Land Surveyor, Part 12: U.S. Public Land Survey System

welcome to Caltrans lsit Els exam preparation course one aid in your preparation for California licensure examinations a word of caution don’t use this course as your only preparation devise and follow a regular schedule of study which begins months before the test what many problems in each area not just those in this courses workbook but problems from other sources as well this course is funded by Caltrans but you and I owe a profound thanks to others the courses instructors from the academic community the private sector other public agencies and from Caltrans as well we wish you well in your study toward becoming a member of California’s professional land surveying community hello my name is Jim McKevitt I’m a supervisory land surveyor with a branch of Kedah so survey Bureau of Land Management I work for the BLM since 1976 I’m also a licensed land surveyor in California having passed the 1984 exam I’d like to welcome you to unit 12 of the Caltrans lsit video training course of course the United States public land survey system since I’ll be referring to the United States public land survey system throughout this course from this point on I’ll shorten it to letters PLSS in preparing for this course I reviewed previous Ellis exam questions about the PLSS the questions focused on three primary aspects of the PLSS which a license lands fair is likely to become involved with the topics are the dependent resurvey the restoration of lost corners and the subdivision of sections if you are familiar with the basic principles in these three areas of the PLSS then you should be able to correctly answer the PLSS questions on the previous exams the questions generally do not involve complex tricky or unusual situations this course then is designed to present the principles of dependent resurvey and the basic procedures used in restoring lost corners and subdividing sections prior to the presentations on these these three topics though I’ll discuss the background information necessary to understand them I want to start with a short history of the PLSS the authority for starting the PLSS was provided by the land ordinance of 1785 this ordinance provided for the systematic survey and monumentation of federal lands into a rectangular system of townships and sections the state of Ohio served as a testing ground for this new type of boundary surveys changes were made in the method based on the early experiences in Ohio the major concepts of our present-day system were largely in place by 1805 with mostly minor refinery fineman’s being made from time to time thereafter the intent of the system was to survey and monument the western lands prior to the federal government’s patenting the lands to its citizens the rectangular system provided standardized parcels of land interrelated by reference to townships and initial points simple output part descriptions divided sections into halves enforced ad infinitum were all that were necessary to describe with certainty a parcel of land the General Land Office or Gao was created by Congress in 1812 and was given jurisdiction over all matters concerning a survey and sale of the federal lands in 1946 the geo law was combined with the grazing service and became the Bureau of Land Management the BLM as successor to the GL o still has responsibility for the survey and resurvey of federal lands the surveys in California were initiative initiated in 1851 shortly after statehood most the original surveys were made under the contract system under this system the GL o contracted with private individuals to complete the required surveys millions of acres of federal lands were surveyed into the system by good bad and indifferent surveyors in 1910 act of Congress however directed that the surveys and researchers of federal lands were to be made by such competent surveyors as the Secretary of the Interior may select this new system of making the surveys is called the direct system it effectively abolished the contract system see a white in his history of the rectangular survey system states that most of the easily surveying had been done so not even the deputy

surveyors themselves had were sorry to see the contract method go in the early days of the PLSS instructions were issued to field surveyors was specified which specified the method of survey and accuracy is expected it gradually became evident that a consolidation of officially authorized surveying procedures was needed on March 3rd 1851 the Oregon manual entitled instructions to the surveyor general of Oregon being a manual for field operations was issued supplies to this manual also issued to the surveyor general California so it was immediately applicable to California as well the 1855 manual of survey instructions and expansion of the Oregon manual with a few improvements was issued on February 22nd 1855 subsequent manuals were issued in 1881 1890 1894 1902 1930 1947 and 1973 each slightly improving the PLSS in both accuracy and uniformity the current manual of 1973 summarizes itself in Section 1-1 as describing how cadastral surveys of the public lands are made in conformance to statutory law and its judicial interpretation but I want to stress about the different manuals is that the BLM geo surveys were in are established in accordance with the manual enforce as of the date of the survey to properly execute a retracement or we survey today of older plss surveys it is a must to have an understanding of the methods and procedures used to execute these older surveys this understanding can be gained from the manuals enforce at the time of this original survey at a minimum for the PLSS portion of the ls test your library should contain the manual of survey instructions 1973 the official record of BLM gll surveys usually consist of a set of field notes and a plat the field notes are the official written record of the survey they identify and describe the land the lines and corners of survey and procedures by which they were established or reestablished the plat is the drawing which represents the line surveyed or resurveyed showing the direction and length of each line the plat furnishes the basic data for the description of all areas within a Township this is a typical plat showing Township 5 South Range 5 ways Babla Meridian Hill their Township Platts like this one we’re often composites to several different surveys colored lines were often used to distinguish between the surveys unfortunately these colored lines reproduce as shades of grey which are usually not distinguishable if you should ever need to determine the color of certain lines the BLM should be contacted for help when lands are patented the plats field notes and marks of the survey become a part of the patent and control as far as boundaries are concerned if evidence of a corner monumental by a private prior survey cannot be recovered the field notes and plat provide the basis for restoration of the lost corner all the original California field notes and Platts in existence at the time were destroyed by the fire which resulted from the April 18th 1906 San Francisco earthquake the rectangular Platts were replaced by copies of the duplicate Platts with Ron file in Washington DC the field notes were replaced from one or combination of the following the triplicates set on file in the Giotto land office a transcribed copy of the duplicate set on file in Washington and copies of unknown origin the copies of unknown origin were most likely obtained from state or county sources these multiple copies occasionally result in discrepancies between plots and notes different versions of the plats and different versions of the notes in order to resolve these conflicts is important to know which generation or version you have the survey record staff of the California BLM office can help you distinguish between the different generations of field notes and plats the address and phone number of this office are 2800 cottage Way room e 2807 Sacramento California 9 5 8 to 5 the phone number for this office is area code 9 1990 Lowe surveys in California are available are available for purchase from this office the measurement data reported on GL OB land survey Platts and infield notes are bearings and distances the distances by law or horizontal measurements reported and changed based on the u.s. survey foot at actual ground distance one chain is equal to 66 feet partial chain measurements are made in links the chain contains 100 links with one link being equivalent to 7.9 200 inches 80 chains is equivalent to one mile the chain unit was devised so that 10 square chains would be equivalent to 1 acre a measurement shown on the plat as 80 point 1 to 1 chains is equivalent to 80 chains and 12.1 links for the directional lines the 1973 manual at

section 2 17 states that the direction of each line of the public land surveys is determined with reference to the true Meridian as defined by the axis of the Earth’s rotation section 219 further states that current practice is to determine through asmath by one of the following methods the first is direct observation of the Sun Polaris or other stars the second is observations with a solar attachment the third is the turning of bangles from triangulation stations of the horizontal control network historically though many of the early plss surveys were made with a magnetic compass the use of the compass was partially abolished by the 1890 manual which stated that the survey of all principle base and meridians standard parallels and guide meridians and Township lines must be made with an instrument operating independently of the magnetic needle the 1890 manual further stated that where the needle can be relied on however the ordinary compass if provided with a revolving compass box and variation arc may be used in subdividing and meandering 1894 manual completely abolished the use of the magnetic compass by stating the surveys of the public lands in the United States embracing the establishment of baselines principal meridians standard parallels meander lines and the subdivision of townships will be made with instruments provided with the accessories necessary to determine direction with reference to the true Meridian independently of the magnetic needle in the PLSS lines which are surveyed due east or west or curved lines of latitude other than on a Meridian a line a straight line in the PLSS survey by flopping the scope of an instrument and subsequent setups to establish straight line points is a line of constantly changing bearing the graphic now on the screen illustrates how dramatic this effect can be this particular example is at a latitude of 45 degrees thirty four point five minutes north beginning at a point on the left side of the screen to line six miles long or surveyed the top line is surveyed on a bearing of East on a true parallel of latitude due to the shape of the earth this is a curved line the bottom line is a straight line with an initial bearing of East after one mile the straight line is one link south of the due east line after two miles four link south after six miles the bearing of the line is south 89 degrees 54 point seven minutes east a little over five minutes different and it’s 37 lengths southerly of the curved line the divergence between the two lines is dependent on the latitude of the lines the further north you go the difference has become greater but further south you go the difference has become less for resurvey is being made today you need to be aware that all lines of the PLSS except for subdivision of section lines and meridian all lines are curved lines three methods for correcting the curve correcting for the curvature of the PLSS lines are presented in the 1973 manual in sections 2 76 77 and 78 these are the solar transit method the tangent method and the secant method nowadays with calculators and computers readily available these methods are seldom used instead curvature Corrections for each traverse leg are computed which are then applied to the bearing of the traverse leg these curvature Corrections are dependent upon the dependent upon the graph of dependent upon the departure and mean geographic latitude of each course this method allows you to determine your position directly without having to offset from a tangent or secant line or using a solar attachment the PLSS like other branches within the surveying profession has many unique terms unto itself understanding the meanings of these terms is important for taking the exam and even more important for later as a practicing professional land surveyor at this time I’d like to define some of the terms which will be used later in this course and that you should be familiar with an output part is a portion of a section maybe by subdividing the section into halves and force or halves and quarters excuse me a lot is not considered an output part when dividing a section into halves and quarters by federal law area is not a consideration the surveying procedures determine the parts a resurvey will almost always reveal differences in acreages in halves or quarters of a section this differs from California state law well 1/2 is defined as one-half of the area of a whole as a professional land surveyor you will have to make the determination of whether federal or state the rules apply a standard corner is a senior corner on a standard parallel or baseline a closing corner is a corner established where a survey line intersects a previously previously fixed boundary at a point between corners the position of a closing corner is located by law at the actual point of intersection without regard to its monument in position a witness corner is a monument at survey point usually on the line of the survey and near a corner it is established only in situations where is impractical to occupy the side of a corner as an example a witness corner would be said on one of the lines leading to the true

