNED THE CEILING FAN OUT TOO, FOR THE SPECIAL EFFECTS >> Reporter: SO THAT THE MONEY WAS SWIRLING? >> YEAH AT THE FUNDRAISERS AS A KID, THEY USED TO DO THIS THING WHERE YOU’D GET IN THIS MACHINE, AND THEY’D TURN THE AIR ON, ALL THIS MONEY WOULD FLY UP >> Reporter: YEAH, YEAH. I’VE SEEN THOSE >> AND I NEVER REALLY GOT PICKED TO GO IN THAT MACHINE I’M LIKE, “DAMN! IF I CAN GET $20.” I HAD A PLAN “I’M GONNA DO MY SHIRT LIKE THIS,” LIKE THE WHOLE TIME I’M JUST, “PICK ME! PICK ME! PICK ME! PICK ME!” AND ALL THROUGH MIDDLE SCHOOL I NEVER GOT PICKED I ALWAYS WANTED TO BE THE GUY IN THE MONEY MACHINE AND EVERY TIME I KNEW THEY WOULD COME I WOULD DRESS APPROPRIATELY FOR– >> Reporter: WITH A BIG APRON, YOU MEAN? >> YEAH, I JUST HAD A BIG PLAN TO GET ALL THE MONEY I’M LIKE, “WHY EVERYBODY WAIT FOR THE MONEY TO FLOAT, AND NO ONE GETS IT OFF THE GROUND? JUST SIT DOWN AND LIKE THEY NEVER PICKED ME BUT THEN I GOT DRAFTED, AND I HAD ALL THE MONEY AND EN I CREATED THE MACHINE FOR MYSELF, AND I WAS ABLE TO GET ALL THAT MONEY, AND I FELT GREAT ABOUT IT >> Reporter: AT ITS PEAK, BENNETT’S ANNUAL PAY WAS OVER $5 MILLION BUT HE SOON REALIZED THAT IN FOOTBALL THE MONEY ONLY FLOATS FOR SO LONG SO HE BEGAN SAVING AND IN 2014 FORMED A MULTIMEDIA STORYTELLING COMPANY, “THE IMAGINATION AGENCY,” WHICH GREW OUT OF HIS LOVE FOR CARTOONS AND SKETCHING THEM AND HIS LOVE OF BOOKS >> MY GOAL IS TO BE SURROUNDED BY BOOKS >> Reporter: EVEN MORE BOOKS THAN HIS LITERARY INSPIRATION >> I’VE NEVER SEEN SO MANY BOOKS IN ALL MY LIFE! >> BELLE FROM BEAUTY AND THE BEAST I THINK IT’S EVERY READER’S DREAM TO HAVE THAT LIBRARY >> Reporter: DID YOUR TEAMMATES READ? (LAUGHS) NO? WHY IS IT FUNNY? >> THE MAJORITY OF THEM, NO WHY READ? YOUR WORLD IS TOTALLY DIFFERENT, SO YOU NOT GROWING YOUR SKILLS A LOT OF TIMES IN COLLEGE AND HIGH SCHOOL YOU DIDN’T NEED TO READ EITHER YOU WERE JUST PUSHED ALONG BY YOUR TALENT OH, HEY I’M JUST A DINOSAUR READING ABOUT DINOSAURS >> Reporter: BUT BENNETT, WHO SAYS HE MAJORED IN “ELIGIBILIT”” IN COLLEGE, READ VORACIOUSLY ON HIS OWN, PURSUED A LIFELONG INTEREST IN ART, AND BEGAN RELEASING WORK WHILE STILL PLAYING, PREPARING FOR LIFE AFTER THE N.F.L., THE INITIALS, SOME SAY, OF “NOT FOR LONG.” >> IF THE AVERAGE CAREER IN THE N.F.L. IS THREE AND A HALF YEARS, RIGHT? AND THE AVERAGE LIFESPAN IS 70- SOMETHING YEARS THAT IS A TINY BLIP ON YOUR LIFESPAN SO IF THIS IS ALL THAT YOU REALLY CARE ABOUT, AND THIS IS WHO MAKES YOU WHAT YOU ARE, THEN YOU’RE GONNA SUFFER FOR A LONG TIME IN THE GRAND SCHEME OF LIFE BUT, YOU KNOW, I WANTED MORE >> Reporter: EVEN N.F.L. PLAYERS WHO DO TRY TO DIVERSIFY AWAY FROM FOOTBALL, LIKE RECENTLY RETIRED BRIAN ORAKPO AND MICHAEL GRIFFIN, GET INTO BUSINESS TOO LATE, SAYS BENNETT >> YOU GOT TO RIDE THAT WAVE WHILE YOU HAVE THEIR ATTENTION I ALWAYS TELL GUYS, “YOU HAVE THEIR ATTENTION RIGHT NOW.” BECAUSE ONCE YOU’RE OUT OF THE LEAGUE, NO ONE’S REALLY GOING TO CARE >> Reporter: SINCE HIS OWN RETIREMENT LAST YEAR, BENNETT HAS HURTLED HIMSELF INTO HIS WORK AT THE IMAGINATION AGENCY, PRODUCING AN ANIMATED SERIES, MOBILE APPS, AND CHILDREN’S BOOKS ABOUT “A.J.,” A CHARACTER BASED ON HIS FOUR-YEAR-OLD DAUGHTER, AUSTYN JETT ROSE A NEW BOOK WILL COME OUT IN MARCH: A LETTER OF ENCOURAGEMENT TO BLACK BOYS >> WITHIN THE BLACK COMMUNITY IT’S IMPORTANT TO, WE DON’T REALLY GET TO EXPERIENCE ESCAPISM AS KIDS WE DON’T GET TO DREAM OF BEING ASTRONAUTS, AND SEEING OURSELVES OR KIDS THAT LOOK LIKE US IN THESE MOVIES OR ANY SCI, ESPECIALLY SCIFI WE WAS JUST HAPPY WITH LANDO IN STAR WARS, BUT OTHER THAN THAT YOU KNOW WHAT I’M SAYING? >> YOU GOT A LOT OF GUTS COMING HERE >> YOU GET TO THE LIBRARY YOU SHUFFLE THROUGH ALL THE BOOKS, YOU’RE LOOKING THROUGH THE BOOKS LIKE “DANG.” THIS BOOK, THIS BOOK, NO CHARACTERS IN THESE BOOKS THAT LOOK LIKE YOU ONLY 2% OF CHILDREN’S BOOKS ARE BOOKS OF COLOR >> TRY SOME OF THIS. IT’LL DO YOU GOOD >> Reporter: CONSIDER ROALD DAHL, WHO, UNDER PRESSURE FROM HIS AGENT, UNCOLORIZED THE LEAD CHARACTER OF ONE OF BENNETT’S ALL-TIME FAVORITE BOOKS,“ CHARLIE AND THE CHOCOLATE FACTORY.” >> IT CAME OUT THAT, IN ROALD DAHL’S MIND, CHARLIE WAS BLACK HIS ESTATE SAID THAT AND I WAS LIKE, “WHOA.” FOR ME TO BE ABLE TO… AS A KID WHO ADMIRED WILLY WONKA AND TO HAVE A KID THAT LOOKED LIKE ME GO TO THE CHOCOLATE FACTORY, COULD YOU IMAGINE HOW THAT WOULD’VE BLOWN MY MIND? I PROBABLY WOULD BE MAKING CHOCOLATE RIGHT NOW SOMEWHERE >> Reporter: NOW FOOTBALL IS STILL A BIG PART OF BENNETT’S LIFE HE CO-HOSTS A WEEKLY DIGITAL SHOW CALLED “MOSTLY FOOTBALL.” HIS BROTHER, EAGLES DEFENSIVE

