How to protect a racing driver during an impact?

Welcome, I’m glad to see so many eager faces here Education is the biggest racing safety problem we have We know how to protect drivers Drivers don’t know that they need it Hopefully from this presentation you’ll see why any racer needs protection One have covered my background a bit: I’m an engineer and I’ve worked with Doctors for over 40 years trying to understand how the body is injured and minimize injuries Injuries, when they occur, their treatments are medical problems but how they got created is actually an engineering problem It’s a failure of tissue That’s been my main research topic for all of these years In 1992, I got the chance to be a research manager in a program and talked about We’re the guys who put the black boxes in race cars We put them in Indy cars after we did a bit of analysis and realized that these are very severe crashes We’ve investigated using those boxes, over the first few years of the program, 600 crashes and we’ve learned a lot and that’s how we know how to protect drivers in other situations We’ve published all of this research, so that other people can have a further understanding and make advancements on I’m independent, I have no connection or any arrangement with any safety equipment manufacturer so I feel that I can give unbiased advice to anybody, manufacturer, driver or sanctionning body Now I’m going to inform you of what we have learned so that you can improve your protection We are going to do that by looking at what we have learnt from Indy car crashes, to show you what really happens in a crash and tell you how we took the IndyCar crash information and the research we did there, and applied it to the terminal problem that NASCAR had in 2000-2001 and now, it’s the safest racing car And we will show you test data that demonstrates how you can achieve this kind of protection in any racing car IndyCars, where we got into the business of looking at them, had the following driver protection features: 6 point harnesses, that’s rule number one 5 point harnesses aren’t good, OK? And you’ll hear this over and over 6 point harnesses are the way to go They have effective head impact padding and because the seat is the tub essentially in those cars there is a little bit of padding between you and the chassis It is a really strong support of your upper body, particularly laterally and that’s the key to survival in side impacts So we’ve got all of this information from actual crashes with real people from the crash recording and we’ve done a lot of testing to simulate that and, as I’ve indicated, the NASCAR national series is the best example of how we took these principles and applied them to a situation where most drivers were dying or getting severly hurt and basically minimize their injures to the point of a few concussions or occasionnal flailing injury What works to protect you? The first thing is your car structure That really gives you a space to survive in If that space is compromised and comes in on you, you are no longer protected and there is not a lot that we can do to protect you, if stuff comes in and gets you So having a strong chassis, roll cage and such is really important for your survival space The problem is that those structures, when you hit something, it proves to produce very high G-loads on your body and that has to be resisted by what you have, inside of the car to take advantage of the structure Now, what is a racing crash like? A lot of people say: “well, you know, those guys who crash at Talladega, they are going 200mph, or they’re going 230 at Indy Those are really bad crashes but you know I run in a short track, I only run at 60 or 70 mph on the straight way, I can’t crash hard.” Bologne! High speed ovals aren’t where you’ve got the hardest and severe crashes, it’s the short tracks that you do In fact – and I will explain this in a minute – the worst last speed change – that’s how we judge how severe a crash is in many ways – we’ve seen in a Indy car crash or a stock car crash is about 70 mph You can’t run straight into the wall on a super straight in a speedway: you run in a line

but on a short track, you can turn 90 degrees and find a wall real fast straight in The rule of thumb is that if you go 40 mph on a race track and you’re wearing double shoulder belts you will die if you don’t have a head and neck restraint if you find a wall 40 mph, and that’s all it takes If you look at Dale Earnhardt’s crash, that was a very minor looking crash, but you all know the outcome Here’s the deal: engineers talk about the center of gravity in a car and its motion That yellow vector is the actual speed of the car’s center of gravity Now it’s going towards the wall at 60 mph and along at 180 The crash velocity is the speed into the wall because the wall isn’t going to stop you as you go along it Here is an example of that That’s Jeff Andretti in 1992, that’s our second crash that we’ve investigated And I’m sure the commentator said: “He went straight into the wall” but it didn’t look like it, didn’t it? Well, that’s what these long lenses do when that happens Here’s another view of it and you swear he is going straight into the wall He is pointed at the wall but notice that he is coming down the track not a lot slower than the other guys We simulated that, so this is an animation really There’s