corner position when the true corner position falls on the face of a steep cliff a patent is a document by which the United States conveys legal title to a portion of the federal federal lands the term lot is currently used in the PLSS to describe a subdivision of a section which is not described as an output part of the section but is instead designated by number a lot may be regular or irregular in shape its acreage varies from that of a normal forty acre aliquot part an example of the correct terminology to use in describing a lot is lot two of section fourteen Township four North range four East Mount Diablo Meridian the system for numbering Lots within a section is similar to that for numbering sections you start in the northeast part of the section and sequentially numbered westerly through the north quarter tier of the section then drop subtly to the next lower quarter tier of the section and proceed easily to the east boundary then drop southerly to the next quarter tier of the section and proceed westerly to the west boundary then drop again and proceed easterly through the bottom quarter tier of the second of the section in the 1800s some lots were referenced to a township instead of a section to describe Ranchos any reservations Meno surveys and other non rectangular surveys today similar parcels would be designated as tracks instead of Lots surveyors outside the BLM often refer to pls as Lots as government Lots in order to distinguish them from Lots on a subdivision map filed in a county a tract is a modern term used to describe an area at large within a Township more specifically here is a parcel of land which lies in more than one section or then that cannot be completely identified as a part of a section tracts are numbered with the next highest unused number or unused section or tract number for a township as in tract 37 of Township 4 north range for East Mount diabla Meridian a bearing tree is a corner accessory the bearing and distance to the tree are measured from the position of the monument and recorded in the field notes the bearing tree is usually blazed and inscribed with marks designating the corner position the the marks remain as long as the tree is sound eventually the tree heals over a video usually leaving an identifiable scar when necessary to secure proof of the position of a corner the overgrowth can be removed to reveal scribing removing the overgrowth inflicts severe injury on a tree and should only be done as a last resort to conclusively prove the position of a corner I have with me an example of an overgrowth removed about 1940 from a bearing tree scribed in 1867 the reverse five marks in our 1 w s8 are readily identifiable the blaze portion was about four inches into the tree a parenthetical distance is an implied survey plat measurement they are used to indicate the position of unlined amended points on a line shown on an official plat parentheses are used where the distance is not supplied by the field notes indicating that the distance was not measured on the ground most of these terms will be reinforced eyes later in this course now let’s move on to the general scheme or framework used for the PLSS in California knowledge of the scheme is essential in determining the precedence or importance of the lines and monuments of the original surveys a surveys in California were started using the instructions set forth in 1851 Oregon manual and then replaced by the 1855 manual the methods provided for the surveys in the 1855 manual different in some respects from those provided in the 1851 oregon manual the general scheme i’m going to present is that which is based on the 1855 manual under which most of the control lines in california were surveyed after presenting the entire scheme I’ll discuss the primary differences between the surveys executed under the 1851 oregon manual and those executed under the 1855 manual the PLSS surveys were started from initial points california has three initial points the Mount Diablo initial point was established in 1851 and is located about 30 miles easterly of San Francisco a San Bernardino initial point was established in 1852 and is located about 70 miles east early of Los Angeles the final California initial point the humble was established in 1853 and is located about 25 miles southerly of Eureka principal meridians were extended north and south from these initial points regular quarter section and section corners were established in Monument and alternately at intervals of forty chains and township corners at 480 chains or six miles baselines were extended east and west from the initial points standard quarter section and section corners were established in Monument and alternately at intervals of forty chains and standard township corners at intervals of 480 chains because of the shape of the earth meridian o or north-south lines converge together as they extend toward the poles this is illustrated by the graphic now

on the screen to adjust for the shortening of the east-west lines due to convergence latitudinal correction lines called standard parallels a run at specified distances northerly and southerly of the initial points this graphic shows the distance northerly and southerly of the initial points to the standard parallels as 24 miles each this is the current specification for the 1973 manual in California correction lines are every 30 miles northerly and every 24 mile southerly of the baseline oddly these distances are opposite of those specified by the 1851 organ manual and the 1855 manual both manuals require correction lines 24 miles northerly and 30 miles southerly of the baselines standard quarter section and section corners were established on standard parallels and monument alternately at intervals of 40 chains and standard township corners at 480 chains or 6 miles the principal meridian baseline and standard parallels formed the controlling lines for further further further division into townships and sections the manual of 1881 required the running a guide meridians placed at intervals of 24 miles east and west from the principal Meridian the guide meridians are extended north from a baseline or standard parallel to a closing corner on the next standard parallel to the north by 1881 however most of the primary control for the surveys in California have been established therefore guide meridians were not used in any great extent here the primary difference between the range line surveyed in most of California and guide meridians as a guide meridians are double measured the intent of the 1881 manual was to have certain that have the surveyed baselines and standard parallels and principal meridian and guide meridians form quadrangles to confine errors resulting from convergence of meridians and inaccuracies and measurements after the primary control lines were established the public lands were subdivided in the townships about 6 miles square a township is uniquely identified by number based on the position north or south of the base line and east or west of the principal meridian the highlighted Township shown is identified as township to south range to west the township exteriors were surveyed through a quadrangle successively in ranges of townships whenever practical beginning with the townships on the south an example of the order in which Township lines were supposed to be surveyed is as follows starting at the southwest corner of Township 1 north range 1 west from Meridian a boundary or Range line was surveyed from south to north on a true Meridian quarter section and section corners were established that alternately at 40 chain intervals for a distance of 480 chains where a temporary township corner was established a random a random latitudinal line or Township line was then run east to the principal meridian following north or south of the previously established northeast township corner if the errors were within acceptable limits the true township line connecting the township corners was computed permanent quarter section and section corners were then monument on the two line at forty chain intervals the excess or deficiency in measurement was placed in the westerly half mile of the Township line this procedure of surveying the range line then the random and true Township line continued northerly to the establishment of the northwest corner of Township three North range one west the final meridian the line was then run on a true Meridian establishing regular quarter section in section corners at forty chain intervals until intersecting the standard parallel or baseline where a closing corner was established this procedure was then repeated for the adjacent range of townships to the west once the exterior boundaries of a Township were established the township was normally subdivided into 36 sections of land one mile square containing 640 acres each except along the north and west boundaries where the excess and deficiency and measurement was placed heat section was given an identifying number according to the scheme shown the subdivision of a normal Township into sections was initiated on the south boundary at the previously established corner of sections 35 and 36 from this corner the section line between sections 35 and 36 is surveyed parallel to the east boundary the 1/4 section corner of sections 35 and 36 is set at 40 chains and the corner of sections 25 26 35 and 36 is established at 80 chains the section line between sections 25 and 36 is then run east on a random line to the northeast corner of section 36 on the Range Line and then run back westerly on the true line the 1/4 section corner of sections 25 and 36 has established Midway at Midway or midpoint along the line this procedure is continued northerly until section 12 is completed the section line between sections 1 & 2 is then run on a random line to the section corner on the north boundary and finally surveyed southerly on the truline 1/4 section corner of sections 1 & 2 is established at 40 chains from the corner of sections 1 to 11 with the excess or deficiency of measurement being placed in the northerly half-mile if a Township closes on a standard parallel to the north