END MICHAEL BENNETT WAS A GUEST WHEN WE DROPPED BY SO, ON THE EVE OF THE SUPER BOWL, A FINAL QUESTION FOR THE FORMER NEW ENGLAND TIGHT END SO, EVERYBODY HATES THE NEW ENGLAND PATRIOTS EXCEPT OF COURSE PEOPLE WHO LIVE IN THE REGION, RIGHT? >> YEAH >> Reporter: WHY? AND IS IT JUSTIFIED? >> BECAUSE EVERYONE HAS A TEAM THEY WANT TO ROOT FOR, AND THEY HAVE ALL THESE, EVERY YEAR THE COWBOYS ARE GONNA WIN THE SUPER BOWL, RIGHT? EVERY SINGLE YEAR YOU KNOW, “BALTIMORE RAVENS ARE GONNA BE A NEW TEAM.” “THE STEELERS ARE GOING TO GO BACK TO THE PLAYOFFS.” “THE GIANTS.” EVERYONE’S ROOTING FOR THIS TEAM, AND THEN AT THE END OF THE DAY WHO’S ALWAYS THERE? THE PATRIOTS IT’S LIKE DAMN, HOW DO THEY GET TO ENJOY THIS MOMENT SO OFTEN? IT’S JUST HARD WHEN YOU CONSTANTLY HAVE HOPES AND DREAMS, AND ALWAYS HAVE TO WATCH SOMEONE ELSE WIN >> Reporter: ON SUNDAY WE’LL LEARN IF THE PATRIOTS DASH YET MORE HOPES AND DREAMS BUT MARTELLUS BENNETT WILL BE TRYING TO CASH IN ON DREAMS OF AN ENTIRELY DIFFERENT SORT THIS IS ECONOMICS CORRESPONDENT AND RELUCTANT PATRIOTS FAN PAUL SOLMAN, REPORTING FROM LOS ANGELES >> Woodruff: THE PAST COUPLE OF WEEKS ARE SHOWING ONCE AGAIN JUST HOW TOUGH THE NEWS BUSINESS IS ECONOMICALLY, WITH LAYOFFS BY DIGITAL UPSTARTS AND THE COUNTRY’S LARGEST NEWSPAPER CHAIN, GANNETT BUZZFEED LAID OFF 15% OF ITS STAFF, WHILE THE HUFFINGTON POST AND YAHOO NEWS CUT HUNDREDS OF JOBS UNDER THEIR NEW OWNER, VERIZON MANY IN THE FIELD ARE MORE WORRIED THAT A HEDGE FUND KNOWN FOR GUTTING NEWSROOMS MIGHT BUY GANNETT THAT WOULD POTENTIALLY BE AN EVEN BIGGER HIT TO LOCAL COVERAGE NATIONWIDE ALL OF THIS HAS LED TO THE GROWTH OF SO-CALLED NEWS DESERTS, PLACES WHERE THERE’S LIMITED ACCESS TO NEWS OUTLETS FOR A LOOK AT THE FALLOUT FROM ALL THIS, WE’RE JOINED BY STEVE CAVENDISH, EDITOR OF THE “NASHVILLE BANNER.” THAT’S A NON-PROFIT NEWS START UP HE’S RELAUNCHING AFTER THE PAPER FOLDED IN 1998 AND PENNY ABERNATHY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA SHE’S WRITTEN A MAJOR REPORT ABOUT THIS AND HOW IT INCREASES OUR COUNTRY’S POLARIZATION WELCOME TO BOTH OF YOU THANK YOU FOR JOINING US STEVE CAVENDISH, I’M GOING TO START WITH YOU YOU WROTE THE OTHER DAY THAT WHAT’S GOING ON RIGHT NOW FOR JOURNALISTS IS A BLOOD BATH IS IT REALLY THAT BAD? >> WELL, IT HAS BEEN OVER A LONG PERIOD OF TIME IT’S OVER THE LAST — OVER THE LAST COUPLE OF DECADES WE’VE SEEN JOURNALISM JOBS AROUND THE COUNTRY BEING CLEAVED OFF AT A RATE LIKE EITHER COAL MINERS OR STEELWORKERS OR FISHER MERN, AND THOSE ARE ARE NOT WHAT YOU WOULD CALL THRIVING INDUSTRIES JOURNALISM HAS HAD REVENUE PROBLEMS FOR YEARS, AND WE’RE STARTING TO SEE, AS PRINT IS REALLY SORT OF — IS SORT OF WIPED OUT, THAT THE CONVERSION OVER TO DIGITAL FOR MANY OF THESE PROPERTIES, MANY OF THESE NEWSPAPERS JUST ISN’T THE SAME SO WE’RE SEEING WITH IT A LOT OF JOBS LOST >> Woodruff: PENNY ABERNATHY, YOU AGREE IT’S THAT BAD, AND, IF SO, WHAT’S DRIVING THIS? >> WELL, I THINK THERE ARE TWO THINGS WE NEED TO LOOK AT ONE IS THE TOTAL LOSS OF NEWSPAPERS BECAUSE NEWSPAPERS ARE OFTEN THE PRIME IF NOT THE SOLE SOURCE OF NEWS AND INFORMATION ESPECIALLY IN SMALL AND MID-SIZED COMMUNITIES SO, OVER THE LAST DECADE AND A HALF, WE’VE SEEN 1800 NEWS DISAPPEAR OFF THE LANDSCAPE OF THE U.S BUT THERE’S ALSO THE EQUALLY TROUBLING SITUATION THAT WE HAVE WITH THE SURVIVING NEWSPAPERS WHERE WE’VE LOST MORE THAN HALF TO HAVE THE NEWSPAPER NEWS ROOM JOURNALISTS THAT WE HAD JUST IN 2008 WE’RE CALLING THAT THE RISE OF THE GHOST NEWSPAPER IN WHICH PAPERS ARE BASICALLY SHELLS OF THEIR FORMER SELVES AND AS STEVE SUGGESTS IS DRIVEN BY A COUPLE OF THINGS, ONE IS THE RAPID DECLINE OF ADVERTISING, ESPECIALLY PRINT ADVERTISING AND THE INABILITY OF NEWS ORGANIZATIONS TO MAKE UP FOR THAT IN ANY KIND OF DIGITAL REVENUE, BE THAT SUBSCRIPTION OR ADVERTISING REVENUE >> Woodruff: STEVE CAVENDISH, A LOT OF CONVERSATION ABOUT THE ROLE OF THESE ORGANIZATIONS THAT HAVE BECOME SO POWERFUL OVER THE LAST DECADE — Facebook, GOOGLE WHAT IS THEIR ROLE IN ALL THIS? >> WELL, AS NEWSPAPERS HAVE TRIED TO BECOME DIGITAL OPERATIONS AND TRIED TO SELL DIGITAL ADVERTISING, THE PROBLEM IS THAT THEY GET INTO THESE MARKETS, AND GOOGLE AND Facebook HAVE, BETWEEN THE TWO OF THEM, ABOUT 80% OF THE DIGITAL AD MARKET, SO WHAT’S LEFT REALLY PUSHES DOWN ON WHAT THEY CAN MAKE AS — WHAT YOU CAN