a reason we do this you should see in a second So, we did it look just like those films, right? Now because we had the animation, we can look at it from any direction There’s the line of the motion of the car It was a straight line when he lost the wheel right to the wall At an angle, it demonstrated that when that while he was going along it, the wheel came off and yellow vector is the direction of the car’s motion and that’s the actual of the crash Here’s a helicopters view; we can look at anything once we’ve animated it You get the feeling this is a sweeping motion It’s just that the motion towards the wall got stopped and that’s the crash His feet were horribly smashed in that crash as that was most of the case Those were our first two crashes in the program We helped solve that problem right away We would say, they were averaging 55G’s in those crashes Here’s the speed into the wall: 63mph, 179mph along So the crash speed is that one into the wall That’s why we put crash recorders in, because the average 55G’s on their crash, we wondered what the peak was We really can’t find that from video but you can from a crash recorder IndyCars have this high level of protection, particularly in side and rear impacts They still get hurt in the frontal impacts sometimes but – and Terry Trammel has been working on that for years – the final solution is to get drivers to sit up more but they don’t like to do that, they like to lay down when they race In our investigation, the side impacts really got our attention This is just the peak G’s vs. just the case number Notice how many of them are above 60 G’s, all the way up over 120 G’s sideways and yet nobody got seriously hurt in those crashes That was good news to us This is a severe side impact crash That driver, Scott Goodyear, was knocked out and did have, I think, an ankle fracture But he came back next year and won that race The car bottled out because the tires were up its temp and he lost down force It feels really the kind of violence of it – That was his second spine fracture – Pardon? – That was spine fracture number 2 for him on that crash – Oh, he had a spine fracture there? – Just a little one – A little one But he did come back, didn’t he? – Under 3 months Here is the crash recording from that crash: First part of the vehicle, he hit the corner, when he lost it, with 80G’s and then the main pulse, 135G’s and a speed change of 60 mph We just couldn’t believe that people could take that, particularly sideways This is why, more than the head support, good pelvic support… – seats have always had that, right? – it’s the shoulder support that saved him from chest injuries And that is the new thing that we learned from the IndyCars: That’s importance of the shoulder in a seat to protect people If you don’t do that, there get chest injuries, neck injuries and all sorts of things Our rule of thumb is we can protect a driver up to 100G’s without severe injury

Critical factors for you to have: 6 point belts, good body support, head padding and control of head motion – we will talk about that in another slide later Seats are probably the one piece of racing safety that everybody ignore “Is this one a comfortable seat? Because it’s all what I care, or to be up in the corners.” Then you realize how important the seat is, in side impact in particular, and in all impacts When you’re buckling your belts up, you’re pulling yourself into the seat So it’s the other half of your belt restraint system You have to remember that That it has to stay there throughout the crash or your belts are going to go loose most racing crashes aren’t a single hit, bang boom bang and then a flip If your belts are loose now because your seat deformed, you’re in trouble for those extra hits So the seat has to stay there, and again, that’s the pelvis, the shoulder and the head A lot of guys like rib support seats for cornering and driving They’re a potential injury source We don’t like them If you want them, we will talk about that, they are to be as flimsy as possible just to hold you up in the corners, and straight, not curved Fireball Roberts had the right idea, in 1964 Look at it: he’s got shoulder support, pelvic support… I can’t believe it He was just doing that to stay up in the car because they ran production car seats back then and there was no side support back in 64 It has to stay in place in frontal crashes for good performance, provide total body support Virtually all seats used in racing except for NASCAR do not provide this support Here is Arie Luyendyk in an IROC crash Do you see where his head is? I took this picture; he had a “racing” seat, a classic aluminum racing seat, back in that crash Look at the head restraint part of it, bent right over. Gone! He didn’t get any protection from that Here’s our classic poster boy; this is Johnny Benson Watch this: he’s got head support, shoulders support, rib support, traditional aluminum racing seat it seems sort of moving around and the parts moving actually in the motion of the crash He leans away from the wall, don’t do that Look at the way those things, man… his goggles went out to window if you saw that Seat manufacturers said: “Yeah, well that bending out of the away absorbs energy” A little tiny bit but it didn’t stay there for now, he didn’t have any further action now on the track So he was OK and he actually didn’t