Children and Young Adults in Poverty A Look at Race and Geography 11-17 -15

the broadcast is now starting all attendees are in listen-only mode hello my name is Christina Walker and I would like to welcome you all to the center for law and social policies webinar on children and young adults in poverty a look by race and geography for those of you who are not familiar with the center for law and social policy or class we are a non-profit anti-poverty organization that advocates for public policies that reduce poverty improve the lives of poor people and create ladders to economic security for all regardless of race gender or geography we target large scale opportunities to reform federal and state programs funding and service systems then work on the ground for effective implementation thank you all for joining us today before we begin I would like to quickly mention some housekeeping items regarding what you can expect over the duration of the webinar which we won our as you join the webinar your phone lines are automatically muted and will remain muted we will save time at the end of the webinar to take some questions from the audience in order to submit your questions please send them in via the chat box you can also let us know about technical issues you might be experiencing through the chat box the presentation and recording will be available after the webinar on our website ww-why org and please stay tuned for the release of our forthcoming brief in 2016 which will dive even deeper into the data we will be presenting on today next slide here’s a quick overview of the agenda for today’s webinar we will begin with an introduction and framing of the issue of children and young adults in poverty and then we’ll take a look at some of the national data then as we discuss we will discuss our analysis of state-level data in order to show how things may differ across the country and then we’ll hear from an advocate in Michigan regarding how she and her colleagues use data to help inform advocacy and policy development finally we’ll review some additional resources and leave time for some Q&A next slide and before handing things over to our first I would like to introduce you to all of our panelists providing the introduction and framing of the issue we are delighted to have Olivia golden who is the executive director here at class next I will provide an overview of the national data Stephanie Schmidt senior policy analyst on the child care and early education team and Keisha birds the director for the youth team will present on the findings and trends be found in the state-level data and finally we would like to extend our gratitude to Michelle Corey our guest presenter who is the vice president for programs and Michigan’s children Michigan’s children is a statewide nonprofit that works to identify opportunities to influence public policies on behalf of children who face the most challenges in school and life such as children from low-income families children of color and children youth and families served by the child welfare and juvenile justice system Michelle will be sharing with us her lessons from the field thank you again Michelle for being with us today finally all of our presenters would like to send a special thank-you to the research and communication assistants who assisted us with the data analysis and logistical support in order to make this webinar happen today many thanks go to randy hall clarence oko anissa mohan and emma pain and now i would like to turn it over to Olivia golden thank you so much Christina and good afternoon it’s wonderful to have a thousand and one people signed up for this webinar from 47 different states we’re very excited that you were all so eager to hear about children and young adults in poverty from the census bureau’s american community survey next slide please the idea behind this webinar is that every year in the fall the census bureau issues definitive data about poverty a national survey called the current population survey and then the American Community Survey with a lot of local detail and from our perspective at class this is an extraordinary opportunity to tell the story of poverty both nationally and close to home in the state’s it’s also a chance not just to

talk about poverty but to dispel myths like you’ll hear us talk a lot about how many poor children live with working adults to dispel the myths that poor families don’t work it’s also a chance to learn new things to look into the data and understand problems and needs more deeply and connect problems with solutions this year because it’s our first-ever of this kind of webinar it’s also a chance for us to learn from you we are very eager to get your input about within the large amount of data available what’s most useful to you we hope that we’ll have some chance to learn that from your questions during the session we hope you’ll write us afterwards and as you heard from Christina we will be following up with a paper which gives another another opportunity for us to take your insights into account as we decide where to go most deeply next slide please as you hear the presentation a number of themes will be prevalent throughout the first one which perhaps surprises many people is that growing up poor or near poor is typical not rare for America’s children and young adults and just a note about why we’re talking about children and young adults people often don’t put those categories together and actually it’s class first year of looking both at children and young adults 18 to 24 in one analysis our reason is that that whole age range really is crucial to the nation’s future what happens in childhood and an entry to careers is central to future success and so we’ve been looking at those groups together I mentioned that one of the themes you’ll see is that the myth of no work is not true people are working they just have low wages and not enough hours you’ll also see us talk about how among adults young adults are the poorest children are the poorest of all and you’ll see a very intensive focus on children of color in this analysis that’s not only because of fairness and equity it’s also because children of color will in fact be the majority of America’s children in just a few years so they’re high levels of poverty are a very great concern in terms of our future so now I want to give you a little bit of context about which states are growing fast and which have a out of poor children