however the section line between sections 1 & 2 is surveyed parallel to the east boundary a 1/4 section corner is established at 40 chains and a closing corner for sections 1 & 2 established at the intersection with the standard parallel the survey of the section lines then continues for the next tiers of sections to the west has just described the section lines connecting with the West boundary such as the line between sections 30 and 31 I run west on a random line and then easterly on a true line connecting the section corners the 1/4 section corners are established on the true line for two chains exactly from the east of a section corners all excess or deficiency and measurement is placed in the westerly half mile a procedure I have just described for the survey of federal lands and in townships and sections there’s a theoretical or ideal procedure in reality the lines of the of the original surveyors may not have been run in the prescribed manner the order of the surveys in California was often determined by settlement or development pressures the demand for surveys on valuable agricultural timber and mineral lands greatly influenced the progression of the surveys extremely rugged terrain then thought impossible and impractical to survey also necessitated departures from the general scheme only by acquiring and researching the pertinent field notes and plats of the original surveys can you positively determine how the original surveys were made and determine the precedents of lines for present-day resurvey California surveys on the Oregon manual between 1851 and 1855 differ from subsequent surveys in three ways first the 1/4 section corners angle and section corners established along the baselines were common to the townships both north and south of the baseline there were no closing corners on the baselines as per the 1855 and subsequent manuals second standard parallels lying south of the baseline constitute the base for the townships to the south in other words the standard corners apply only to the townships and sections south of the Sante parallel closing corners were established where the township and section lines to the north intersected the standard although this is the reverse of the present practice third for townships south of the baseline the range lines are run from north to south where standard township or section lines intersecting the animal bodies of water meander corners are established navigable bodies of water and other important rivers and lakes were meander through that through a township by the original surveyors a meander line is a traverse of the mean high-water line of the body of the water a meander line is not run to define the boundaries of a parcel its purpose is to determine the quantity of land in a parcel the body of water is the actual boundary line the original surveyors were required to monument all section and 1/4 section corners the survey is executing the eighth in the 1800s general use materials needed to the area survey for monumentation such as a large mark stone and a mound of smaller stones or a marked wooden post and a mound of earth not your group marks were made on a stone or post monuments by the original surveyors to identify the corner where possible corner accessories such as bearing trees were taken the original surveyors were also required to note all objects and features on and along the survey lines trees which were intersected by survey lines were hacked or notched with an axe twice on each side of the tree these trees are called line trees topographical features such as creeks ravines ridges canals washes and so on are noted on line objects and features were reported and described in the field notes that measure distances to key points which you should remember regarding plss surveys are first that the boundaries of the boundaries and subdivisions of the federal lands aren’t changeable after the passing a title by the United States and second that the original Township section quarter section and other monuments as physically evidence must stand as the two corners of the subdivisions which they were intended to represent and will be given controlling preference over the recorded directions and lengths of the lines as I mentioned earlier the XS are deficiency and measurement in a regular surveyed Township is placed along the north and west or north boundaries of the township the graphic now on the screen illustrates a normal planning of sections five six seven and eight the usual deficiency in area which results from convergence II of the meridians is placed in fractional areas called Lots along the west boundary the surplus or deficiency an area which results from the discrepancy in Meridiana measurements between the exterior boundaries and the sub-divisional lines is placed in faction fractional Lots along the north boundary once the public lands were surveyed and the plats created an approved a parcel land could be described with certainty section fourteen will be used to illustrate the nomenclature which is used to describe an output part or legal subdivision of a section the parcel at the top left of

the section is described as the northwest 1/4 northwest 1/4 of section 14 immediately below is the parcel described as the southwest 1/4 northwest 1/4 of section 14 and below that the pasta described as the North 1/2 Southwest 1/4 of section 14 locating aquapark descriptions such as these is often easier if read backwards for example the southwest 1/4 Northwest 1/4 would be pictured first as the Northwest 1/4 then as the southwest 1/4 of that North West 1/4 in this illustration section 14 is made fractional by a lake and – non non output parts of a section were created these two parcels adjoining the lake are described as lot 1 and lot 2 of section 14 subdivision of section corners have been given specific names if you are given a 16th section corner name or designation you should be able to quickly visualize the location of that corner in relation to the section the example shown is of the Northwest quarter of a section the northwest quarter has shown subdivided into quarter quarter or 16 sections percent a quarter of the section shown at the lower right of the screen and abbreviated se C 1/4 is normally established at the intersection of straight lines between the opposing 1/4 section corners the sixteenth controlling the subdivision of Northwest quarter the north 1/16 the West 116 the seven north 1/16 and the center west 1/16 are established either Midway or in the case of sections that had joined the north or west boundaries of a town at the proper proportional distance between the pertinent section or 1/4 section corners long line the northwest 1/16 shown in the center of the quarter section and abbreviated as northwest 1/16 is usually established at the intersection of straight lines between the opposing controlling 1/16 corners if you’re not familiar with these corner designations and their approximate location in a section you should have used sections 4 38 and 439 of the 1973 manual this concludes the background background material on the PLSS which I wanted to provide I’d now like to move on to a plss subject which are very likely to encounter on the LS exam this subject is the subdivision of sections lands were patented or conveyed to individuals from the federal government under various settlement laws such as the Homestead Act under these laws patents were issued for output parts or lots of a section private surveyors are now often called upon to determine the boundaries of a patented or these patented sectional parts in mostly the original surveys by the Geo low the only boundaries which were surveyed by the federal government were the exterior boundaries of the sections on the official pilot of the surveys though the federal government’s plan for the subdivision of section lines was protracted this was usually done by showing dashed lines on the plat these dashed lines do not contain measurements this graphic shows the protracted lines for typical plotting of sections five six seven and eight sections shown on the plat containing 640 acres such as section eight in this graphic were protracting in the quarter sections usually by dash straight lines connecting opposite 1/4 section corners for normal section such as this the boundaries of the quarter quarter sections were not protracted because such subdivisions are output parts of a section and are based on midpoint positions for the sixteenth corners sections five six and seven contain additional lines protracted on the plats to indicate the boundaries of the Lots this is typical for sections which adjoined the north or west boundaries of a township where the excess or deficiency in measurement was placed using the tractive subdivision plan shown on the original plaid and the laws and regulations of the federal government the procedure to use and subdividing a section can be determined before a section can be subdivided though the positions for the corners on the section boundaries have to be located this includes establishing the positions for the sixteenth corners if necessary once this is done the section can be subdivided the procedures to subdivide sections which I’ll now discuss are for the first survey of the subdivision of a section consider divide a section in the quarter sections the center lines are run from the established 1/4 section corners to the opposite quarter section corners this is illustrated by the protracted center lines in sections 5 6 7 & 8 the point of intersection of the center lines of the section will be the corner common to the four quarter sections here is a legal center of the section and as I mentioned earlier is called the center 1/4 of the section the position for the center one quarter section corner can easily be determined by using a bearing bearing intersection calculation to subdivide a quarter section into quarter quarter sections the center lines of the quarter section will be run straight between opposing corresponding sixteenth corners this principle does apply to the quarter sections along the north and west boundaries of the township even though it may not appear that way from

the protracted lines for example in section 7 along the line between Lots 3 & 4 s detracted this line is actually the west half of the east-west center line of the southwest quarter the southeast corner of lot 3 which is identical with the northeast corner of lot for his determined by the intersection of the certain lines of the southwest quarter the point of intersection is the legal center of the Southwest quarter and is called the southwest 1/16 section corner of section 7 in order to subdivide sections which join the north and west boundaries into quarter quarter sections parenthetical distances usually have to be determined as we defined earlier a parenthetical distance as an implied survey plat measurement has an example of why it’s necessary to be able to determine parathe to determine parenthetical distances let’s again focus on the southwest corner of section Southwest quarter of sections in order to determine the location of the north-south centerline the positions of the West 116th along the south boundary and the center west 116th along the east and west centerline have to be determined the West 116th is not at midpoint between the south quarter and the southwest corner of the section nor was the center west 116th that midpoint between the center one-quarter and the West one-quarter the fractional measurements in the last quarter mile make it necessary to determine the parenthetical distances in order to place the sixteenths at the correct proportions along the lines a parenthetical distance is not in the field notes which indicates that the distance was not measured on the ground parenthetical distances are used to determine where certain points not monument and by the original survey are to be established they may or may not be shown on a planet if shown they are usually in parentheses if not shown they are implied by the principles used to lot sections and can be calculated they are considered as part of the record because parenthetical distances were used to calculate the area visit areas of a section there are also used to protract but excuse me they are also used to protect such areas by means of proportionate measurements to determine the position of previously owned monument points to clear up any confusion about parenthetical distances let’s look at an example this section is an example of padding along the west boundary of a normally surveyed Township the section is protracted into two 160-acre aliquot parts the northeast and southeast corners of the section quarters of the section 280a core adequate parts the east one-half northwest 1/4 and the east one-half Southwest 1/4 and along the West boundary lots 1 2 3 & 4 the lot number is usually stacked above the area in acres of the lot in this example plot one contains 40 2.75 acres and lot to 42 point six five acres along the south boundary of this section normally the only distance measurement given is the overall distance in this case eighty one point two zero chains the implied measurements from east to west are forty change to the monument in south 1/4 Corner 20 change to the unmonitored west 1/16 and the remainder along the south boundary of lot four twenty-one point two zero chains the West 116th corner along the south boundary this section will be established using the proportional elements twenty and twenty-one point two zero between the South 1/4 section corner and the Southwest section corner the position of the west 1/16 on the north boundary of the section is determined in the same manner along the north boundary the applied measurement for lot one is twenty-one point four zero change the measurement along the west boundary of the section is 80 chains the West boundaries of lots one through four are implied to be equidistant or 20 chains each in a normal original survey the east battery the section is also 80 chains these boundaries the lots one through four then are also 20 chains each since each of the Meridian the lines of the lot is 20 chains an easy way to calculate the north boundary of lot four is to subtract the distance along the south boundary from the acreage forty-two point four five minus twenty-one point two zero is equal to 21 point two five chains along the north boundary of lot 4 similarly the north boundary of lot three can be computed forty two point five five minus twenty one point two five equals twenty one point three zero chains the north boundary a lot two is forty two point six five – twenty one point three zero or twenty one point three five chains as a check the north boundary of lot one is determined in the same manner forty two point seven five minus twenty one point three five matches the remainder distance of twenty one point four zero although in this case the distances could have been calculated directly by averaging the remainder distances along the north and south boundaries of the section here’s a good idea to check the areas to make sure that of the planning and ten and that there are no computational errors once the parenthetical distances have