get hurt on that Head and neck restraints are the only thing that we know to prevent basal skull fracture but none of them works flawlessly, regardless of what manufacturers might say None of them works sideways: your seat is your protection against basilar skull fracture in the side impact crashes and you need the head and the shoulders to amply give it to you Here’s J D McDuffie at Watkins Glenn Right side impact, heavy He’s dead right about here He just bled out from a basilar skull fracture Terrible injury And that’s what happens in basilar skull fracture: cuts blood vessels going to your brain and you bleed to death immediately The IndyCar body support areas are the long head pan, shoulder, and in such, the pelvis because of the way the car that protects you But most race drivers don’t sit like that, they sit more upright, their arms are bent most seats are an independent structure that you buy and put into the car They’re not built in like in IndyCar And most of them have a minimal lateral torso and head support And the seat, it’s up to the driver to buy so it’s your choice as to how you want to protect yourself And based on what we learnt in IndyCar, we now have a standard for the pads for any seat – SFI 45.2 -, we have a standard for the seats now – it’s recently in the last couple of years – to guarantee you’ve got a strong seat, performing like in IndyCar We now have aluminum and carbon fiber composite seats available Want to mention: the interior nets because they also pick up with this particular problem Now, in the more upright seating situation, These supports are shown there all of the critical areas

Here is a Hendrick SFI 39.1, which is a NASCAR standard seat Very strong seat but it is not cheap There is the side impact test at 70G’s with that seat Who bought it? Held it in place, absorbs the energy where it counts Here is a LaJoie 39.1 seat, an aluminum seat These seats are probably around $3,000 to 4,000; the Hendrick’s seat probably more; that’s pretty pricey ISP has one, notice all the supports there, about the same price range Kirkey has one that is a 39.1 that is about $2500 And there’s a second SFI standard which is not as restrictive and not as strong in terms of the forces but still has a very high force rating; this is a $1,500 seat, with that standard and will protect many drivers Features are: shoulder supports and rib supports should be straight up and down and point straight forward Other seats have curved or angled pieces for your shoulders… we don’t want to do that That standard prevents shoulders and chest injuries This is how you get a fracture of the clavicle You see how he was tackled with his arm pulled forward If your seat pushes your shoulder forward in a side impact, you will break your clavicle If it’s held back straight in the corner, it won’t break Road racing seats The FIA standard for seats is a 1999 standard Which is what a lot of seats are in road racing By law – the FIA law – you can’t attach the seat upper structure to the roll cage It’s ridiculous but that’s what they require You have to bolt it to the front ground, so you’re giving up support right there There’s a sled test; it’s a 15G’s sled test 15 G’s is racing, that’s rubbing fenders practically You saw this a little bit before: this is a FIA seat in a side impact Not much of a side impact as you’ll see in these next few That’s it? The driver died, the seat broke, basilar skull fracture That’s just… not right Most sports car racing seats do not have all this proper shoulder support The FIA does have a new standard for stronger seats but they are very expensive and I don’t know if they really have required and implemented them in FIA rulebooks There’re only, to my knowledge, 3 available seats for road racing which have this feature Racetech Dodge Viper competition coupe seat which is an about $2500 seat; very nice composite seat I helped Chrysler develop that for the Dodge Viper and it has been tested to 45G’s It does need a lateral net to get the support but it does have the right features Randy LaJoie is making a road race seat but a lot of road racers, they want carbon; I’ve advised Randy to paint them black He actually had a guy that could make it look like carbon but the guy who is out of business, so he doesn’t do that anymore Now Kirkey has a road racing seat that meets the SFI standards too so you can have good seats That’s about a $1,500 seat OK, now how does this all work? Drivers still crash just as hard or harder The difference is: we aren’t getting these serious injuries anymore It’s all due to the restraints systems that are the primary reason for that Here’s, a classic example, Erin Crocker, enduring a side impact and then she gets T boned, watch this See her slam and boom; she gets it Here you see she’s got a good aluminum seat, sparked with the net First hit, not 50G’s probably second hit, 50G’s the other way She’s fine She’s pissed And here’s something just about getting out of the car I leave this on just for a minute She’s get ready to get out Radio connector Apparently they did slip in on, so they taped it