because that’s relevant to figuring out where we need to focus policy next slide please this slide reflects analysis by William fry from the Brookings Institution using the 2020 10 censuses and the reason we’ve put it in is for you to see that about half the states had fewer children in 2010 than a decade earlier and about half the states had more and if you look at those states in black and dark blue which are fast-growing States so the circumstances of children in those states are really relevant to the future those states are going to be even more important in coming years you see a concentration in the South the southwest and the web next slide please so this slide before we get into a detailed analysis of poverty rates of the share of children that are poor we wanted to give you a sense of the overall magnitude that of the 15 plus million children who are poor more than half of them live in the ten states listed here and a quarter of them live in the two biggest states California and Texas but I also wanted to highlight that if you look at the four states on this list from the South Texas Florida Georgia and North Carolina that also represents a quarter of today’s poor children and since all of those states were in the fast growing list it may well represent a larger share of tomorrow’s poor children next slide please so the policy seems we’re only going to be able to touch lightly on policy in this conversation but just to highlight that the thinking about the prevalence of poverty should not lead us to despair it should lead us to ambition one of the highlights in our analysis of the census data is to note that while they don’t show successes on everything there’s been a dramatic success in spreading health insurance to a record number of people so we can think about that analogy when we think about ambitious public policies in relation to poverty we think about a multi-faceted agenda not a single silver bullet we think about children and youth of color at the center of the agenda and we see state policy particularly in some of the region’s I’ve highlighted as central as well as federal policy so as you heard from Christina as you have questions please jot them down in the chat box as you go along no need to wait for the end we’re very excited to hear your input and now I’m going to turn the turn this back to Christina Walker for a look at the

national data thank you so much Olivia for providing us with that context so now we’re going to turn to take a look at some of the US data to provide an understanding of how children and young adults are currently faring overall before we take the more detailed look at the state-by-state data so as you’ll see in the graph children and young adults which we are defining young adults as eight ages 18 to 24 are worse off when comparing both the poverty and the low income rates to that of all Americans according to the most up-to-date 2014 data from the Census American Community Survey data almost half of our youngest children those under the age of six are living in low-income households and almost one in four young children are poor and in 2014 young adults have the highest poverty rate at almost twenty-five percent according to the ACS data which also means that one in four young adults are living in poverty finally all children under the age of 18 are close behind at twenty-two percent or one in five children living in poverty next slide and while the 2014 data shows that economic struggles are prevalent for children and young adults it is important to note as Olivia mentioned earlier that the overwhelming majority of children living in both poor and low-income households have at least one parent in the home who is working according to our analysis of American Community Survey three-year estimates from twenty eleven to twenty thirteen sixty-nine percent of children in poverty and eighty percent of children and low-income families have a parent who works and as you can see on this graph those rates are slightly higher for the pairs of our youngest children so many of these families are working yet still are unable to make ends meet next slide when the poverty data is broken down by race and ethnicity and by age we can see that there are actually some great disparities please note that the breakdowns by race and ethnicity on this graph as well as throughout this PowerPoint today are not exhaustive or more detailed due to the limitations of the current data set and the inability to analyze data when populations are too small so when looking at this graph it shows that the poverty rates for Hispanic American Indian Alaskan native and black or african-american populations is that twenty five percent or higher across all three age groups for our nation’s children one-third or more of the black Hispanic and American Indian Alaskan native children are living in poverty and the race are even higher for our youngest children black or african-american children are faring the worst with 38% living in poverty and the under six population for black or african-american children has an even higher rate at forty-three percent and as you can see on this graph for both children under six and old children there’s a large disparity between the group with the highest rate of poverty and with the lowest rate by about 30 percentage points for the young adult group however there’s a lot less disparity seen across the different races and ethnicities for instance while the Asian population living in poverty had the lowest rate for children at twelve percent you can see that for this age group for young adults it is spiked and as almost as high as the black and American Indian Alaskan native populations at thirty percent next slide please so as the demographics of the country change it’s really important to remember about children of immigrants which defined as children with at least one foreign-born parents that their a growing segment of our population and we hear a class strongly feel that no conversation about young children and young adults in poverty can be complete without their inclusion in the conversation a look at the 2014 data shows that 5.7 million young children were children of immigrants compare that to the number of children of immigrants in 1990 there were just about half that number at 2.9 million and according to the migration policy institute in 20 13 one quarter of all young children were children of immigrants and you can see that on this map