MAKE AS AN ORGANIZATION SO THE PRINT DOLLARS THAT MANY NEWS CHAINS HAVE WALKED AWAY FROM HAVE BEEN REPLACED BY DIGITAL PENNIES, AND THAT REPLACEMENT IS REFLECTED IN THE NUMBER OF JOBS THAT HAVE BEEN LOST >> Woodruff: AND PENNY ABERNATHY, WHAT DOES THAT MEAN FOR NEWS CONSUMERS, PEOPLE WHO HAVE COUNTED ON WHETHER IT’S A NEWSPAPER OR SOMETHING ELSE FOR NEWS AND INFORMATION? >> WELL, IT MEANS THE RISE OF NEWS DESERTS IN WHICH RESIDENTS IN HUNDREDS OF COMMUNITIES, EVEN THOUSANDS IN THIS COUNTRY HAVE LIMITED, VERY LIMITED ACCESS TO THE SORT OF NEWS AND INFORMATION THAT’S BEEN THE LIFEBLOOD OF OUR DEMOCRACY EVERYTHING FROM WHEN AND WHERE TO VOTE TO TOPICS SUCH AS EDUCATION, HEALTH, EMERGENCY AND SAFETY INFORMATION THAT WE NEED THE F.C.C. PUT OUT EARLIER IN THIS DECADE A LIST OF EIGHT TOPICS THAT THEY CONSIDERED TO BE CRITICAL INFORMATION NEEDS FOR COMMUNITIES AS WE’VE LOOKED AT NEWSPAPERS AND THE CONTENT THAT COMES OUT OF NEWSPAPERS AS WELL AS DIGITAL STARTUP SITES, WE OFTEN FIND THAT SOME ESSENTIAL INFORMATION THAT WE NEED AS CITIZENS AND JUST RESIDENTS TO MAKE WISE DECISIONS WE DON’T HAVE ACCESS TO ANYMORE >> Woodruff: AND STEVE CAVENDISH, HOW DO YOU SEE THAT PLAYING OUT IN TENNESSEE? WHAT ARE PEOPLE MISSING NOW? >> WELL, SO, TAKE FOR EXAMPLE, THE NASHVILLE BANNER WHICH WAS THE AFTERNOON PAPER HERE AND WHERE I GOT MY START IN THE EARLY ’90s WAS SOLD TO THE GANNETT PAPER HERE IN TOWN THEY TOOK ABOUT A THIRD OF THE NEWS ROOM AND COMBINED IT INTO THE TENNESSEANS STAFF, SO YOU HAD ABOUT 180 JOURNALISTS THAT NUMBER IS NOW LESS THAN 70 WHAT DOES THAT MEAN? IT MEANS THAT, YOU KNOW, LARGE SWATHS OF WHAT WAS ONCE COVERED OF COURTS, OF INSTITUTIONS, OF MAJOR KIND OF STORIES JUST DON’T GET COVERED, AND IT AFFECTS EVERYTHING FROM THE COVER OF HEALTHCARE WHICH IS A BIG INDUSTRY HERE TO HIGH SCHOOL SPORTS TO POLITICS, YOU KNOW IN THE LAST SET OF ELECTIONS WHERE WE HAD A SENATE AND A GOVERNOR’S RACE HERE BACK IN THE FALL, YOU HAD BASICALLY ONE REPORTER COVERING THOSE RACES EACH FOR — GANNETT OWNS DAILIES IN THREE OF THE FOUR BIGGEST MARKETS IN TENNESSEE SO YOU’RE SEEING FEWER AND FEWER PEOPLE COVERING THINGS THE STATE HOUSE REPORTING IS KIND OF A CRISIS ACROSS THE COUNTRY IN TENNESSEE, THERE WERE 35 PEOPLE COVERING THE STATE LEGISLATURE AND THE STATE GOVERNMENT AT ONE TIME ABOUT THREE DECADES AGO THAT NUMBER IS NOW TEN AND, REALLY, A COUPLE OF THOSE ARE SPECIALISTS, SO YOU ONLY HAVE EIGHT PEOPLE COVERING A $37 BILLION — A $37 BILLION STATE GOVERNMENT AND THE LEGISLATURE >> AND WE’VE SEEN THAT IN STATE AFTER STATE AND, PENNY ABERNATHY, IT’S SO IMPORTANT FOR US TO HIGH LIGHT THIS BECAUSE HERE IN WASHINGTON YOU LOOK AT, SAY, A PRESIDENTIAL NEWS CONFERENCE AND YOU SEE A LOT OF JOURNALISTS YOU DON’T GET A SENSE, LOOKING AT WASHINGTON, WHAT HAPPENED AROUND THE COUNTRY, BUT I WANT TO ASK YOU SOMETHING THAT YOU’VE POINTED OUT AND THAT’S HOW ALL THIS CONTRIBUTES TO THE POLITICAL POLARIZATION IN THE COUNTRY HOW IS THAT HAPPENING? >> WELL, ONE OF THE THINGS THAT WE FOUND THROUGH OUR STUDY OF LOOKING AT WHERE PEOPLE — COMMUNITIES HAVE LOST NEWSPAPERS AND WHERE THEY ARE LIVING WITH SEVERELY DIMINISHED NEWSPAPERS IS THAT IT TENDS TO — NEWS DESERTS TEND TO COALESCE AROUND AREAS THAT ARE MUCH POORER, MUCH LESS EDUCATED AND OLDER THAN OTHER TYPES OF COMMUNITIES, THAT CAN BE COMMUNITIES THAT ARE MIDDLE, INNER CITY NEIGHBORHOODS, THAT CAN BE SUBURBS AROUND METRO AREAS, AND IT CAN BE WHAT WE CALL THE FLYOVER REGIONS OF THE COUNTRY, THE RURAL AREAS THAT ARE OUT THERE I LIVE IN WHAT YOU WOULD CALL A NEWS DESERT, THE CONGRESSIONAL NINTH, WHERE WE STILL DO NOT HAVE A HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES MEMBER BECAUSE OF ALLEGED VOTER FRAUD IT IS — AND IT IS A CLASSIC NEWS DESERT