been cut have been calculated the center west one sixteenth can be established along the east and west center line the center west one sixteenth will be established a proportion between the center 1/4 and 1/4 corner on the west boundary using the proportional elements twenty and twenty-one point three zero now let’s move on to a more difficult section this isn’t normally applied at section six being allotted against the North and West boundaries although it looks more complicated the analysis and methods used to calculate the parenthetical distances are the same all excess or deficiency measurement is placed to the north on the meridian on the line or to the west on the latitudinal line let’s look at each of the boundaries of the section and determine the implied measurements along the South boundary the applied measurements from east to west are forty twenty and eighteen point four zero chains along the west boundary the eighty chains implies that the West boundaries of lots four five six and seven are 20 chains each along the East boundary of the section implied measurements from south to north are forty twenty and nineteen point oh six chains and along the north parent of the section the implied measurements for lots one two and three are twenty chains with the deficiency a measurement of 19.00 chains being placed along the north boundary of lot four from this analysis you can determine that the parenthetical distances along the east and west boundaries of lots five six and seven are twenty chains each also you can determine that the parenthetical distances along the North and South bounders of lots one two and three are twenty chains each therefore to calculate the remaining parenthetical distances of the lots the same method used in the previous example will work the north bound is a lot seven six and five can be determined by subtracting the distance from the acreage for the north boundary of Lot seven thirty six point nine five minus eighteen point four zero equals eighteen point five five chains the calculation would continue northward to the north boundary of lot five which would equal eighteen point eight five chains then you would determine the West boundaries the lots one two and three in a similar manner for the west boundary of lot one take the acreage for lot 1 of thirty eight point three five and subtract the distance of nineteen point O six along the east boundary of lot one this works out to be nineteen point two nine chains similarly for the west boundary of lot two 38.82 minus suggest calculated nineteen point two nine equals nineteen point five three chains and finally for the West boundary of Lot three thirty nine point two nine minus nineteen point five three equals nineteen point seven six chains as a check you should mean the opposing boundaries of lot four and then multiply them times each other to get the acreage of lot four in this case the North and South boundaries of lot for our 19.00 and eighteen point eight five change respectively which means eighteen point nine to five chains the east and west boundaries of lot for lot for our 20 and nineteen point seven six chains which means in nineteen point eight eight chains then multiplying the means of eighteen point nine to five and nineteen point eight eight gives you three hundred seventy six point two square chains or thirty seven point six two acres piss checks within a hundredth of the plaited acreage which is acceptable when originally calculated the mean of the north-south north and south boundaries of lot four were probably were probably rounded from eighteen point nine twenty five to eighteen point nine three to make the multiplication easier using eighteen point nine three for the check the acreage actually works out to thirty seven point six three which is the same as shown on the graphic these example the examples provide you with the basics necessary to analyze and determine parenthetical distances for most most normally surveyed sections adjoining the north and west boundaries of a township three important rules to remember about parenthetical distances are number one they are considered as part of the official plat record number two areas shown on the plat or based on parenthetical measurements and number three they must be used to determine the record patent boundaries now let’s move on to the subdivision of a fractional section a section is considered fractional if the regular boundaries are not completed because of an intervening body of water a senior boundary or an uncompleted survey a section is fractional if it cannot be completed because of a private land grant boundary such as one of the many ranches in California or an Indian Reservation boundary as shown here the north and east boundaries of section four were terminated at their intersection with a senior Indian reservation boundary closing corns were established at the intersection points as you can see there’s not a North 1/4 section corner to determine the direction of the north-south centerline fractional sections may be created against the meandered body of water as in this example along the Smith River the north and west 1/4 section corners of section 32 were not said

fractional sections could also result from uncompleted surveys in this example the section lines of sections 8 & 9 could not be completed most likely due to unsurvivable terrain on the survey Platts acreages were returned for certain output parts of the section adjoining surveyed lines as an example the southwest quarter of section 9 pulling 160 acres was returned to surveyed the north and east boundaries were not surveyed and the north east south east and north west quarters are not considered surveyed since the north and west 1/4 section corners were not established the section is shown here would be considered fractional sections which are not in alignment on opposite sides of meandering rivers our fractional and for a final example sections which border large bodies of water are considered fractional by law where opposite quarter section corners have not been fixed the subdivision of sections will be run from the established corners north south east or west to the boundary or body of water that caused the opposite fractional exterior the law presumes section lines are north south east or west to carry out the spirit of the law mean courses for the subdivision of section lines must be adopted or parallel lines run as conditions may require now shown are two situations where parallel courses would be used to survey the center lines in a situation on the left of the screen the section was made fractional and a normal north boundary does not exist therefore the east-west hemline of the section or the center lines of the quarter sections will be surveyed parallel to the south boundary of the section in the situation on the right of the screen where the section is partially unsurveyed and the east or and north boundaries not yet established parallelism would be used to determine the courses of the center lines mean courses are necessary to subdivide fractional sections in the two situations now shown both situations are similar in the one of the 1/4 section corners is non-existing but both portions of the corresponding section lines exist in the section shown on the left of the screen the east-west center line would be surveyed on an on the mean bearing of the north-south center or north and south boundaries of the section if the section shown on the right in the section shown on the right the north-south Stern line will be surveyed on the mean bearing of the East and West boundaries of the section where two adjacent quarter section corners are non-existent the portions of all the exterior boundaries of the section exist again mean courses will be adopted thus far we’ve identified situations where mean courses would be adopted to subdivide a section there are three different ways to calculate a mean course conditions found in the fractional section will determine the method used to determine the bearing of the main course first is the arithmetic mean the arithmetic mean is used where opposite section lines are relatively equal in length as shown in this example the east and west section lines are about equal in length therefore the center line is surveyed on an ear on the arithmetic mean of the bearing of the east and west boundaries of the section the second type of mean course is the weighted mean the weighted mean is used where opposite section lines differ greatly in length has Illustrated here the weighted mean bearing to survey the center line is developed based on the ratio of the lengths of the two section lines the third type of mean course is the weighted mean for a nun centered centreline situation an example where this might have where this may occur is along the west boundary of a Township as you can see from this example the north and south centerline of the section is not since we’re located in this case a mean course would be developed based on the ratio of the distances from the east and west section lines to the uncentered center lines now let’s look at an actual cut right at at actual calculations necessary to determine the mean course is to run in these three different types of situations the arithmetic mean will be used in this fractional section situation since the East and West boundaries of the section are of about equal lengths and the centre line is centrally located in the section first determine the difference between the bearings of the West boundary and the bearing of the east which is 58 minutes next divide the differences by 2 the result is 29 minutes which is the amount to be subtracted from the bearing of the West boundary as shown here the arithmetic mean bearing to survey the north-south centerline is sal’s zero degrees Oh nine minutes West the 29 minutes could also be added to the bearing of the East boundary which would give the same result the survey of the north-south centerline would start at the known position of the North one-quarter corner and run south zero degrees Oh nine minutes west to intersect the south boundary of the fractional section the weighted mean would be used to determine the east-west center line of this section since the north and southbound is a section or significantly different in length the easiest way to determine the weighted mean bearing for the east-west center line is to first break the bearings and distances of each line into latitudes and departures the latitude of the North line plus one point four seven