here of the 2014 data that children of immigrants make up twenty percent or more of the young child population in twenty state which means that at least one out of every five children in those states are children of immigrants another key fact is that nationally ninety-six percent of children of immigrants are themselves citizens which means that these children are an integral part of our nation’s future next slide and the 2014 census data shows that thirty-one percent are almost one-third of children in poverty are children of immigrants and while being an immigrant or a child in an immigrant family is not itself a risk factor for poor developmental outcomes and many immigrant families demonstrate strong resilience children of immigrants disproportionately face a number of vulnerabilities for instance they are more likely to be poor have parents with low education levels or live in households where adults do not speak English many children of immigrants may also face a lack of parental time and

resources due to their parents low-wage or inflexible jobs high rates of parental or family stress and educational instability and access to lower quality schools these circumstances place young children of immigrants at higher risk for school failure or other developmental consequences but despite these risk factors immigrant families also possess important strengths such as the benefits bilingualism has shown to achieve for executive functions in low-income children so now that we have a general understanding of the national data we’d like to take a learn to looking at the state level data so I’m going to pass the presentation over to Stephanie Schmidt thank you Christina as a reminder please submit any questions you may have in the chat box on your screen as we have reserved time at the end of this call for questions and answers for this next set of slides we will look at poverty by state by individual race and ethnicity groups due to the limited amount of time for this webinar today we won’t be able to get to all of the groups but we have put together a number of maps and charts that will look at some of the most interesting data our forthcoming brief will provide a more detailed look across many more popular asians the following slides will showcase a number of heat map the heat maps will provide a visual representation of the percent of poverty of a particular group by utilizing color you’ll see in the maps that the scale ranges from green which will represent the lower poverty rates to yellow orange and then red which represents the highest poverty rates it is important to note that each map has a different scale as a result of the varying poverty ranges and levels of each race so the maps are not directly comparable to one another for example on one map the orange and red may signify poverty rates between twenty-five percent and thirty-five percent as that’s the highest poverty rate for that particular group and on another map it may signify rates between 47 and 71 percent the legends on the screen will indicate the scale and range should you have any questions as we go through the slides the next few slides will look at children under six and then children under 18 we focus on children as we know the early years of life are critical for young children’s long-term well-being children who are poor experience poor health higher incidence of developmental delays and learning disabilities and more hunger compared to their peers children born into poverty are also three times more likely to drop out of high school or become a teen parent and the longer a child lives in poverty the worse their adult outcomes these very children are the future workforce of our country and are critical to its success next slide this graph looks at poverty for all races by state overall in the United States the poverty rate for children under six is twenty four percent as you can see on the map this varies tremendously across the country you can also see that the highest rates of poverty for young children lie mostly in the south with a few high poverty states in the southwest in Midwest next slide this map looks specifically at rates of poverty for african-american children under six the national poverty rate for african-american children under six isn’t a lot terming 43-percent this varies tremendously across the country however most of the states with the highest poverty levels for young african-american children are in the South and Midwest 40 states have poverty rates for african-american children under six at or above thirty percent next slide while the national poverty rate for Hispanic children under six is lower than that of black children at thirty-four percent the range and variation is equally shocking with high rates among many states the poverty rate tops out at 51% in Tennessee for young children under six to our Hispanic while the highest rates of poverty for Hispanic children under six are in states in the South 41 states have poverty rates of thirty percent or above next slide please this slide looks at american indian/alaska native children under six living in poverty nationally the poverty rate for american indian/alaska native children under six is forty percent given the lower population of american indian/alaska native children in the united states generally we only looked at states with at least one thousand american indian/alaska native children as a result of the smaller population size and states even when a few american indian/alaska native children live in families in poverty in a particular state the percentages can escalate quickly the two charts on the screen show the top five states with the