You cant get silver tape off with gloves She can’t Now, if there would have been a fire that she would come down… who knows? You see that the radio cables were drawn with the drivers when they get out if there’s a fire OK she was very upset about that too OK, we had J D McDuffie Watch Jeff Fuller It’s just… you just hate to see that We found the spot on the track that was just perfectly awful Now that’s… every bit is severe in JD McDuffie’s crash or worse And yet… he was OK… he did have There was a 120G’s, 70 mph velocity change No serious head and neck injuries, might have been knocked out, I’m unsure He had some flailing injuries of the extremities, that you might expect and certainly could have been more severe than that That was a seat that wasn’t yet up to the SFI standards, that was a stronger seat but this happened before the standard has got put into force OK, so what about this interior net? You have this good seat, now; “Do you really need the interior net?” Ya, well Not all side impacts are pure lateral and you might get hit sideways after you had a frontal impact, and you may be way out of your seat In IndyCars, that wasn’t a problem because the support area goes all the way up the steering wheel A net can produce that same kind of protection for you This is a SAFER Barrier test in Nebraska It’s a 20 degree impact into the wall It’s got the THOR-NT dummy; it’s a very advanced dummy we’ll see a little bit more of that later It’s got a HANS® on, LaJoie seat, Simpson net 140 mph, 80 mph of velocity change, 50G peak decel, as it hits the SAFER barrier SAFER barriers are a wonderful device: see it deform, there It’s not protecting the car, here; it’s protecting the driver by lowering the G’s But it’s what we do inside, not the SAFER The SAFER Barrier alone would not have stoped those injuries that have been frequently occurring In-board, you see, here’s the net Now watch And, the net, it caught him from going around the head restraint That’s not as far forward as some of the head restraints are now Now they made this car roll because they’re looking at the roof top hatch, see that pair of louvring, sort of opening They wanted to see if they could pop open So they made the car roll as it came off for the impact, so it’s rolling now And you’ll see that we use the net again in a second A lot of stuff going on when you roll… and dirt And you off road guys know all about that… – Was that with the head and neck restraint? He had a head and neck restraint Which model? Oh there’s a lot of these things My rule of thumb is: in a crash, The crash works as a big magnet and you’re an iron filing And you’re going to get sucked towards the crash You saw how all of that has begun So the net is very useful in containing you They’re very low cost and they’re effective in side impacts They can make a cheap seat work They have to be placed properly; if you place it too low, your head will go over, if you put it too high, the neck will get the head into it in a side impact, and getting compressed You want it so you can turn, see over it And up from under the top strap through the Cg of your head, which is right about here Mounting them I noticed a lot of people that use them One, you don’t want a rigid mounting to the dash tube because the chassis can deform and it might unlatch, just at the wrong time But they run them in along wrong spot because they can only attach it to that tube nodding Now, you can use the sky bar You can run either a straping from the header tube or the dash tube and anchor it anywhere in space and you’ll see actually that in practice here in a second You can mount it anywhere, I would say if you get it just right It’s that what you want Here is an embedding regular Simpson net, Safecraft… and one trick is to make run it all the way around to the whole other side and catch it there, makes it hold tight faster than if it was just wrapped around the seat, which works too Now in Rallying and Off-Road, the nets are useful from preventing driver to co-driver contacts Because that is a source of injury in rallying and I’m sure you look Off-Road racing, where there are 2 people There’s a Off-Road seat by ISP; Innovative Safety Products and it’s got nets and a special cushioning that Kris Vangilder, the owner of that company has developed,

for vertical He’s done a lot of work with the monster truck guys who really jump, with those big jumps they take They were blowing through the suspension seats, breaking their racks Kris has got a cushion that goes in his seat and it solves that problem very nicely for all of the drivers, they really like it They do that intentionally, do this stuff every time they show off Low cost protection We would say: very well-priced You can have a low cost system: here is a flimsy aluminum seat, don’t do any good; the neck loads there would have been fatal That’s a side impact dummy that we’re using All we did was put a net on here and it works: the neck loads are significantly reduced That’s why you see those in SCCA, Grand Am and other places It was the only solution for the seats they were running They don’t have good seats This helps… and they’re cheap What happens to a race car driver in a crash? You got thess belts on, you can’t move – we’ve mentioned that, talked about that motion – There’s the big magnet and the iron filing analogy right there, you couldn’t believe This is one of our very first sled test; we had 45G’s, which was really something in sled testing back in the 90’s, when we started the racecar stuff We had not big crashes recording, they came a little later So we were running an IndyCar set up There it is