WHERE, IN 20 YEARS AGO OR SO, YOU COULD HAVE GOTTEN AMPLE COVERAGE OF THE CONGRESSIONAL RACE THROUGH THREE DIFFERENT NEWSPAPERS, THE CHARLOTTE, THE RALEIGH AND THE FAYETTEVILLE PAPER, AND THERE ARE NO NEWSPAPERS THAT CIRCULATE IN MY COUNTY NOW >> Woodruff: WHAT DETERMINES QUICKLY, PENNY ABERNATHY WHETHER, THIS IS GOING TO TURN AROUND ANYTIME SOON? >> WELL, I’M MOST OPTIMISTIC THAT IF YOU HAVE A PUBLISHER AND OWNER IN AN AREA THAT HAS A GOOD ECONOMIC FOUNDATION, THAT IF THE PUBLISHER IS BOTH CREATIVE AND DISCIPLINED THAT YOU CAN TURN IT AROUND WE’VE SEEN SEVERAL EXAMPLES OF THAT WHERE I AM MOST CONCERNED IS ON THE LOW-INCOME AREAS, WHICH I DO NOT SEE A VIABLE TO-PROFIT ECONOMIC MODEL EMERGING, AND I’M

HOPING WE CAN BEGIN TO GET MEDIA FUNDERS TO BEGIN TO LOOK AT THESE OVERLOOKED AREAS, BECAUSE IT’S CRITICAL FOR OUR SOCIETY, IT HAS POLITICAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS THAT ARE LONG-TERM >> SO IMPORTANT TO FOCUS ON THIS PENNY ABERNATHY, STEVE CAVENDISH, THANK YOU BOTH >> THANKS, JUDY YOU >> Woodruff: LEARNING LANGUAGE CAN BE A CHALLENGE FOR SOME, BUT NONE MORE SO MAYBE THAN FOR THOSE WHO CANNOT HEAR IN TONIGHT’S BRIEF BUT SPECTACULAR, MELISSA MALZKUHN, WHO WAS BORN DEAF, USES HER EXPERIENCE TO BUILD HUMAN CONNECTIONS THROUGH STORYTELLING AND TECHNOLOGY MALZKUHN IS THE CREATIVE DIRECTOR OF “MOTION LIFE LAB,” A RESEARCH CENTER AT GALLAUDET UNIVERSITY >> WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT LANGUAGE, IT’S SOMETHING THAT YOU WERE EXPOSED TO FROM BIRTH IT’S ASSUMED THAT IT’S A GIVEN AND THAT LANGUAGE THEN IN TURN IS YOUR KEY TO OPENING UP DOORS TO DIFFERENT WORLDS IT’S YOUR KEY TO UNDERSTANDING WHO YOU ARE, THE WAY YOU’RE THINKING, YOUR SELF-EXPRESSION AND YOUR IDENTITY, THAT’S SO INTEGRAL TO HAVING LANGUAGE IF YOU DON’T HAVE ACCESS TO LANGUAGE, YOU DON’T HAVE ACCESS TO YOUR HUMANITY I GREW UP AS A PERSON WHO COMES FROM A FAMILY WITH THREE GENERATIONS OF DEAF PEOPLE THAT MEANS MY GRANDPARENTS ARE DEAF, MY PARENTS, AND MY SIBLINGS ARE DEAF I COME FROM A LONG LINE OF STORYTELLERS AND SO, I GREW UP IN A FAMILY OF STORYTELLERS WHICH BECAME A PART OF WHO I AM MY INSPIRATION GOES BACK TO MY GRANDMOTHER I SEE HER AS A PIONEER IN SO MANY WAYS SHE WAS A DEAF WOMAN WHO WAS BORN IN A TIME WHEN CAPTIONING WASN’T AVAILABLE SHE WAS ALWAYS PUSHING FOR HUMAN RIGHTS AND SHE OFTEN SAID,“ DON’T WAIT FOR TOMORROW, START TODAY,” AND SHE TALKED ABOUT THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF DEAF CHILDREN AND ASKED, “WHO WILL PROTECT DEAF CHILDREN? WHO WILL SPEAK FOR THEM? WHO IS GOING TO ADVOCATE FOR THEM?” I ACQUIRED LANGUAGE JUST LIKE ANY OTHER CHILD ACQUIRES THEIR LANGUAGE FROM THEIR COMMUNITY AND FAMILY YOU START LEARNING SINGLE WORDS AND THEN MAKE THEM INTO PHRASES AND THEN SENTENCES SO THAT’S HOW I LEARNED TO SIGN HAVING ACCESS TO SIGN LANGUAGE FROM BIRTH, IS AN EXPERIENCE THAT ONLY 5% OF DEAF PEOPLE HAVE THE REMAINING 95% OF DEAF CHILDREN ARE BORN INTO HEARING FAMILIES WHAT THAT MEANS IS THAT LANGUAGE ACCESS IS NOT A GIVEN, IT’S NOT GRANTED YOU HAVE TO BUILD IT IT’S JUST A MATTER OF CONNECTING THEIR PARENTS WITH THE COMMUNITY SO THAT THEY CAN LEARN TO SIGN AND GIVE THEIR CHILDREN EVERYTHING AND THAT CAN BUILD THE BOND THAT ALL CHILDREN SHOULD HAVE WITH PARENTS WHO LOVE THEM, CARE FOR THEM, AND CAN COMMUNICATE WITH THEM I ADOPTED MY SON WHEN HE WAS FOUR YEARS OLD HE DIDN’T HAVE ANY LANGUAGE THEN I UNDERSTOOD UP CLOSE AND PERSONAL, THE REALITIES OF LANGUAGE DEPRIVATION IN TRYING TO COMMUNICATE WITH HIM IT WAS A FULL ON FAMILY EFFORT TO HAVE HIM DEVELOP LANGUAGE I SAW FIRSTHAND HIS EXPERIENCES AND HOW HE WOULD COPY SIGNS FROM THE STORY AND TO GET TO SEE THAT IN MY OWN HOME DROVE HOME THE POINT OF WHAT HAPPENS WHEN SOMEONE DOESN’T HAVE LANGUAGE TO SEE THE DEGREE OF FRUSTRATION THAT THEY EXPERIENCE AND TO SEE HOW THEY CHANGE AS THEY’RE ABLE TO USE LANGUAGE TO ENGAGE IN CONVERSATIONS WITH PEOPLE SO SEEING HIS EXPERIENCE HAS BEEN REALLY EMOTIONAL FOR ME MY NAME IS MELISSA MALZKUHN AND THIS IS MY BRIEF BUT SPECTACULAR TAKE ON HUMAN CONNECTIONS THROUGH LANGUAGE AND STORYTELLING >> Woodruff: FOR A SEPARATE TAKE ON LANGUAGE, YOU CAN FIND A SPECIAL EPISODE OF BRIEF BUT SPECTACULAR ONLINE WITH CAROLINE THAT’S ON OUR WEBSITE AT pbs.org/newshour/brief AND THAT’S THE NEWSHOUR FOR TONIGHT I’M JUDY WOODRUFF JOIN US ONLINE AND AGAIN HERE TOMORROW EVENING FOR ALL OF US AT THE PBS NEWSHOUR, THANK YOU AND SEE YOU SOON >> MAJOR FUNDING FOR THE PBS NEWSHOUR HAS BEEN PROVIDED BY: >> BABBEL A LANGUAGE APP THAT TEACHES REAL-LIFE CONVERSATIONS IN A NEW LANGUAGE, LIKE SPANISH, FRENCH, GERMAN, ITALIAN, AND MORE BABBEL’S 10-15 MINUTE LESSONS ARE AVAILABLE AS AN APP, OR ONLINE MORE INFORMATION ON babbel.com >> AND WITH THE ONGOING SUPPORT