highest percentage of poverty for this population and the top five states with the highest number of american indian/alaska native children under age six in poverty next slide please pulling this all together we see that poverty is highest for children under six across all race and ethnic groups compared to other age groups and while overarching poverty for the under six age group is highest in the Midwest and south the highest concentrations of regional poverty vary significantly by race next slide please now we will take a look at all children under 18 together you can see that for children under 18 the highest rates of poverty lion states in the South and Midwest the national poverty rate for all children under 18 is twenty-two percent on the state level this ranges from a low of thirteen percent in Wyoming to a high of thirty percent in New Mexico next slide please for African American or black children the national rate is thirty-nine percent which is lower than that of children under six but still very high again the poverty rates vary significantly across the states most of the states with the highest concentrations are in the South and Midwest however 40 states have poverty rates for African American children under 18 of thirty percent or higher next slide this map shows poverty rates by state for Hispanic children under 18 the national poverty rate for Hispanic children under 18 is thirty-two percent this varies dramatically with generally high percentages across the entire country indeed 37 states have poverty rates for Hispanic children under 18 at thirty percent or above next slide overall for children under 18 we find that while poverty rates are lower for the under-18 age group than for the under six age group there are many clusters of high poverty for this age range in the different race and ethnicity groups the South and Midwest continue to be regions of high poverty for this group as was true for children under six but we also find that many western states pop up as high poverty states for this age range for different populations where they did not for children under age six and now I’ll turn it over to Keisha bird to talk about young adults in poverty thank you Stephanie and as a reminder please remember to ask any questions that you may have using the chat box function so why young adults we know from the national data that far too many are poor and nationally one in for young adults a 20 to 24 or poor which translates to seven million young adults living in poverty we know that young adulthood is a crucial transition period in the life cycle when young adults who are doing well in their late teens and early 20s do well they continue to avoid difficulties in their later 20s and early 30s the poverty threatens the stability of young adults and can hinder and limit their access to education and employment pathways and supports that can lift them out of poverty this age group is also important as the national data shows that many are also parents and for those who are heads of households 4 and 10 a poor so understanding where poverty is prevalent and who is disproportionately poor in terms of race and ethnicity is critical to developing and targeting policies and strategies that can make a difference on this particular map once again we see that many young adults are living in poverty and 34 states have an overall poverty rate above national average at twenty four point eight percent our next chart compares the number of states group by poverty rates for each race you may notice that the total number of states as indicated by the height of each respective bar does not equal 51 including the District of Columbia this is due to the fact that the Census Bureau does not report data for states whose population of any given racial group is below a certain threshold nonetheless we can still observe significant trends across racial groups for young adults and poverty here we see that young adults of color experience higher poverty rates than their white counterparts for example I will make two comparisons between african-american young adults and white non-hispanic young adults for african-american young adults we see that there are just two

states with a poverty rate of under twenty percent and that is Marilyn and Hawaii 22 states have poverty rates for this population ranging from 30 to 40 percent well above the national average and six states have poverty rates of over forty percent for african-american young adults on the contrary for whites poverty rates for white young adults in nearly every state is comparable to or lower than the national average the national average of rate of poverty for white young adults is twenty two point seven percent it significantly will the national average and greatly below the poverty rate for african-americans which is 31.8 percent however we do see that in three states white young adults have poverty rates over thirty percent in montana washington DC and west virginia so for african-american young adults poverty in the states once again the overall national poverty rate for this population is 31.8 percent african-american young adult poverty is most prevalent in the midwest and south a trend we see with other age groups and those poverty rates are at thirty-eight percent and thirty-one percent respectively and 17 states have an african-american young adult poverty rate of over thirty three percent the most for any racial or ethnic category this slide shows that of the 1.6 million Latino Hispanic young adults nationally who are poor they are concentrated in five states California Texas New York Florida and Arizona it is important to note that in our earlier slide that Olivia shows that demonstrated the distribution of child poverty in the states we see that for Hispanic and Latino young adults Arizona New Jersey and Mexico are also in the top ten states instead of Georgia Ohio and Michigan Arizona New Mexico again are particularly important as we see those changing demographics in those states and their growth rates so poverty is pervasive among American Indian and Alaska Native young adults of the 37 states that report American Indian and Alaska Native poverty 31 of those states have a young adult poverty rates above the national average for young adults and American Indian and Alaska Native young adults have the highest poverty rate among racial groups at 30 2.7% we see from this slide that South Dakota’s poverty rate for this population of young adults is an unacceptable sixty-eight percent it’s the highest rate among any race or ethnicity in any state so taking a look at regional data again we see high poverty rates in the Midwest and itself for young adults as well in the Midwest among young people of color poverty rates are high among african-american Latino and Hispanic young adults American Indian and Alaska Native and Asian young adults and in the South young adult poverty is over twenty-five percent again the national average in nine feet across all racial and ethnic categories including white non-hispanic young adults with just two exceptions arkansas for American Indian and Alaska Natives and South Carolina for whites that concludes my section on loan young adults in poverty now I will turn it over to Michelle who will now share our organization uses data to inform advocacy and policy development and Michigan thanks Keisha and again don’t forget to use the chat box for any questions and comments we appreciate you doing that I’m again my name is Michelle Corey I work for Michigan’s children as was said earlier we are statewide independent non partisan advocacy group you can go ahead and go the next side and light class and many people on the webinar I’m sure we work hard to make sure the needs of the children youth and families in Michigan facing really the most challenges are fully considered when Michigan policymakers set priorities for