tightly attached First thing that happens is: everything moves straight forward The legs are a third of your body mass, so they are pulling you forward with everything moving forward And, until the pelvis stops, you’re not going to load your shoulder belts, you’re just going to go under your belts That’s why 5-points don’t work, OK? You’ve got to stop the pelvis 6-points: the crotch belt’s running back behind the driver, which is what IndyCar have, stops the pelvis Now we’ve just stopped the pelvis Now we go forward and stop the shoulders; that’s when this deadly force occurs that breaks the base of your skull It’s a flick of your head at that point, when the shoulder belts stop your shoulders By the time you get all the way forward, if you don’t have a head or neck restraint on, you’re maybe dead Chest injuries were very common in stock cars with 5-point belts IndyCars use 6-point and we never saw a chest or rib injury, Terry I think we still, except in some weird cases but we’ve not really seen a chest injury from the belt system in IndyCar to this day Is that right? Terry? Chest injuries in IndyCar with belts, we’ve just really haven’t see it Yes, I don’t think we have had one, I would say in the last 10 years or so Yes, it just doesn’t happen And the difference is pelvic restraint: you have to stop the pelvis first and then, you get your shoulders under the belt, as a shoulder belt If your weight, with the 5-points, slide under – this has happened to NASCAR drivers – once it stops, you come up into your belts and it hits you right in chest Chest should never be loaded and when it is, break it up You break clavicals, sternums, ribs 5-point now if you run the fifth point straight back, that would work But nobody is going to do that You know what’s going to happen OK, the 6-point is the way to go But in fact, it is the real answer to people that developped the very first one, they run all the way back if you notice there They significantly reduce chest deflection in the test dummy, which is what we use to judge the threat injury to the chest It actually reduces the neck tensions a little bit, but not enough to save your life Here is a plot of chest compression, the only difference in this test was the 5-point belts vs the 6-point The green line shows an over 2 inches deflection of the chest That’s with the 5-point But with the 6-point, it was less than an inch Every time we run that test, that’s what we get Very simple! Here is a 6-point formula style camlock from Simpson Here is one that we developed with them and any manufacturer can make this It’s just made out of the bits and pieces from a latch and link system but it gives a similar arrangement to the belts, for the 6-point

For those of you that run on dirt, this is a good solution It’s called a DSL system It’s relatively inexpensive and it can be made in a 7-point form as I’ll mention in a minute Schroth has an interesting way to do the crotch belts, rather than the formula style: An anchor goes with the shoulder belts and anchors with the lap belts and that’s a very nice fitting piece too We like 7-point belts, really and emphasizing that on NASCAR now That’s a 6-point belt with the fifth point back Why did we do that? Well, when you run the 6-point belts under you, that means they aren’t going to hold you down much if you roll And that was one of the complaints about 6-point belts Well, in IndyCar, that’s not a problem because they lay down and their lap belt is actually vertical It’s what hold your pelvis down So, when you put that fifth point back in there, so when you roll, it keeps you down in the cockpit Turns out making tightening your belts easier too You just pull tight and you don’t pull the belt system up over your pelvis and your gut like you do That’s one of the downsides of the 6-point is you can pull it up into your gut if you don’t have the cross straps tight That way, the whole system stays tight because you’re pulling against that 7th point Don Taylor made this draft 2 years ago and I still use it. He did a very nice job There’s the 7-point arrangement That’s the Schroth system, here: the Hybrid system with a seventh point Here’s a test of the 7-point system with Denny Hamlin at Watkins Glen in 2012 Things happen, even to the best of us Hamlin sailed into the wall there as you see He found a bad place to hit the wall: There’s a tire barrier and the Armco, but right behind it, it was a catch fence attaching so he got a concrete node right in the middle you can see what it did to the car He had a 7-point system You can see the 7th point there, sticking up, in front, in this carbon seat And he was fine We use this to prove that a 7-point isn’t going to hurt you It’s not like the old 5-point, you’re not going to get to it because your crotch belts will hold all this back, and you won’t squeeze anything or in that situation 9-point belts Oh my god, this guy is going crazy! Turns out, a lot of NASCAR guys have been using the double shoulder belts It came from Formula 1 It was developed because drivers were accelerating so hard that they were sliding up the seat They wanted a belt that was anchored down lower but if you anchor your belts low, then they don’t work well in front crash So they started using 2 belts: one on the body, anchored low and then the other one on top, that goes over the HANS And it turns out it makes