OF THESE INSTITUTIONS >> THIS PROGRAM WAS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOUR PBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKE YOU THANK YOU Captioning sponsored by NEWSHOUR PRODUCTIONS, LLC Captioned by Media Access Group at WGBH access.wgbh.org >>> FROM OUR STUDIOS IN TOKYO, THIS IS NHK “NEWSLINE.” I’M ROSS MIHARA >>> U.S. PRESIDENT TRUMP SAYS DETAILS SUCH AS THE DATE AND PLACE OF HIS UPCOMING MEETING WITH NORTH KOREAN LEADER KIM JONG-UN WILL BE DISCLOSED NEXT WEEK >> I THINK MOST OF YOU KNOW WHERE THE LOCATION IS I DON’T THINK IT’S ANY GREAT SECRET BUT WE’LL BE ANNOUNCING THE LOCATION AND THE DATE AT THE END OF FEBRUARY >> TRUMP SAID NORTH KOREAN OFFICIALS VERY MUCH WANT THE MEETING U.S. SECRETARY OF STATE POMPEO SAID ON WEDNESDAY THAT THE SUMMIT WILL TAKE PLACE SOME PLACE IN ASIA ONE OF THE MOST OFTEN MENTIONED VENUES IS VIETNAM TRUMP AND KIM HELD A HISTORICAL MEETING LAST JUNE IN SINGAPORE THE MEETING ENDED WITH A VAGUE PLEDGE OF KIM TO DENUCLEARIZE

BUT NEGOTIATIONS HAVE BEEN STALLED WASHINGTON WANTS A SWIFT AND COMPLETE DENUCLEARIZATION BUT PYONGYANG IS PRESSING THE U.S. TO OFFER RECIPROCAL ACTIONS INCLUDING EASING SANCTIONS THE U.S. ESSENTIALLY REPRESENTATIVE FOR NORTH KOREA STEPHEN BIEGAN WILL START A VISIT TO SOUTH KOREA ON SUNDAY HE ALSO PLANS TO MEET WITH NORTH’S OFFICIALS TO DISCUSS SUBSTANTIVE STEPS TOWARD DENUKE CLARIZATION >>> THE U.S. PRESIDENT TWEETED URPT U.S./CHINA TRADE NEGOTIATIONS ARE GOING WELL TRUMP WILL SEEK A FINAL DEAL IN A MEETING WITH CHINESE PRESIDENT XI JINPING TO RESOLVE THE CURRENT TRADE FRICTION WHICH HAS WEAKENED BOTH ECONOMIES TRUMP REFERRED TO MINISTERIAL LEVELS ON TWITTER HE WROTE NO FINAL DEAL WILL BE MADE UNTIL CHINESE PRESIDENT XI AND I MEET IN THE NEAR FUTURE TO DISCUSS AND AGREE ON SOME OF THE LONGSTANDING AND MORE DIFFICULT POINTS HE ADDED THAT ALL OF MANY PROBLEMS ARE BEING DISCUSSED AND WILL BE HOPEFULLY RESOLVED NOESHTD OR THES OF THE WORLD’S TWO LARGEST ECONOMIES HELD TWO DAYS OF MEETINGS IN WASHINGTON ON WEDNESDAY THEY WERE DISCUSSING ALLEGED VIOLATIONS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS BY THE CHINESE SIDE AND WAYS TO RESOLVE TRADE FRICTION BOTH SIDES ARE TRYING TO MAKE PROGRESS TOWARD A DEAL BY A MARCH 1st DEADLINE THE U.S. HAS SO FAR SUSPENDED THE PLAN IN POSITION OF HIGHER TARIFFS ON CHINESE GOODS “WALL STREET JOURNAL” REPORTS THAT CHINA PROPOSED A SUMMIT MEETING IN THE SOUTHERN PROVINCE OF HAINAN AFTER A U.S./NORTH KOREA SUMMIT SET FOR LATE FEBRUARY >>> THE CEOs OF NISSAN MOTOR, RENAULT, AND MITSUBISHI MOTOR WILL CONTINUE THEIR ALLIANCE THIS COMES AS THE FORMER HEAD OF NISSAN AND RENAULT CARLOS GHOSN REMAINS IN DETENTION IN TOKYO MITSUBISHI’S CHAIRMAN AND CEO TALKED TO REPORTERS AFTER THE FIRST DAY OF THE TWO-DAY GATHERING HE SAID HE HELD THREE-WAY TALKS WITH NISSAN PRESIDENT AND CEO AND RENAULT’S NEW CEO DURING THE MEETING IN AMSTERDAM MOSCOW ATTENDED VIA VIDEO LINK HE SAID THEY HAD VERY MEANINGFUL DISCUSSIONS >> Translator: WE CONFIRMED THE TOP EXECUTIVES OF THE THREE COMPANIES WILL MEET REGULARLY >> SAIKAWA AND SENARD WILL HOLD THEIR FIRST FACE TO FACE TALKS IN THE MEETING AND LIKELY DISCUSS THE FUTURE OF THE PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THE TWO FIRMS NISSAN AND RENAULT HAVE BEEN AT ODDS OVER LEADERSHIP MATTERS SINCE THEIR FORMER CHAIRMAN GHOSN WAS ARRESTED IN TOKYO IN NOVEMBER LAST YEAR GHOSN IS FACING FINANCIAL MISCONDUCT CHARGES SENARD AND BOLLORE ASSUMED THEIR CURRENT POSTS AS RENAULT LAST WEEK AFTER GHOSN’S RESIGNATION >>> A COMPREHENSIVE FREE TRADE DEAL BETWEEN JAPAN AND THE EUROPEAN UNION TOOK EFFECT ON FRIDAY THE PACT WILL EVENTUALLY REMOVE TARIFFS