state and federal resources next slide we really appreciate our connections with clasp and our connections to many other state national networks we remember the partnership for Memphis children work closely with first focus our coach after lead and prevent child abuse America and you know lots of other networks like I’m sure lots of people are on the call we work from cradle to career agenda so we work on improving school readiness ensuring safety at home improving college and career readiness and supporting families through to generation strategies and again like many of you we work to connect the dots between the issues and connect the key issues with current policy conversations and priorities we do have an equity focus and I’ll talk about that a little bit more later but because of what we know about what changes public policy we clearly need and use data at every turn we all believe that public policy should be made based on the facts rather than rhetoric and conjecture and so data allows us to better understand issues and evidence solutions we know that the way to move policymakers is to engage people that they listened to and data allows us to build more strategic alliances clearly and we believe that broader participation in public discussions results in better policymaking and data also allows us to help communities speak more effectively for themselves next slide so what do we do with all this information there’s just such a great amount of information even given to us over the last several minutes so I’m going to talk a little bit more about kind of data-driven policy clearly data points to the most critical needs and areas of concern and really helps us more clearly define problems to be addressed it obviously points to where efforts have been successful or unsuccessful and most importantly I think whether they’ve been successful for everyone or whether they’ve been successful too for some or not others the data supports conversations about priority investments we can use a lot of what we just heard and without a deep policy dive we come to the wrong conclusions the data also improves our ability to connect to policymaker priorities so if we think about the poverty information that we just heard and as I think about it from a michigan perspective what do we need to know about poverty to build michigan solutions you know if we only knew poverty rates in general i think about you know what policy recommendations would that drive us to if we only knew poverty rates by geography what policy recommendations would that drive us to if we only understood the rates by age similarly if we only knew any of this information for one year another rather than multiple years over time what policy recommendations would that drive us to but when we understand all of those things we can look more closely at the impact of current poverty programming is it working for anyone so we look at our rates over time is it working for certain groups of people but not others so we look at the differences in geography in race in age and how can we use it to better invest to get reduced poverty so one example in Michigan as you look at our data due to our high rates of poverty and young adults and even higher rates of poverty for african-americans we could think we need to think about targeting investments and better crashing those investments so they’re working for the populations who aren’t served currently next slide I then to think about the importance of data overall one thing that we find and I’m sure you all find two is that policymakers need data but they really need a lot more than that they need to have good access to it and easy access to it they need to have some interpretation of it and they need to look at some comparators that exist in the data you know data by itself is not enough so there’s how we stand in the nation is critical it in terms of when we talk to Michigan policymakers it helps to understand in particular areas are we outliers and are we more typical to other states Great Lakes states other

things going on around the nation and we’re in other states do there appear to be more successes than we are having in our own state and looking at the kind of data across state the kind of interpretation in comparison that is available through clasp as an example of today our ways to be able to do that so as we stand in the nation you know then Michigan is last in the country for so many indicators for african-americans and understanding that is critical michigan with a poor showing for young adults you know again what states are faring better and what can we learn from that next slide so from our perspective equity is really the key to public sector work that the role of the public sector is entirely about equity and for public investments to work their impact on equity is really key so this is just an illustration it’s not about equality it’s about equity and to make sure that everybody has a chance to see the game and data is clearly essential for that next slide so if we have equity as our goal then we really need some deep data dives to build those equity based strategies data can illustrate as I said before that public investments can can do any number of things sometimes they rise all boats sometimes they close out come guests and our equitable strategies and sometimes they serve to increase the gaps because they work for some people and not for others and datas illustration of disparity and the in count the inputs and outcomes I’m really helps to make the case for targeted investments but really equally important can make the case for adjusting current strategies so that they are more about building equity sometimes policy is built intentionally to rise all boats or to closing some outcome gaps and sometimes the intention of public policy is very different than