the HANS work quicker with the belts come together if it’s right in front with the HANS And so, here’s the arrangement You can see the top down here and the other one is under the body, mounted down low, and the two of them come together right down in here, right in front of the HANS So as the driver goes forward, the HANS is trapped in the tightness of the sewing, which is what you see here That’s a 70G’s SFI test So, for roll over again – if that’s something you’re really concerned about – making that body belt and having it anchored like 30° down for rolling and then the other belt which goes over the HANS in straight path, that’s for crashing forward; it works very well All your belts should be as short as possible and as straight path as possible and have good clearance through the seat If you move in a crash and if the hole around your belt is right against the belt, It defeats the belt’s ability to carry the tension, it could cause affect Make sure the whole of the seat has adequate clearance, this particularly on sides Lap belt anchoring now For years, every manufacturer have had different specifications We now have a uniform noding guide from SFI that all manufacturers have agreed too So thank goodness, for those of you who are scruitineers, tech people, now there’s only one way to do the belts, not 40 different ideas SFI 16.5 belts They are the belts to use

16.1 was the orginal standard, that was all the 5-point belts, all the nylon belts 16.5 was developed at NASCAR’s request It’s polyester belts And they have the same strength and stiffness wether they are 2-inch or 3-inch because most people don’t have bodies that a 3-inch belt fits particularly down on the pelvis Nobody knows that with the nylon belts because they bunch up right down there But unless you’re a really really big guy or girl, your pelvis isn’t that tall and when you sit down, you get uncomfortable because when they went to polyester, which is a stiffer built material, the drivers were complaining: “I’m all red down there and those belts are really bothering me” That’s because the belts are too tall 2-inch belts will fit you better and fit is key for good protection The pressures under the belts are equal and we proved that with a research we did at Wayne State And we think you get better performance from your system if it fits you tighter, that’s 2-inch belts This is a light chart, diagram of belt pressure and you’ll see In relation to summation up higher up on the shoulder 2 and 3, you only get about 2-inches of area of support, whether it’s 3 or 2 Notice that the 3’s, how you get the edges are high pressure but the centers aren’t carrying pressure That’s why you can’t fit an awkward body properly Use 6 or 7 points, don’t use 5 points Use 2-inch if you can get them, for best fit, SFI 16.5 It’s got some other features that makes your belt better and crotch-belts should be anchored as far back as possible Now we’ve just taken care of restraining your torso Unfortunately, we didn’t do anything for your head and that’s the modern race car problem Here’s a 15G human volunteer test run by the Navy Watch what happens That’s 15G’s, guys and girls You can’t hold your head up above 8G’s Race car drivers say: “I’ve got strong neck muscles; It’s not going to hurt me” Here it is at real time See the violence of the event These guys have trained, these guys have ridden the sled It was a contest to see who could hold their body up better and longer but nobody got past 8G’s before they started doing that stuff And so he knew it was coming this was not an accident Now we all know what happened in 2000 and 2001 with a straight of crashes They all had one very similar factor, that is: it was a right front/side impact right front corner And what was happening is: In stock cars, because the driver has the steering wheel back like this, that was saving their lives from crashes, from this deadly injury of basal skull fracture In those crashes, they missed the steering wheel and that’s why they died Dale Earnhart, Adam Petty, all of them had a right front corner hit and they had basal skull fracture or a high cervical spine tension failure The estimated – since we didn’t have crash recorders in those cars – The estimated severity was of the order of 40 to 50 mph of velocity change and of 40 to 70 peak G’s So if you go 40mph and find a wall, you could die, even with shoulder belts on but you haven’t got a head and neck restraint on Here’s that time when you witness injury occurs The reason your neck muscles don’t help is because they will protect your head But all of the forces go to the base of the skull and that, you have no control over it You don’t know how thick your skull is people have survived this: Ernie Irvan had a thick enough skull that he got a basilar skull fracture and he didn’t die from it They got to him quickly I don’t know how they stopped the bleeding because you can’t put a turban around somebody’s neck; It isn’t going to work but they stopped it and it must’ve not been a severe fracture because he must have had a pretty thick skull with sort of a computes when you talk about squirving a nerve ending the way he drove but in any of them, you can’t be sure with what you’ve got in terms of basilar skull fracture I guess you could do a CAT scan now to find it out but I think the answer is head and neck restraint OK, and a lot of people have been trying to do head and neck restraints