three five is then added to the latitude of the South line plus zero point one three six seven to give a total attitude of plus one point six 102 similarly the departures are added together to give a psalm of plus ninety three point three six seven eight the total latitude and departure is then converted to polar coordinates which yields a bearing of North 89 degrees zero zero minutes and 43 seconds east this is the way to mean bearing to use for the survey of the east-west center line a survey of the east-west center line would start at the known position of the West one quarter section corner and run on the weighted mean bearing to intersect the East boundary the fractional section a way to mean bearing four for a nun center line a way to mean bearing for an uncentered centerline situation is necessary to determine the bearing for the north and south centerline of this section basically the mean bearing will be determined by by proportion by the proportion of the lengths of the segments of the south boundary the first step is to determine the length and departure of the east and west segments of the south boundary and add them together for a total departure of the line in this case the departures are given is forty point two three and seven point two one which tall a forty seven point four four chains next determined the difference in minutes between the east and west boundaries which is 66 minutes a proportion is then set up as follows the partial departure of 7.21 is divided by the total departure of 47 point 4 4 to give a proportion factor which is labeled as K on the graphic the proportion factors in multiplied by the difference in bearing of 66 minutes which yields a result of 10 minutes the 10 minutes is then subtracted from the bearing of the West boundary which gives a weighted mean course for the north-south line of north steel degrees Oh two minutes east as a check the partial departure of 40 point 2 3 is divided by the total departure of 47 point four four and multiplied times the difference in bearing of 66 minutes which will yield a result of 56 minutes the 56 minutes isn’t subtracted from the bearing of the East boundary to give the same way to give the same way to mean of north zero degrees Oh two minutes east the survey of the north-south centerline would start then start at the South quarter corner of the section and run north zero degrees Oh two minutes east on the weighted mean bearing to intersection with the boundary which made the section fractional in the preceding cases involving fractional sections the recommended procedures for subdividing fractional sections have been demonstrated as a word of caution when subdividing a fractional section strong consideration must be given to any existing collateral evidence which was established in good faith acceptable collateral evidence would preempt any of the recommended procedures to conclude this discussion on subdivision of sections I’d like to remind you all to always analyze the BLM’s yellow plots of a section prior to subdividing only by doing so can you ensure that you’ve adopted the correct procedures to subdivide a section at this point we’re about midway through the through u12 of the PLSS course this is a good place for you to stop and review the material discussed so far so let’s take a break welcome to the second half of unit 12 of the Caltrans LS lsit video training course during the second half of this course will be discussing the principles of the dependent resurvey restoration of lost corners and going over several questions from previous LS exams now let’s start by defining five terms which will need to be understood for subsequent discussions there is much confusion in the profession about these definitions to be successful on the exams you must understand them although they’re sometimes used as if they were interchangeable the term corner and monument are not synonymous a corner may be monumental but a monument may not be a corner a corner is a point determined by the surveying process a monument is the object or physical structure that marks the corner point the corners of the PLSS are those points that determine the boundaries of the various subdivisions represented on the plats examples are the township corner the section corner the 1/4 section corner and a subdivision of section corner palaces corners may or may not be monument ‘add monuments of the PLSS have included mark trees mark stones mark wooden stakes and metal post monuments in use today accessories such as bearing trees are aids in identifying the corner position in their body significance the accessories are a part of a corner monument recovered original monuments are corners of the PLSS monument subsequently set during resurvey zorse uh division of sections surveys may or may not be plss corners subsequently set monuments whose positions were established using proper procedures and where the original evidence was not overlooked all corners of the PLSS if evidence of the original survey monument was overlooked by the resurvey the resurvey monument would not be the

corner in this latter case the resurvey monument is just a monument because the monument said subsequent to the original survey may not be a PLSS corner is extremely important to verify the acceptability of a monument as appeals at PLSS corner never use a monument based solely on another surveyor statement that it is a corner make that determination for yourself examine the position and history of a monument to the extent possible make sure evidence of the original survey was not overlooked a professional surveyor should be skeptical of a monument until it can be determined that the monument is acceptable as the corner an existing corner is one whose position can be identified by verifying the evidence of the monument or its accessories by reference to the description attica that is contained in the field notes or where the point can be located by an acceptable supplemental survey record some physical evidence or testimony an obliterated corner is one where no traces of the monument or its accessories remain but whose location has been perpetuated or may be recovered beyond reasonable doubt by the acts and testimony of interested landowners competent surveyors or other qualified local authorities or witnesses or by some acceptable record evidence a lost corner is a point of survey whose position cannot be determined the unreasonable doubt either from traces of the original marks or from acceptable evidence or testimony that bears upon the original position and whose location can be restored only by reference to one or more interdependent corners the terms justifying are commonly used in relation to the PLSS when a corner monument existing corner obliterated corner or lost corners referred to you should immediately know what is meant by the term now let’s discuss resurvey the subject of resurvey is found in Chapter six of the 1973 manual for the ls exam sections 1 through 32 of this chapter should be studied the discussion on resurvey is which I’m going to present is based on this chapter of the manual there are two types of resurface the dependent and the independent an independent research a is a new survey which supersedes the prior official survey insofar as the remaining public lands are concerned patent and lands are not affected as to location the authority to make independent resurface of the federal lands whereas only with the Bureau of Land Management since an independent research a is solely the function of the BLM I will not discuss it now you should know that in that independent research exists and look for them when you are researching a project a deep entry survey is defined in the 1973 manual at section 6-4 the section states that a dependent resurvey is a retracement and reattachment of the lines of the original survey in their true original positions according to the best available evidence of the position of the original corner has a professional license land surveyor any job you do involving the PLSS will invariably involve depend leery surveying section or Township lines for this reason it is very important to understand where the dependent resurvey is and what it is not a dependent resurvey is first two retracement to identify original corners and other acceptable points of control second it restores lost corners by proportionate measurement in accordance with the record of the original survey the purpose of a dependent resurvey is not to correct the original survey by determining where a new or exact running of the line would locate a particular corner it is instead used to determine where the corner was established by the original survey a popular executed dependent resurvey protects existing rights acquired under the original survey in the matter of location on the Earth’s surface an important point to remember is that the boundaries of sections based on an original survey are identical to the boundaries of those same sections based on a properly executed dependent resurvey the guidance given by the courts and retracing lines of previous surveys is to follow in the footsteps of the original surveyor to be able to follow in the footsteps through cars requires knowledge of the procedures and instruments which the original surveyor used to make the surveys as I mentioned in the first portion of this course some of this knowledge can be gained from the manual and forest as of the date of the survey the courts have attached major importance to evidence relating to the position of the original corner the location of the original corners are given much more weight than record bearings and distances of the lines existing corner exist in original corners are fixed in position and are unchangeable as a part of the retracement an exhaustive search must be made for all existent evidence of the pls amount monuments and their accessories the evidence recovery can be expected to range from that which is inconclusive today which is unquestionable the need for cooperative evidence is therefore in direct proportion to the uncertainty of the evidence the evidence should agree with the record field notes of the survey with allowance for natural

changes topographic calls made by the original surveyor should be located during the retracement topographic calls are often very useful in locating original corners they also may help prove or disprove questionable corner evidence for a subject to only one interpretation topographic calls may fix the position of a missing corner beyond a reasonable doubt to fix the position of a missing corner the topographic call should have only one reasonable interpretation it should result in a definite location utley okis within a small area and it should not be contradicted by other topographic calls or by evidence of a higher class even questionable evidence of the original corner or its accessories substance substantiated by topographic calls provides a much more defendable corner position than from topographic calls alone but questionable topo graphic calls are the only indication of a corner position he is ordinarily better to establish the position by proportionate measurement after we tracing the lines of an original survey and identifying existent original controlling corners lost corners are then reestablished the restoration of lost or obliterated corners is discussed in chapter 5 of the 1973 manual for the ALS exam is important at this chapter be studied again my discussion on the subject for restoration of lost corners is based on this chapter in the 1973 manual on the topic of reestablishing lost corners I also highly recommend this informative pamphlet of 40 pages it’s titled restoration of lost or obliterated corners and subdivision of sections a guide for surveyors it’s issued by the BLM as a supplement to the manual of survey instructions I recommend that it be included in your Els exam library the pamphlet discusses the fundamental practices of the two subjects mentioned in the title from the viewpoint of the BLM the camp the pamphlet can be obtained from the US Government Printing Office whose address is listed in the workbook for the Ellis exam and for the professional practicing surveyor involved in resources of the PLSS it is important to know how the restoration procedures are computed even more important though the professional surveyor must know when the use of a certain restoration procedure is appropriate fernette and analogy of the situation let’s look at the medical medical profession a doctor is highly educated to know what medicines are available and how they work more importantly though the doctor must know when a particular medicines use is necessary and warranted again I want to stress that you should not only learn how to do the calculations for a restoration procedure but learn in what situations the restoration procedure is appropriate the rules for the restoration of lost corners should not be applied until all original and collateral evidence has been developed where these means have been exhausted the surveyor will turn the proportionate measurement this method of reestablishment harmonizes surveying practice with legal and equitable considerations proportionate measurement is always employed to reestablish the position of a lost corner unless how way by conclusive evidence of the original survey a proportion of measurement is one that gives equal relative weight to all parts of the line the excess or deficiency between two existing corners is distributed in proportion to the record measurements of the line in reestablishing lost corners the PLSS consideration must be given to the precedents for importance of the lines the type of proportionate measurement to be employed is dependent on the procedures used to establish the original survey as I stressed in the first half of this video is extremely important to acquire and analyze the original survey records to determine how the original survey was established in general bas corners on standard parallels are given precedents in the order of reestablishment over lost corners on other Township lines lost Township corners are given precedence over section corners and lost section corners re-established before lost one quarter section corners the recommends of record measurements to use in any proportioning are from the latest acceptable survey for example if the original survey of a Township was made in 1875 and subsequent researchers were made in 1917 1967 the net the measurements from the 1967 resurvey would ordinarily be used 1967 measurements are of a higher accuracy than the 1875 and 1917 measurements and are more likely to reestablish the last corner in his true position record measurements to use in proportioning can be made up of a combination of surveys for example the lines to the south and east of a law section corner may have been surveyed in 1867 and the lines of north and west in 1885 in this instance both records would be used for the proportional elements the two most commonly used forms of proportionate measurement are the single and double proportion typically a double proportion is employed to reestablish the lost corner of four townships or a lost corner of four sections the double proportion is made between the nearest identified corners to the north and