what the data shows and the outcomes and that’s essential to understand many programs are there’s a lots of examples many programs are intended to support different populations and being able to really tease out how those programs have supported the populations they’re intended to serve and how they have supported them equally or unequally is really important to understand and I’ll turn it back thanks Thank You Michelle for your insights and for sharing your work with us so now we want to turn to recommendations and again we don’t have much time to go into Ethan’s death but as you can see we need a national response that addresses both poverty and economic and security among America’s next generation and they’re sharp disparities and inequality that undercuts our future need to focus resources and attention on those who face the most barriers so youth families of color immigrant families and those whose opportunities are limited by pervasive poverty in their neighborhoods and communities as olivia mentioned there is still one single strategy that will solve this challenge but an effective response would build on policies that we know work strengthening the core income and work support program such as earned income tax credit and child tax credit improving the circumstances of low-wage work and expanding access to quality jobs building a strong foundation and a life for young children including quality childcare and two generation strategies that support parents in both working and raising children improving pathways to education and careers for low-income youth and adults and as we notice a great positive change in policy ensuring access to health and mental health treatment under the Affordable Care Act for all low-income individuals and families which in turn will help them to achieve work and career goals as noted earlier in the session one in four for young children and young adults are poor so taking a look at policy recommendations for two generation strategies we’d like to note two crucial powers of policy levers first child care and early learning a focus on child care

and Development Block Grant Act implementation right now represents an opportunity to rethink policies on the state level that impact the ability for children and their parents to succeed and investments in Head Start and Early Head Start inherently to generation programs are also key second workforce development and training a focus on workforce innovation and opportunity act leola implementation represents an opportunity for state and local communities to focus on pregnant and parenting king young adults up to age 24 who are also out of school use and to blend funding and strategies across system including panels for young parents so that young adults can get on a career path and lastly funding is crucial to ensure more young vulnerable children youth and young adults are able to access these vital programs so now I will turn it back over to Stephanie who will review class resources Thank You Stephanie Thank You Keisha finally we just want to highlight a few of the many clasp resources available on this topic following these resource slides we will have question and answer period where we will answer as many questions as we can get through in the time that remains based on the questions that were submitted through the chat box so please submit any remaining questions that you have at this time we also welcome any comments that you have via the chat box about next steps or what you think might be most useful as we move forward in this work first the class data finder the class data finder is a custom easy to use that a tool that provides select demographic information an administrative data on key programs that affect low-income people and families most all of the state-level data highlighted today can be accessed here at ww que se org backflash data next slide please another tool on the class website is in the States this tool provides a map that you can click through to access data fact sheets and briefs that are specific to a particular state this includes fact sheets on topics such as child care assistance head start panas and other state specific initiatives these resources can be accessed at the URL on the screen next slide please just a moment ago Keisha mentioned the sea CDBG reauthorization you can find many more resources on this topic on our web at ww que se org back /c cdbg these resources include detailed information on key provisions of the new law what is entailed in implementing it and how it will impact particular populations among many other valuable resources next slide Keisha also mentioned the workforce innovation and opportunity act or REO ax and we have many resources available on our website for this reauthorization to we call it our Rio a game plan it includes resources on state and local planning TANF and young adults performance measures and strategies to support educational and employment pathways for youth and young adults it can be found on our website at the URL listed on your screen and now I’ll turn it back to Keisha for our question and answer period Thank You Stephanie we have many questions that have come in and once again we want to remind you that we may not be able to get to all of your questions but we will use them as we do further analysis not only in our forthcoming brief but as we continue to dive deeply into this work our contact information is listed here and you can feel free to reach out to us should you have any further questions of data and analysis that we did not present on the session today so the first question I’m going to ask Olivia to to take olivia how does gender play into experiences of poverty in the US so that’s a great question which tells us something important about something we might delve into in our follow-up brief I’m guessing that the person who asked the question wasn’t thinking about the children under 18 because we’d all probably guess that their gender isn’t what affects their poverty it’s their parents circumstances but for young adults 18 to 24 we’ve done