ON MORE THAN 90% OF IMPORTS FROM BOTH SIDES AND LIBERALIZE RULES IN A BROAD SPECTRUM OF FIELDS JAPAN AND THE EU RATIFIED THE ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT OR EPA LAST DECEMBER THE DEAL COVERS THE JAPANESE AND EU MARKETS WHICH HAVE A TOTAL POPULATION OF ABOUT 640 MILLION THE AGREEMENT ACCOUNTS FOR NEARLY 40% OF THE VALUE OF THE WORLD’S TRADE JAPAN WILL ELIMINATE TARIFFS ON 94% OF IMPORTS FROM THE EU, INCLUDING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS THE EU WILL SCRAP LEVIES ON 99% OF IMPORTS FROM JAPAN CHEESE IMPORTS FROM TO JAPAN THE EU WILL BE COVERED BY A NEW IMPORT QUOTA OF UP TO 31,000 TONS TARIFFS ON CHEESE WITHIN THE QUOTA WILL BE GRADUALLY REDUCED TARIFFS ON JAPANESE PASSENGER CAR EXPORTS TO THE EU WILL BE LOWERED TO ZERO IN 2026 A JAPANESE FARMER PRODUCING GREEN TEA WELCOMES THE MOVE, THANKS TO THE POPULARITY OF JAPANESE FOOD IN EUROPE, HE EXPECTS TO INCREASE PRODUCTION >> Translator: I HOPE I CAN EXPORT MY PRODUCTS EASILY WHEN THE TARIFFS ARE REDUCED >> THE TWO SIDES WILL ALSO LIBERALIZE RULES IN AREAS SUCH AS INVESTMENT, SERVICES AND PUBLIC PROCUREMENTS THE JAPANESE GOVERNMENT SAYS THE EPA WILL EXPAND TRADE AND INVESTMENT BOOSTING THE COUNTRY’S REAL GDP BY 1% AND CREATING ROUGHLY 290,000 JOBS >>> THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA

HAVE FAILED TO NARROW THEIR DIFFERENCES OVER A NUCLEAR WEAPON TREATY THE U.S. WILL START PULLING OUT FROM THE 1987 INTERMEDIATE RANGE NUCLEAR FORCES TREATY OR INF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE TWO COUNTRIES HELD THE LAST-DITCH TALKS IN BEIJING ON THE SIDELINES OF A TWO-DAY CONFERENCE ON NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION AMONG THE FIVE PERMANENT MEMBERS OF THE U.N. SECURITY COUNCIL THE ADMINISTRATION OF U.S PRESIDENT DONALD TRUMP HAS THREATENED TO PULL OUT OF THE MISSILE SYSTEM SAYING IT VIOLATES THE PACT THE U.S. SAID THEY WILL BEGIN WITH PROCEDURES IF MOSCOW DOES NOT FULFILL THEIR OBLIGATIONS >> ARMS CONTROL REGIMES ONLY WORK IF STANDARDS ARE MAINTAINED AND IF THERE ARE CONSEQUENCES FOR VIOLATING THOSE STANDARDS SO IF PARTIES ARE TO THE TREATY AND YOU ABIDE BY THAT STANDARD THAT IS WHAT WE EXPECT >> MEANWHILE, DELEGATES FROM THE TWO COUNTRIES, CHINA, THE UK AND FRANCE DISCUSSED NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT THEY HAVE FAILED TO REACH CONSENSUS AMID A ROW BETWEEN THE U.S. AND RUSSIA CHINA’S FOREIGN MINISTRY SAYS THEY AGREED TO ADHERE TO THE NONPROLIFERATION TREATY AND CREATE DIALOGUE, BUT THE DIPLOMATIC SOURCES SAID THE FIVE COUNTRIES FAILED TO ADOPT A JOINT COMMUNIQUE >>> A NEW REPORT SHOWS U.S. AND JAPANESE FIRMS ARE LEADING IN THE WAY OF APPLYING FOR PATENTS IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BUT RIVALS FROM CHINA HAVE THE EDGE IN THE MORE ADVANCED A.I FIELD OF DEEP LEARNING WHERE MACHINES TEACH THEMSELVES AND THINK ON THEIR OWN THE REPORT BY THE WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANIZATION COVERS 340,000 A.I RELATED PATENT APPLICATIONS IT SPANS A PERIOD FROM THE 1950s TO 2016 >> THERE HAS BEEN A VERY OBVIOUS AND QUITE PRONOUNCED INCREASE IN PATENTING ACTIVITY IN THE FIELD OF AI SINCE 2013 THIS IS ONE THING THAT WE CAN SEE IT’S A VERY DRAMATIC CHANGE IN THE SCENERY >> THE REPORT SAYS AMERICA’S IBM FILED THE LARGEST NUMBER OF PATENTS FOLLOWED BY MICROSOFT JAPAN’S TOSHIBA CAME IN THIRD 12 COMPANIES AMONG THE TOP 20 ARE FROM JAPAN BUT FOR DEEP LEARNING TECHNOLOGY, THE CHINESE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES TOPPED THE LIST IN SECOND PLACE WAS I.T. FIRM BAIDU ALSO FROM CHINA >>> SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS POSTED HIGH PROFITS IN 2018 DUE LARGELY TO ITS THRIVING SEMICONDUCTOR UNIT BUT THE SOUTH KOREAN TECH GIANT ISN’T CELEBRATING IT SAYS A SLUMP IN THE FOURTH QUARTER PROFIT SPELLS TROUBLE FOR THE YEAR AHEAD SAMSUNG SAYS ITS 2018 SALES ROSE 1.7% FROM THE PREVIOUS YEAR, HITTING ABOUT $219 BILLION OPERATING PROFIT ROSE 9.7% TO ROUGHLY $53 BILLION THE FIRM’S CORE SEMICONDUCTOR BUSINESS WAS THE MAIN REASON FOR THE STRONG FIGURES SAMSUNG ISN’T GETTING CARRIED AWAY IT SAYS OPERATING PROFIT FOR THE OCTOBER TO DECEMBER QUARTER WAS DOWN BY 30% FROM A YEAR EARLIER ONE OF THE