south and to the east and west of the lost corner in the graphic shown the identified controlling corners are at a B C and D the township corner at X has been determined to be lost the position in latitude labelled e to reestablish the lost corner is determined by proportion between corners a and B the position in departure labelled F to reestablish the lost corner is determined by proportion between corner C and D the reestablished position x is located at the latitude and departure determined from the double proportion in a double proportion a lost corners reestablished on the basis of measurement only disregarding the record directions the manual in section 5 – 25 States lengths of proportion lines are comparable only when reduced to their Cardinal equivalents what this means is that the latitudes of the record meridian or record meridian on measurements are used and the departures of the record latitudinal measurements this is an example of a latitudinal line with a record measurement of north 86 degrees east 80 point o 7 chains for a double proportion the departure of the line is used as a record proportional element in this case the departures used is seventy nine point eight seven five chains this is an example of a Meridian aligned with vector measurements of north two degrees eighty point zero zero for a double proportion the latitude of the line is used as the record proportional element in this case the departure to use is seventy nine point nine five worn chains the lengths of the record lines are broken into latitudes and departures so that lines with bearings varying greatly from cardinal directions are not given excess proportional furnishes where the record lines are all very close to cardinal directions it may not make much difference whether you use the latitude or departure of the line however using the latitude and departures is the is the technically correct procedure to use and where other than cardinal directions cardinal bearings exist will make some difference also if you don’t use the latitudes and departures for the record lines on the last exam question you should lose points for an incorrect procedure let’s look at an actual example of a double proportion and work through the numbers the record measurements shown are from an 1880 survey the diamonds are the existent controlling corners with the circle being the last section corner to be reestablished the first step in our double proportion is to determine the latitudes of the record Meridian on lines and the departures of the record latitudinal lines the latitude and departure show’em will be used to form the record proportional elements the coordinates shown at each of the controlling corners are the coordinates from the current retracement of the lines for a Meridian aligned a proportion is set up as shown the partial record latitude is to the total record latitude as to the partial retracement latitude L is 2 the total retracement latitude using algebraic procedures the formula can be manipulated to determine L directly similarly the departure can be determined the northern coordinate to restore the last corner is determined as follows the partial latitude L is first determined by dividing the partial record distance latitude partial record latitude excuse me of 40.00 chains by the total record latitude of forty plus forty point one nine five chains or eighty point one nine five chains the result is multiplied by the current retracement northing between the radiomics in corners which is 80 point zero zero change this provides the latitude north of a subtly controlling corner to restore the lost corner this latitude is then added to the northern coordinate of the southerly controlling corner which is zero in this case to give the northern coordinate of the wrist average corner which is thirty nine point nine oh three the eastern coordinate to restore the lost corner is then determined in a similar manner as shown they calculate a partial departure of forty point one two one chains is added to the easting coordinate of the westerly controlling corner in this case zero to give the eastern coordinate of the reestablished corner which is forty point one to one the corpus to reestablish the last section corner are thirty-nine point 903 chains north and forty point one to one chains east in this case these coordinates can then be inversed with the controlling corners to give the berries of the reestablish lines in a case where controlling line extends beyond another lost section corner the additional law section corner would also have to be reestablished before you could inverse to get the bearing of the section line that’s an example say the nearest controlling corner to the east of the showing reestablish corner have been two miles or to section corners away instead of one the additional intermediate section corner would also have to be reestablished by double proportion before the bearing of the section line

between them can be determined a double proportion to determine two or more lost section corner positions is made using essentially the same techniques as discussed earlier essentially a double proportion is to single portions one in the north-south direction to determine the latitude of the position to reestablish a corner and another in an east-west direction to determine the departure of the position to reestablish a corner now let’s look at an example of a single proportion a single proportion is used to determine one or more positions on a line with one continuous record bearing in this example the diamond show the controlling section corners and the last one quarter section corner of sections 3 and 10 is shown as a circle the record measurements are north 88 degrees east 80 point 1 0 chains the current retracement measurements are north 87 degrees east 80 point five seven chains in a single proportion is not necessary to break the record measurements into latitudes or departures the record and measure distances between the controlling monuments are what’s important and they are directly comparable the single proportion is set up similarly to that of the double proportion the partial record distance of forty point zero five chains is divided by the total record distance of 80 point one zero chains and multiplied by the total measured length of 80 point five 17 chains the result is forty point two eight five chains which is a distance from the section corners section corners to the re-establish position for the 1/4 section corner sum Township boundaries were not established on one continuous bearing these are termed irregular exteriors sean is an example of such a situation the south boundary of the township along sections 34 and 35 was surveyed in 1863 the record bearing of the lines is West a completion survey of the South boundary was made in 1879 using a random and true line the record bearing of the South boundary of section 33 is north 88 degrees 14 minutes west false corners along this Township line would be reestablished using a modified form of single proportionate measurement in order to restore one or more lost corners on such irregular exteriors a retracement is made between the nearest acceptable corners to the east or west of the lost positions the retracement determines the direction and length of the closing distance of the measurements of the retracement verses the measurements of the record in a latitudinal line such as this the position in easting is determined by using an ordinary single proportion of the record and retracement departures the position in northern is determined using the differences in latitude of the record and retrace measurements the difference in latitude is distributed to each line between controlling corners in proportion to the length of each course on meridian o irregular boundaries the position in northern and eastern to reestablish the lost corner would be determined in reverse of those for the latitudinal irregular boundaries this modified singing proportion is commonly called an irregular boundary adjustment it is also applicable to a section line or a Township line she ought to be shown to be irregular by a previous retracement this discussion on the irregular boundaries is intended to make you aware that they exist hopefully if an irregular boundary situation is encountered you will be able to identify it and realize that a modified form of single proportion is required I haven’t used any numbers for a step-by-step irregular boundary problem solution so to clear up any confusion which may exist problem 4 in the workbook for this course involves an irregular boundary the solution for the irregular boundaries worked out step by step by line has not been surveyed in one direction from a lost Township or section corner the record distance will be used to the nearest identified corner in the opposite direction in the example shown the sections to the north have not been surveyed the position in northern of a lost corner is determined by the cardinal equivalent of the record distance to the controlling corner to the south for instance if the 1/4 section corner of sections 35 and 36 is the control to the south and the record measurements are south 40.00 chains then the last corner will be reestablished at 40.00 chains in latitude north of the 1/4 section corner the position in the east thing is determined by single proportioning the record departures between the nearest controlling corners to the east and west of the lost corner notice that in this case it is again necessary to use cardinal equivalents of the record east-west measurements where last corner was established from two directions only the record measurements to the nearest existing corners on the two surveyed lines will control the position of the reestablishment shown as an example where the lines to the north and east of the northeast corner of section 10 were not surveyed the northeast corner of section 10 is determined to be lost the position and latitude to reestablish the lost corner is the cardinal equivalent of the record line or lines from the nearest controlling corner to the south the