There’s only one system to date has proven to be effective in real crashes up to 140G’s We had an IndyCar driver with a HANS on, he had a 140G’s frontal crash, no problem whatsoever He broke his ankles, not because of intrusion like I showed you with the Jeff Andretti crash but at 140G’s, your legs are pretty heavy, pushing on the pedals and it broke his ankle The crush tube gets to the pedals, not beyond them So, that was his only injury I talked to him, met him at the next race and he said his neck wasn’t even sore after that crash It’s used world wide and it does have sliding tethers now which makes it virtually invisible to the driver when he’s turning his head There it is, we all know it you see so many people hop out of the car, the champion jumps out of the cockpit, he’s got it on Here’s some tests we conducted at Wayne state It’s a 53G crash – 35 mph velocity change – it’s got much people have seen – It’s got the THOR-NT dummy which is a much more flexible dummy than the traditional crash test dummy First test – no head/neck restraint, second with HANS® Here we go He’s basically looking backwards at the end of this test, OK? Because this is more severe than that volunteer we saw Here we are with the HANS you see the lock up, pulled the head Bingo! No problem But you see how far forward he went with the 53Gs So you do move forward with the crashes -“Was the helmet deformed there?” – It might have a little bit Yeah, they do. They’re flexible Here’s an example of the same thing happening, a HANS working right… there! And you can’t see it quite but his head locks up And there, you see it? The head hadn’t gone very far forward, did it? There’s a still from that Do you see how far forward his head went? That’s all You want to keep all your body parts moving together The Hutchens Hybrid and Hybrid Pro are also an option There are only 2 devices that are approved by NASCAR for use, the HANS and the Hutchens Hybrid / Hybrid Pro And I would recommend those are the only 2 you should consider We look at much more thoroughly than just looking at the test from SFI, which is a good test but it doesn’t feed out all sorts of strange inventions Really, the problem is this, the HANS people have a wonderful patent that protects having the straps coming straight forward from back So, all these guys have to come up an angle, and to try to get something that works And the Hybrid Pro does but they don’t work as good as straps straight ahead Just like you know you shouldn’t have your shoulder belts down to keep you if you’re going forward so why would you think that straps that are comming up at an angle are going to keep your head from going forward? It’s just a tough job for them Like I say, there is really only one device, the Hybrid device, that manages that What about neck collars? People wear neck collars in racing They actually make your neck tension higher if you don’t have a head and neck restraint It just slides up your head and neck It adds some weight to the weight of your head and your neck But you can use them if you put them underneath a HANS or a Hybrid You can wear one of those foam colars with one of these head and neck restraints for the side to side bouncing if that’s a problem for you Ease your neck muscle strain Low cost protection A set of 16.5 belts, 38.1 headneck restraint, a low cost aluminum seat with nets, it’s somewhere between $1,500 and $2,000 You can have this system that will work pretty darn well in any situation How many weeks can you afford to be out of work or, as Terry explained it out, paying the ER? Now, we talked about this earlier, in the talk about fire: getting out of the car You should practice getting out with all your gear on, all the time, everytime Here’s Bill Elliot in practice at Daytona Now watch, this is unusual; most NASCAR drivers don’t do this He’s going to get out of the car He’s got everything on: HANS, helmet, the whole thing

everytime he got in and out of the car, he had all of this equipment on because that makes it a second nature when you have got to get out fast In fact Le Mans requires that you can get out of the driver’s side in 7 seconds and through the passenger’s door in 9 seconds with these closed cars that they were running Here, what you’re going to do is practice Because, as Terry said, You have got to know where you are going And you’re going to do it with your eyes closed How fast can you get out the other side? Because the left side may be up against a wall or something and then you can’t get out Practice, practice, practice Now, in addition to your helmet, your head/neck restraint, other hardware the flexibility of your driving suit may be a significant factor So, make sure you wear your driving suit and, maybe you want to get a very flexible driving suit to help you to get out quickly Practice, practice, practice! We’ve learned a lot from the IndyCar, we’ve applied it to the NASCAR Here’s an example of a success story OK, so here’s a lot of rolling: about 13 strike downs after heavy 170 mph, that was a big crash This guy is big, he’s 6’2″ Over 200 pounds They helped him out, he’s fine He had 2 inch belts on Everything worked OK, this is a famous crash But where it gets really interesting on record here, so it’s important it’s Danica at Daytona in 2012, not this year An heavy