some thinking at class but not a detailed analysis the issues that Michelle highlighted about how really you need a policy context to figure out what questions to ask our going in expectation is that there are substantial issues faced both by young women and by young man in this labor market and in the particularly young men and young women of color for young women being parents during that age range is likely to be a particular contributor to poverty for young men we’re expecting that disconnection in the school in school and work and of course the the risk of justice system involvement and of course the policy strategies that support both of them can then loop back and make a big difference to children so we’re anticipating I mean I think you’re highlighting that gives us a real reason to delve in a little deeper when we do the paper Thank You Olivia so we have a number of questions about how we were defining poverty and so Stephanie or Christina I’m going to you know turn it to you to explain how the census American Community Survey defines poverty hi this is Stephanie I’d be glad to enter to answer that question so we’re defining poverty in this presentation as at or above one-hundred percent of the poverty level and low-income as two hundred percent or twice the poverty level 4 2015 I believe the poverty level for a family of four is somewhere around 22 thousand dollars i can look that up right now thanks Tina I just wanted to add that that is irregardless or whether the family the parents and the family or any working adult in the family is working or not so we did have a slide about employment however what we wanted to make the point there was that most of the people who are living most of the children who are living in poverty you have at least one parent who is working although there are some cases where they’re not working for whatever the reason may be and just to add to that the poverty rate for a family of four and twenty fifteen is twenty four thousand two hundred and fifty dollars great thank you I’m Michelle so we had a question I’m probably referencing your slide about equity and equality I’m going to pull that slide back up could you say just a little more about that from your perspective as a state advocacy organization absolutely and it has to do with everything that we have talked about in terms of really what the role of public investment is and and what the role of public dollars need to be and so Michigan’s children’s perspective you can see on the equality side that it’s about providing everybody the same thing which then still leaves people not being able to see the game and on the equity site it’s about providing those who are the most challenged with the most resources to try to result in a more equitable outcome for all three people in that slide for us it has a lot to do with how to prioritize public investment and how to as it relates to this particular webinar how to really use data to better understand if indeed our strategies are working towards equality or if they’re working toward equity and there are there’s a lot of examples of that but I know we don’t have a whole lot of time I’d be also glad to talk to anybody I’m following about more about it if they would be interested Thank You Michelle that was very helpful so we got a question about white children living in poverty and as we noted in our presentation we didn’t focus on all the racial and ethnic groups but stephanie has just pulled up some data and so I’m going to turn it over you Stephanie to give us a sense of how white children are faring in poverty sure keisha so for white children and poverty as Keisha mentioned we didn’t include it in this analysis for this particular webinar due to our limited amount of time today because generally speaking white children are faring much better than some of the other populations that we highlighted today however poverty rates are still very high for this population so for young children under

six we find that poverty for children under age six white alone and this is white children who do not identify as Hispanic or Latino in 2014 the poverty level for the United States was 14.5 percent and that again ranges dramatically across the different states that we looked at and we can see on the state-by-state analysis that we did that that ranged from anywhere from a low of below ten percent to a high in the upper twenty percent with the highest percentage being around twenty six percent for a particular state and again we will go into more detail in our brief about this and also will highlight some of the difficulties with the data when it when you’re looking specifically at white children given how different populations choose to select their race given their ethnicity as well so there’s a lot of overlap between folks who identify as white and folks who identify as Hispanic or Latino but end up choosing white because of how the data forms are set up Thank You Stephanie so I’m going to this next question turn it over to our early care and education experts and so one of the questions was around policies that can affect this population Olivia mentioned Affordable Care Act in her opening remarks so what are examples of other national policies so if you guys start off with the early care and education piece I can talk about the importance of youth employment and education strategies either Stephanie or Christina hi yes this is Stephanie again one big opportunity in the child care and early education sphere is the reauthorization of the child care and Development Block Grant as Keisha briefly highlighted earlier in terms of policies that reauthorization happened in 2014 and really provides an opportunity for states to think about the policies that impact the low-income families who are trying to access childcare subsidies so that they are able to go to work states have a lot of flexibility under the sea CDBG law and really can think through and are currently thinking through ways to modify those within the reauthorization law to be able to better meet the needs of low-income families and as I mentioned there are a lot of resources available on our website for this particular reauthorization and the clasp focus here on the child care and early education team are working closely with States so if folks have particular questions about CDBG we would be very happy to work with you and talk offline hi and this is Christina there are other opportunities in terms of improving access to and the quality of our early childhood programs for instance that Head Start performance standards were recently there was a recent call for NPRM to get feedback on the update of the performance standards which will help improve will aim to improve access to children particularly for instance the children who are English learners as well as potentially the preschool