CONTRIBUTING FACTORS WAS SMARTPHONE COMPANIES SCALING DOWN THEIR CHIP PURCHASES >>> RICE FARMING HAS LONG REPRESENTED THE HEART AND SOUL OF JAPANESE AGRICULTURE BUT IN RECREPT YEARS THE INDUSTRY HAS STRUGGLED WITH FALLEN CONSUMPTION SOME BUSINESSES HAVE STARTED LOOKING OVERSEAS FOR NEW OPPORTUNITIES >> A JAPANESE RESTAURANT CHAIN HOSTS A TASTING IN SHANGHAI ORGANIZERS INVITE VISITORS TO COMPARE RICE FROM JAPANESE RICE WITH LONG GRAIN VARIETIES >> Translator: IT’S MORE CHEWY THAN THE RICE I USUALLY EAT I LIKE THE TEXTURE >> AS PART OF A MONTH-LONG TRIAL, THE RESTAURANT CHAIN SERVED UP JAPANESE RICE TO CUSTOMERS AT MORE THAN 200 CHINESE OUTLETS >> Translator: THE BRAND IS ESPECIALLY CHEWY, A TEXTURE THAT’S HARD TO FIND IN CHINA WE WANT OUR CUSTOMERS TO EXPERIENCE THE JAPANESE TASTE >> 2018 WAS A BUMPER YEAR FOR JAPANESE RICE EXPORTS TO CHINA SHIPMENTS OVER THE FIRST TEN MONTHS MORE THAN DOUBLED FROM THE SAME PERIOD THE YEAR BEFORE A BIG FACTOR WAS BEIJING’S DECISION TO EASE RESTRICTIONS ON IMPORTS TRADERS HAVE BEEN QUICK TO CAPITALIZE ON THE TREND ONE FIRM STARTED SELLING BABY

FOOD CONTAINING JAPANESE RICE IT’S NOT CHEAP ONE PACKET GOES FOR $4 BUT THAT’S NOT DETERRING CONSUMERS >> Translator: I DON’T MIND THE PRICE THE MOST IMPORTANT THING FOR ME IS THE HEALTH OF MY BABY >> Translator: WE’RE HOPING THAT TODDLERS WHO GET JAPANESE RICE WILL KEEP EATING IT AFTER THEY GROW UP >> THE TREND IS DRAWING THE ATTENTION OF CHINESE RICE GROWERS FARMERS HAVE ADOPTED JAPANESE METHODS TO GROW A CHINESE VARIETY THE VILLAGE SENT A DELEGATION TO CHINA TO CULTIVATE RICE SHOOTS AND MANAGE WATER IN THE PADDIES AND SPENT MILLIONS OF DOLLARS TO SET UP JAPANESE RICE MILLS AND WAREHOUSES TO KEEP THE GRAIN FRESH THE VILLAGE SELLS THE RICE AT ROUGHLY ONE THIRD THE PRICE OF IMPORTED JAPANESE VARIETIES >> Translator: JAPANESE RICE IS EXPENSIVE SO IT’S MOSTLY WEALTHY PEOPLE THAT EAT IT WE WANT TO PRODUCE RICE OF HIGH QUALITY AND AFFORDABLE ENOUGH FOR EVERYONE TO ENJOY >> JAPAN’S AGING RICE FARMERS FACE FORMIDABLE CHALLENGES IN THEIR OWN COUNTRY UNTAPPED POTENTIAL IN OVERSEAS MARKETS IS OFFERING A GLIMMER OF HOPE >>> MALAYSIA HAS A NEW KING AFTER HIS PREDECESSOR ABRUPTLY STEPPED DOWN IN EARLY JANUARY SULTAN ABDULLAH SULTAN SHAH WAS CROWNED THURSDAY MAKING HIM THE 16th KING IN A TELEVISED CEREMONY SWORE AN OATH AT THE NATIONAL PALACE IN KUALA LUMPUR >> Translator: I WILL SINCERELY RULE MALAYSIA WITH JUSTICE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CONSTITUTION >> THE BRITISH-EDUCATED 59-YEAR-OLD IS KNOWN FOR HIS STRONG INTEREST IN SPORTS HE’S A MEMBER OF FIFA AND PRESIDENT OF THE ASIAN HOCKEY FEDERATION THE KING PLAYS A LARGELY CEREMONIAL ROLE IN THE COUNTRY SUCH AS SWEARING IN PRIME MINISTERS AND ISSUING ROYAL PARDONS MALAYSIA HAS A UNIQUE MONARCHY THE COUNTRY’S NINE STATE RULERS TAKE TURNS SERVING AS KING ON FIVE-YEAR TERMS THE FORMER KING, MOHAMMED V, ABDICATED AFTER JUST TWO YEARS THE NATIONAL PALACE HAS GIVEN NO EXPLANATION, BUT THE MEDIA REPORT THAT HE MARRIED A FORMER RUSSIAN BEAUTY QUEEN WHILE ON MEDICAL LEAVE IN NOVEMBER >>> THE PEOPLE OF BANGKOK HAVE BEEN SUFFERING DANGEROUS LEVELS OF AIR POLLUTION FOR THE PAST MONTH NOW AUTHORITIES HAVE COME UP WITH A UNIQUE MEASURE THAT COULD IMPROVE THE SITUATION IF ONLY A LITTLE BY USING DRONES THE CITY’S METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION AGENCY DISPLAYED FIVE WATER-SPRAYING DRONES ON THURSDAY THE LOCAL MEDIA REPORT THAT THE CITY GOVERNMENT HOPES TO RELEASE 50 SUCH DRONES, EACH CARRYING UP TO 10 LITERS OF WATER TO SPRAY INTO THE AIR IN AN ATTEMPT TO ALLEVIATE THE HAZARDOUS POLLUTION >> Translator: WE’RE DOING THIS BECAUSE WE THINK IT WILL IMPROVE THE SITUATION WE’LL BE CRITICIZED IF WE DO NOTHING >> THE SMOG HAS FORCED MORE THAN 400 PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND KINDERGARTENS IN BANGKOK TO CLOSE THE DRY WEATHER, VEHICLE EXHAUST AND FUMES FROM VEHICLES AND FACTORIES ARE BELIEVED TO BE MAKING THINGS WORSE GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS HAVE TRIED SUCH THINGS AS SEEDING CLOUDS TO INDUCE RAIN AND REGULATING TRUCK TRAFFIC SO FAR THESE MEASURES HAVE HAD ONLY A LIMITED EFFECT >>> THE 2004 INDIAN N TSUNAMI WAS ONE OF THE