position in easting to reestablish the lost corner is the cardinal equivalent from the nearest controlling corner to the west where a lost corner was established from one direction only it should be restored at the record bearing and distance from the nearest controlling corner in the example shown the East one-quarter section corner of section three is lost it was established at the terminus of the section line surveyed from the south if the original southeast corner of section three is recovered then the lost one quarter section corner will be re-established at record bearing and distance from the southeast corner of section three this is commonly called reestablishment by one point control the applicable section of the 1973 manual is five – forty five if sufficient lines of the record survey have been retraced to conclude that a consistent difference exists between the record measurements and the current retracement measurements then an index correction should be applied to the record measurement used in reestablishing the corner this is another example of where a line has been terminated with measurement in one direction only if lost in this situation the meander corns will ordinarily be restored by record bearing and distance from the nearest controlling corner again an index correction for average error if applicable should be applied where lost man the corners were originally established on a line projected across a manual block mandible body of water it will ordinarily be relocated by single proportionate measurement in both situations involving meander corners though under favorable conditions it lost me in the corner may be restored by treating the shoreline as an identifiable natural feature in the event of extensive obliteration of the original corners within the locality of the lost meander corner this method may be preferable to one obtained by record bearing a distance or proportionate measurement a lost corner a lost closing corner is reestablished on the line closed upon had single proportionate distance between the nearest acceptable corners to the right and left shown as an example of a lost closing corner the East boundary of section nine was originally closed on the Rancho boundary the position of the closing corner is reestablished by a single proportionate measurement between miles five and five and a half on the Rancho boundary where monument set for a closing corner are recovered off the line closed upon they determine the direction of the closing line but do not determine the terminus of the line the correct position for the terminus of the line is at the intersection of the closing line with the line closed upon closing corners are examples in the PLSS of monumental which are not necessarily the corner on this graphic recovered monuments are shown with diamonds and triangles on the west boundary of section three the closing corner monument is recovered north of the line closed upon the true point for the closing corner is located on on the line between the recover and closing corner Monument and the West one-quarter corner of section three where it intersects the North line of the section the North half of the west of a section line is section three terminates at the true point for the closing corner on the east boundary of section three the closing corner monument is recovered to the south of line closed upon the North half of the Easterday section line of section three actually extends from the East one-quarter corner of section three through the recovered closing corner monument to its intersection with the North line of the section the true point for the closing corner is at this position any new monuments for the closing corners will be placed at the point of intersection at the true point of intersection the recovered off line monuments should then be marked a.m. for a mini monument when off line original closing corner monument is recovered the recovered original position is used in proportioning to reestablish the loss corners or two proportions sixteenth section or lock corners on the closing section line let’s look at an example of this shown is the original record of the north half of a typical closing section on a standard parallel the parenthetical distances to establish the North 116th section corner are from the one-quarter corner 20 and 18 chains a resurvey made to locate the position of north 116th section corner reveals that the original closing corner monument is actually 37 chains north of the recovered 1/4 corner and 18 changed north of the standard parallel the distance from the one-quarter corner to the North 116th corner is determined by proportioning between the recovered 1/4 corner and the recovered original closing corner Monument the partial parenthetical distance of 20.00 chains is divided by the total of the parenthetical distances which is 38 point 0 0 chains and the result multiplied by the retracement distance between recovered monuments of 37 of 37 chains the proportionate distance from the one-quarter corner to place to north 116th corner then is nineteen point four seven four chains this would place at north of the standard parallel as shown by the retracement distance to the standard parallel of 19.00 chains this resurvey reveals that lots one and four shown on the preceding graphic and the

north 116th do not exist a section line actually terminates at the standard parallel this is a dramatic example of how the recovered original closing corner is used to position a 1/16 section corner enclosing sections the practice and older surveys was not to Monument 1/4 section corners between the closing section corners in such cases the 1/4 and 1/16 section corners of the closing section along the line closed upon will ordinarily be established by proportionate measurement based upon the parenthetical distances the areas of the lot should confirm the parenthetical distances in the example shown section 5 closes on a standard parallel the 1/4 section corner section 5 only between the closing section corners was not monumental surveys this position is shown as a half circle on the graphic if hired by a client to determine the boundaries of lot 3 section 5 you will need to determine the positions of the 1/4 and west 1/16 section corners of section 5 only on the standard parallel these corners will be established using single proportionate measurement between the two points for the closing corner of closing corners closing section corners of section 5 the first step then is to determine the true positions of the closing corners the true positions are as I previously discussed at the intersection of the closing section line with the standard parallel in a normally surveyed section 5 the parenthetical distances along the north boundary of Lots 1 through 4 are all 20.00 chains since the north boundaries of the lots are all 20.00 chains a single proportion to determine the position of the 1/4 corner would place it at midpoint therefore the 1/4 section corner will be established on the standard parallel at midpoint apart in departure between the two points for the closing section corners the West 116 corner of section 5 only will be established similarly on the standard parallel at midpoint between the closing section corner to the west and the just determined 1/4 corner of section 5 only the section can then be subdivided to determine the remaining boundaries a lot 3 if this example have been a section 6 instead of section 5 then the 1/4 corner 1/4 section corner of section 6 only most likely would not have been at midpoint and departure between the closing section corners this is because of the fractional measurement in the town in a township being placed against the west boundary the parenthetical distances along the north bound of Lots 1 through 4 would meet would need to be determined and the positions of the 1/4 and 1/16 section corners of section 6 only established in the right proportion between the closing corners and on the standard parallel now let’s discuss situations where a recovered goodness Corner is used as a control – as used as control to establish a corner or to reestablish a corner the first step is to closely analyze the platen feel note records of the witness corner from this analysis make a determination as to whether the witnessed corner was originally established on the line of the survey or as an offline witness corner shown is mean as is an example of a recovered witness corner which is was originally established on a section line a section corner to the west is established by double proportionate measurement if no complications arise using the recovered witness corner as a controlling corner in this example a witness corner not originally established on the line of the survey is recovered in this instance the true point for the section corner would be established at record bearing and distance from the recovered witness corner a definitely identifiable line tree is a monument of the original survey it is used as a control point in the reestablishment lost corners by the appropriate method of proportionate measurement to be acceptable a recovered line tree must be positively identifiable it also must have been on the true line of the original survey on latitudinal section lines it was not uncommon for line trees to have been established on the random line instead of the true line and so recorded in the field notes on the random line again the record field notes must be analyzed in the example shown a positively identifiable line tree is recovered south of a lost Section corner this line trait is used as at the control corner to the south for the re-establishment of a loss of the last section corner by double proportionate measurement the line tree becomes an angle point in the section line in the graphic now on the screen a positively identifiable line tree is recovered south of a loss X 1/4 section corner the line tree is used as the control to the south to reestablish the loss 1/4 section corner by single proportionate measurement again the line tree becomes an angle point in the section line on many Township lines and section lines two sets of corners have been established one set of corners applies to the township to the north and once that once that applies to the township

to the south which corners control depends on how the line was surveyed there are three common situations the first situation as shown here is where a single set of cornice was established in the survey of a line Colten corners were later established for the sections on one side of the line the corners first established are the senior corners and control both the alignment and any proportional measurements along the line a standard parallel is an example of this first situation the standing corners are the senior corners of the line the second situation is where two sets of corners were established by measurement along the line in a single survey both sets of corners would have equal status for both alignment and any proportional measurements along the lines this situation is not common in the PLSS an example of how this type of situation occurs is on the original survey of a Township line were number one the surveys of the sections to north and south are to be initiated from the Township line and number two because of existing conditions the section corners are to be offset the third situations where a set of corners was established for one side of the line during the course of a survey and a second set of corners established for the other side during a later resurvey the corners established by the first survey are considered senior and control the direction of the line if both sets of monuments are both sets of monuments along the line are recovered a junior corner lying off line is treated in the same manner as a closing corner insofar as alignment of the subject line is concerned concerned since the junior corners were established during a resurvey of the line it can be used for control to determine the Cardinal equivalent in reestablishing a lost corner along the line by proportionate measurement the lost corner is then we established at the proportional Cardinal equivalent and on the line controlled by the senior corners this concludes the discussions on dependent reserve aids and restoration on lost corners in order to demonstrate the principles discussed in this video I selected a few problems from past LS exams let’s take a look at the first one problem a5 of the 1991 California LS exam was worth 36 points shown is a depiction of the diagram provided in the exam for the problem the diagram is titled plat approved April 3rd 1893 the legend which is not shown states that the filled in circles are found original government monuments the X’s are positions which were searched for but not found the legend further states that all distances and bearings shown our record the problem statement says you have been commissioned to serve a fractional section aid Township for South Range six west as shown on the official plat which was approved on April 3rd 1893 your client has requested that all corners be monument in the first problem requirement is to identify the method and the positions and or monuments you would hold for control to establish six listed corners the first corner listed to be determined is the Southwest for a section corner the first thing to look for in determining the correct procedure to use is whether all four section lines into corner had been surveyed in this case they have therefore the correct procedure to use in reestablishing law section corner is double proportionate measurement the controlling corners to use for the double proportion are the one-quarter corners to the north east south and west of the law Southwest southwesterly corner of Section eight these corners of the nearest recovered corners in all four directions from the lost position the second corner to be determined is the north west of the corner of section 8 from the plat you can see that section eight is made fractional because it closes on a senior Rancho boundary line thus the northwest corner of section 8 is a closing corner which in this case is lost the closing corner would be reestablished by single proportioning along the Rancho line the controlling corners for the single proportion are the Rancho corners shown to the southeast and northwest of the lost position the third corner to be determined is the closing subdivision a section corner of the north-south centerline of the section to clarify to clarify this position on the graphic it’s the intersection of the – north-south center line and the Rancho boundary located just below the hm Rancho to establish this corner the north-south center line of the section has to be surveyed the first thing you should notice is that the section is fractional and that the north one-quarter corner of the section does not exist this indicates that a mean bearing is to be used to survey the north-south centerline but what type of mean bearing post at the centerline is centrally located within the section about midway between the East and West Center LA or the West lines of the section also notice that the east and west lines of the section of about equal length as we discussed earlier in the