development grants and the Early Head Start childcare partnerships which we also have a lot of information on our website about thank you Christina and so as we mentioned in our brief highlights of some policies and solutions at work for young adults is really important to invest in a career exposure and early work experience and opportunities for them to earn and learn and and get credentials as they progress through their careers and so we have also a lot of resources on our website our wheel a game plan for low income people that includes ways that you at the state and local level can get involved in state and local planning and what policies and guidance may work particularly for young people who are not attached to school and work and find themselves in poverty recommendations on the connections with panas and young adults and other strategies that we have documented that have been effective to support youth and young adults and in gaining education and employment pathways Olivia do you have any other examples in terms of income and work supports and other policies that would

greatly benefit this population children and their families yes I wanted to headline two things and you can find on our website some testimony that I’ve done before the Congress as well as a lot a number of other papers that outline the income and work supports agenda so the first thing I would say is that the big national safety net program snap which used to be food stamps the Earned Income Tax Credit the children’s tax credit have played an extremely important role in improving the lives of poor families and moving some of them out of poverty moving a lot out of poverty actually you technically how you measure that is complicated but when you do you see millions of people moved out of poverty as a result so protecting those programs in those states that continue to operate a substantial TANF program which is temporary assistance for needy families that’s important and we have some papers most recently on really concentrating on how that program can be an asset for parents with babies Stephanie who you just listened to and Elizabeth Lauer bashor co-authors of that but the second big seem so the safety net programs have done their part the problem is how bad the low-wage labor market has been for low-income people particularly for parents and so I know we have some questions about can it really be true that the rates of poverty are so high for kids including african-american kids and their parents are working and the answer is yes it is true people are working not just at low wages but for very intermittent hours these are jobs where you don’t necessarily get any guaranteed number of hours you your schedule is rigid and and frequently you have a baby you have no access to paid leave so I would just highlight that the set of policies around paid leave paid sick days minimum wage scheduling that are bubbling up around the country are also very important for young children and their parents Thank You Olivia and this one may may go to you and Michelle maybe from your perspective as a state level so the question is is poverty 11 lingfield for children or not a leveling field is the quest yet yes and so so that’s poverty determine you know where our young our chill for where our children they’re all end up yeah in life so from my perspective one of the reasons we’ve concentrated so intensely on children and young adults is that it’s deeply poverty is deeply damaging to children Stephanie and tisha both talk to you about some of the research the research both says that poverty in childhood particularly early childhood affects all kinds of adult outcomes income work finishing school health there’s much more evidence about health and they’re used to used to be and that happens by several routes it happens because parents stress associated with poverty affects parenting being just the fact that parents have trouble putting food on the table affects children of housing instability affects children and then it also happens by way of the public services that are available in poor neighborhoods and to poor people so that uneven access to health care uneven access to school so that’s the reason that we think that you need to intervene in a bunch of different ways you need to help improve income you need to improve stability for families and you need to make sure that poor children and young adults get access to education and opportunity for careers and you have to do all those things at once to me it’s not enough to say well we’ll only intervene with babies and we’re going to give up on this generation of young adults you have to think about those different kinds of interventions at once Thank You Olivia and um Michelle do you have anything to add in 60 seconds or less yeah I’m not sure there’s much to add to that that was really comprehensive I would only suggest again that the young adults who we may not be intervening with are the parents of the next generation of kids too so this idea of the cyclical space and the ability to really intervene in the next generation is critically important too and if I can add one more sentence Keisha I would just say that shock and indignation are very appropriate responses I think people often don’t understand just how prevalent poverty is among today’s children excellent point so as we all said throughout this session we will be producing a breeze in 2016 that will do

some deeper analysis of how child and youth and young adults poverty is checking out across the country and in particular regions and across different race and ethnic groups one of the questions was about specific programs and strategies that reduce poverty among these populations once again we encourage you to contact us we have a number of experts in many of the policy areas at class who can speak to you directly about programs across generations for individuals children youth and families so thank you for joining us today this concludes class web are on children and young adults in poverty a look by race and geography as mentioned earlier once again will be reducing producing a brief that will highlight additional information we encourage you to contact us via email and to look at the resources on our website so that we can see how the information that we provide is most helpful to you in your state and local communities as you provide opportunities for children and youth and young adults and their families have a great day