DEADLIEST NATURAL DISASTERS IN RECORDED HISTORY KILLING OVER 220,000 BUT MANY YOUNG PEOPLE IN THAILAND BORN AFTER THE CATASTROPHE ARE UNAWARE OF THE DANGERS NHK WORLD’S REPORTER REPORTS ON HOW ONE MAN IS TAKING STEPS TO MAKE SURE THE LESSONS LEARNED ARE NOT FORGOTTEN >> Reporter: THE PROVIDENCE OF PONG PEN WAS HIT HARDEST IN DECEMBER, A 64 KILOMETER RUN WAS HELD TO HIGHLIGHT THE IMPORTANCE OF FLEEING BEFORE TSUNAMI STRIKES 53-YEAR-OLD MAN IS FROM THE VILLAGE THAT WAS DEVASTATED BY THE WAVES HE LOST SEVERAL OF FAMILY MEMBERS A PHOTOGRAPH HANGING IN HIS HOME SHOW HIS WIFE’S SISTER WHO WAS WORKING NEAR THE SEA AND HER 4-YEAR-OLD DAUGHTER HIS SISTER-IN-LAW WAS KILLED AND

HIS NIECE WAS NEVER FOUND >> Translator: I STILL REMEMBER WHAT HAPPENED TO THEM, ESPECIALLY ON DECEMBER THE 26th THE ANNIVERSARY OF THE TSUNAMI THEY KNEW NOTHING ABOUT TSUNAMI LIKE OTHER VILLAGERS THEY DIDN’T RUN TO FLEE FROM THE WAVES SO THEY DIED OFFICIAL SINCE THE TSUNAMIAS AGE BEEN INVOLVED IN E COMMUTY CTI OF HIS ANNTRODUION OF ANTI-DISASTER MSURES TSUNAMI WARNI SIREN SYSTEMUT E VILLAGE P U SPEAKER OF TO WORK. CASE THE SYSTEM FAIL THE VILLAGE HAD AO BEEN CONDUCTING EVAATION DRILLOR THE PAST TEN YEARS LAST YEAR’S EXEISE INCLUDED CHILDREN I WHEELAIRS AND HOW TO TRE INJURED PELE FROM THE U.N. ED WITH ASSISTANCE HE CHILDREN ABOUT TN TELLING IMPORTANCEFVACUATIN TO GHER GROD IN TIMES OF DISAST KNOWING HEAS TO MAKE THE RACEIO EDUCATIOL ANDABLEMS MEMORABLE SK GANIZED A LONG DISTANCE RUN THE DAY OF THE EVENT HAS ARRIVE TH COURSE WAS THROUGH THE AREA THATAS HIT BY TSUNAMI SOMSAK HAD TO PULL OF THE RACE AT THE -KILOMETERE MAR BUT HE RURNEDOWARDHE E SO HE COULD FINISH IT TOGETHER WITH THEHILDREN >> Translator: I WILL KEEP RUNNING TO PERSUADE MORE AND MORE PEOPLE TO JOIN IN SO THEY CAN APPRECIATE THE IMPORTANCE OF RUNNING I WILL NEVER GIVE UP AND WILL RUN EVERY YEAR FROM NOW ON >> Reporter: SOMSAK HOPES THAT BY PASSING ON THE EXPERIENCE OF SURVIVAL THE YOUNG PEOPLE WILL KNOW EXACTLY WHAT TO DO THE NEXT TIME A TSUNAMI APPEARS ON THE HORIZON NHK WORLD, THAILAND >>> THE ASIAN AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION OF NEW YORK IS ENCOURAGING PEOPLE TO FIGHT AGAINST DISCRIMINATION BY REMINDING THEM OF A FIGHT OF WORLD WAR II.? >> I’M 23 YEARS OLD >> Reporter: IT’S A RETELLING OF A DECADES-OLD CASE FRED KOREMATSU’S FIGHT AGAINST INTERNMENT DURING WORLD WAR II THE GOAL HERE IS TO SHOW HOW HE STOOD UP TO DISCRIMINATION >> I WOULD LIKE TO SEE THE GOVERNMENT TO ADMIT THEY WERE WRONG AND DO SOMETHING ABOUT IT SO THIS WILL NEVER, NEVER HAPPEN AGAIN TO ANY AMERICAN CITIZEN OF ANY RACE, OF ANY CREED, OF ANY COLOR >> IN 1942, ABOUT 120,000 JAPANESE AMERICANS WERE SENT TO INTERNMENT CAMPS UNDER AN WEDNESDAY’S EVENT INCIDES WITH, HIS BIRTHDAY, A IN CALIRNIA AND NEW YORK >>OW, THIS IS REALLY IMPORTANT TO UNDSTAND HE IS AN AMERICAICON THAT WE VER TALK ABOUT >> ReporER ORGANIZER HERERE TRYING TO BNG NEW ATTENTIONO HIS STORY AND WHAT WOULD BHIS 100th BIRTHDAY, BUT THEY ALSO HOPE TMAKE LINKS WITH CONTEMPORARYSSUES, AS WE PRESIDENT IS TRYING TO C DOWN SOME PPL AT THE EVENT SAID THERE IS SIMILARITIES BETWEEN HIS STORY AND DONALD TRUMP’S EFFORTS TO BUILD A BORDER WALL WITH MEXICO OTHERS POINTED TO DISCRIMINATION THAT MUSLIMS FACE IN THE U.S >> HE IS REPRESENTING SOME OF THE WRONGS THAT ARE STILL OCCURRING IN >> Reporter: ORGANIZERS HOPE THAT PEOPLE WILL BE INSPIRED TO FIGHT TODAY’S WRONGS BY REMEMBERING THE STORY FROM MORE THAN SEVEN DECADES AGO J UNYA, NHK, NEW YORK >>> THE ANCIENT JAPANESE CAPITAL

OF NARA HAS A FAMOUS ATTRACTION — WILD DEER BUT IF YOU LOOK CLOSELY AT THE GROUND YOU WILL SEE SOME LITTLE CREATURES PLAYING A VITAL ROLE IN KEEPING THE PARK PRESENTABLE >> IN NARA PARK, TOURISTS LOVE FEEDING RICE CRACKERS TO THE DEER THE ANIMALS ARE CUTE, BUT THERE IS JUST ONE PROBLEM YES DEER DROPPINGS MORE THAN 1,200 DEER LIVE IN THE PARK AND PRODUCE 1 TON OF EXCREMENT EVERY DAY BUT THE PARK LOOKS CLEAN WHO TIDIES UP AFTER THE DEER? ♪♪ THESE HELPFUL LITTLE CRITTERS, DUNG BEATLES THEY COLLECT DEERDROPPINGS AND EAT THEM THE INSECTS ALSO TAKE THEM INTO THEIR NESTS THE BEETLES HELP TO ELIMINATE UNPLEASANT SMELLS, KEEP FLIES AWAY, AND LIGHTEN THE WORKLOAD FOR PARK EMPLOYEES