video a video and arithmetic mean bearing is the appropriate type to use the mean bearing of the north-south centerline would then be surveyed from the South one-quarter corner to intersection with a Rancho boundary the intersection point is the closing subdivision of section corner the fourth corner to be determined is the northeast corner of the section since that section is fashioned along the north boundary this corner is a closing corner has shown in the graphic the original closing corner monument was recovered north of the ranch align the intersection of the Rancho boundary and the line between the southeast section corner and the recovered closing corner hits a true point for the closing corner the fifth corner to be determined is the east 1/4 corner of section 8 this position is shown to be lost the east 1/4 corner is reestablished by single apportioning between the southeast section corner and the recovered original closing corner monument remember recovered original closing corners are used for proportioning along the closing section line the 6th and last corner the problem asked you to determine is a center 1/4 section corner of section 8 this position is at the intersection of north-south and east-west and aligns the east-west center line is a straight line between the East and West 1/4 corners of the section the north-south centerline is run from the south 1/4 Corner northerly on the arithmetic mean bearing of the east and west lines of the section the second problem requirement is to cite the governing reference that verifies the method of establishing the corners the site is either the manual of survey instructions or the manual supplement the restoration of lost and obliterated corners and subdivision of sections pamphlet the third and final problem requirement is to calculate the coordinates for the southwest of the corner of section 8 and show all work a double proportion is the procedure to use here as determined in the first problem requirement the controlling corners for the double proportion are the 1/4 corners to the north east south and west the coordinates shown on these points are the current retracement coordinates the first step in the dough proportion process is to break down the record bearings and distances into their appropriate Cardinal equivalents the record bearings aligns to the east south and west our Cardinal so the actual distances is the departure of those lines the line to the north is on a bearing of North steel degrees 0 1 minutes west however the Cardinal equivalent of that line is 39.99 for chains the cognitive equivalent of 39.99 4 is to be used in a north-south portion of the double-double proportion instead of the distance of 40 chains let’s step through the determination of the eastern coordinate as out of the southwest corner one way to determine a sting coordinate is as follows first take the parcel departure of the westerly line which is 40 chains and divided by the total departure of the latitudinal line which is 80 chains the result is 1/2 which is the record east-west proportional factor the difference in retracement eastings of the controlling latitude latitudinal corners which is seven thousand six hundred sixty nine point seven six feet minus two thousand three hundred sixty point zero zero feet equals five thousand three hundred nine point seven six feet they’re then multiplied by the record proportional factor this yields a result of two thousand six hundred fifty four point eight eight feet of proportional departure which in this case is then added to the easting of the westerly one-quarter corner the result is in eastern coordinate of five thousand zero one four point eight eight feet for the southwest corner as you probably noticed it’s okay to use chains for figuring the record proportional factor and feet for measured distances the northern coordinate is in is determined in the north-south proportion in a similar manner to that just described for the eastern coordinate remember to use the cardinal equivalent of 39.99 for chains for the line to the north though instead of the forty chain distance now let’s discuss another problem problem a-one from the nineteen ninety california exam was worth twenty seven points shown is a portion of an 1860 plan the distances are in chains and the basis of bearing is a solar observation the problem statement is that rancho leonardo is shown in part on the plat dated 1860 the ranch will follow sectional lines end of statement since the ranch will follow sectional lines we can assume in this problem that the rancher lines do not have any seniority over any of the other sectional lines along the screen the rancher lines are highlighted the rancher lines will be determining are denoted as a b and c here is a portion of the south boundary of the section b is the north and south center line of the southwest corner a Southwest one-quarter of the section and see is the westerly quarter of the east-west center line of the the problem requirement is to calculate the bearings and distances of a B and C based on the retracement of the section and identify identify the methods used to determine the required bearings and

distances it is necessary to determine the positions of the west 1/16 section corner on the south boundary of the section and the center west 1/16 section corner the retracement situation which you are given is as shown the squares are recovered original corners coordinates were provided on the exam for each recovered corner but are not shown here the position of the West one-quarter section corner is established at the record bearing in distance from the thumb the recovered bearing tree what I’m going to present is the step by step procedures to use in determining the required lines this problem is included in the workbook along with the solution in its entirety the first step is to calculate the coordinates of the lost corner positions on the exterior boundary of section 14 of which there are two the southwest corner needs to be reestablished so that the position of the west 1/16 section corner on the south boundary of section 14 can be determined the north 1/4 section corner needs to be reestablished to control the direction of the north-south centerline of the section section lines were surveyed in all four directions from the Southwest section corner therefore the cornice of this position will be determined by double proportioning between the controlling corners the controlling corners for the double portion are the filled in squares once the coordinates of the south southwest corner have been calculated the north 1/4 corner is determined the cornice of the north 1/4 corner are calculated by single proportioning between the northeast and northwest corners of northwest section corners the filled in squares represent the controlling corners with the position of the north one quarter corner now calculated the positions of all four when quarter corners for the section are known the center lines of the section can now be determined the north-south centerline is a straight line between the South and North 1/4 corners the east-west center line is a straight line between the East and West 1/4 cross section corners the bearings and distances of both bottom lines are readily determined by inversing the coordinates of the appropriate when quarter-section corners the intersection of the two center lines is a position of the center 1/4 the position of both needed 16 corners can now be calculated as shown in this case the West 116th corner is a midpoint between the South one-quarter corner and the reestablish southwest corner the center west 1/16 is a midpoint between the west 1/4 corner and the center 1/4 and on the east west center line once the sixteenth corner 16 corners have been established the north-south centerline of the southwest corner can then be determined this centre line is a straight line between the two sixteenths the bearing and distance are calculated by inversing the coordinates of the sixteenth positions the Barisan distances of the other two lines needed for the problem solution can then be determined by inversing the coordinates between the pertinent corners now let’s discuss the final problem problem b3 from the 1990 exam was worth 16 points showing out of the two sketches provided by the problem the top sketch is compiled from compiled from geo plat and field notes dated July 26 1879 the lowest sketch shows the results of a field survey performed in January 1990 the first problem requirement is described to describe how you would reestablish the missing 1/4 corner monument position the 1990 survey recovered a black oak tree with scribing the black chalk black oak tree was 12 inches in diameter larger in 1990 than in 1879 the scribing was found about 6 inches deep into the tree which is why you would expect to find it based on the current and record diameters of the tree therefore it is apparent that in that an original black oak bearing tree was recovered the answer then is that the 1/4 corner would be reestablished at record bearing a distance from the recovered bearing tree which is north 40 degrees west 30 lengths the second problem requirement is to assume that in addition to the recovered black oh you found a blazed 18 inch living pine tree without visible scribing near the location called in the record notes for the 18 inch pine burning tree now how would you how would the missing 1/4 corner be established they further ask you to explain your answer the first thing to do is to examine this new evidence they’ve given us the Pinetree they asked us to assume found in 1990 is 18 inches the original field notes call for the pine tree to be 18 inches in 1879 there’s no visible scribing in 1990 I believe the answer that the examiners are looking for is that the missing 1/4 corner or missing 1/4 corner would be still be reestablished at record bearing and distance from the recovered 24 inch black oak bearing tree the 18 inch pine tree would be rejected because the 1990 diameter is the same as in 1879 but the tree is still alive and no scribing is visible ordinarily a pine tree usually grows significantly in diameter in 111

years as a word of caution regarding the 18 inch pine the original surveyors did make mistakes when writing up field notes it’s possible that the actual diameter measured by the original surveyor was significantly less than reported you should be certain that the pine recovered by the 1990 survey could not have existed in 1879 if in doubt the tree should be board to determine the age based on the Rings as I mentioned at the beginning of this video pass pls has problems on the else exam generally do not involve complex tricky or unusual situations don’t be overwhelmed by the entire problem at once break appeal that says problem in two parts where possible as we did in the first and second example LS problems which I presented be familiar with pillars has plss reference books like the manual so if you need guidance on a particular area you can quickly look it up the PLSS topics and procedures discussed in this video should provide a good foundation for the ls test however you should not rely solely on this video in your PLSS studies for the exam the pertinent portions of the 1973 manual such as chapters 5 & 6 should be read and understood there are also other advised readings on the PLSS which are mentioned in the workbook in closing I wish you success on the exam and your PLSS related activities you