crash, right front corner, in a deadly direction This is the driver’s eye view Frightening thing to see as a driver SAFER barrier did its job, but this crash is more severe with the SAFER barrier than the ones that killed those drivers, back in 2000-2001 – Watch her hands! – Watch what she does with her hands Let go of the steering wheel See how the motion was? Very well controlled Just leave them off. And that was a big comment to take both of her hands off the steering wheel She learned that from IndyCar because the kickback there is really severe It will break your wrist Jimmy Johnson, in a race where he crashed, did the same thing, he learnt He’s a quick learner He did the same thing that did Danica OK, here’s sort of exactly what we want to see when the bad things happen This is Paludo, in a truck race He’s got the net down We will see another view of it here and realize how severe this crash is This is slowed down and at a little more of an angle in an angle that you can see Man, he really got whacked Look at that car fly through the air! The SAFER barrier again was working harder on that one It was what he had inside that saved his life They get some very very hard crashes on these There he is, heading to home That’s what we want to see And that’s the staff, here, that are replacing the SAFER barrier – We have time for 2 or 3 questions but I want to start with one: There are off-road people here today and John, you talked a lot about IndyCar, NASCAR and you did show the off road seat but are these same principles requires on seats and all that pretty much well true for off-road vehicles as well? – I believe so The only issue is: if you have a seat that can move up and down then you need to have your belts attached to that seat

On the Hendrick seat that I showed you, lap belts are attached to that seat, not to the rollcage So you have belts integrated into the seat, so they go up and down with you, so the belts stay tight As soon as you do that, you’ve got to have that seat – and whatever it’s going up and down on – constructed strongly enough to take a crash So, I don’t think anybody is doing that out there yet But you’re going to need some pretty strong supports for the seat to move up and down on, so if there is a crash sideways or forwards it stays in place If they don’t have one now, I’m sure you guys can develop them If you’ve developed the suspension systems that you run, which are amazing systems, to run across the rough terrain like you do, you can do this too That is what you need If you’re moving up and down inside your belts Then, in a crash, if you’re going to move in your belts and you’re not going to get anything out of it – John let me get you to off road race Which are the possible harness? It’s critical to mount everything right We did give a talk to SCORE, I mean, years ago – about 3-4 years ago And they had an example of truck there and as soon as I saw the belt on the guy, I freaked “No, come on, you don’t just tack it on with a tack weld and things like that” We’re talking big forces here In one of these seats Do you know what the SFI standard is for the head? It’s 2000 pounds and it can’t deflect more than half an inch Shoulders: 3000, Pelvis: 4000 lbs That’s the kind of loads we are talking about here Not tiny loads, we’re talking tons And if your structure hold that system you bought together is not to that, you’re going to be in trouble with it – There’s still a quick comment, I know from the Off-Road folks, I see a fair number of referrals for spine problems in Off-Road races Real simple solutions that you can get in your car: branches, 1.7lbs EPP foam, and it stops We’ve proven it, we know it, we will get on in the Indy cars, because they fly and land in the bottoms It’s a common problem But it’s together 3 inches – I think that’s what Kris Vangilder was probably using in his ISP seat too with them Like I said, it has been tested, but on a regular basis wheareas they are monster truck guys – Yes, Doctor, I wanted to ask you about a ratchet system seat belt, have you tested that? – No, and as far as I know, no ratchet belt manufacturer has run a sled test I concern wether it’s well in crash worthy In a crash, would it be let loose? The last thing you want is a loose belt I don’t know why you would need a ratchet The adjusters of a good set of belts work pretty easily and they should have the adjuster in an area where you can easily pull in Adjusters were a big deal after Dale Earnhardt crash: NASCAR banned lap belt adjusters on the left side because Earnhardt was pulling on that adjuster and pulled on an angle and when you do that with an adjuster, when you pull it on an angle, you get the belt twisted and that bar of the adjuster will eat right through the belt Under load, it almost cut the belt in half It didn’t, but it did come close in that test One of the things with 16.5, when we started looking at belts these belts came from a military spec Aircraft belts is where they came from Military spec has a minimum of entries of requirement on all the hardware then they got lost somewhere and the manufacturers ignored it That adjuster part that looks like a knurl rod, that was like a saw They would not it was like what you’d buy when grinding metal 16.5 has a minimum radius spec Got rid of that stuff We received belts almost cut by the hardware No, not a good thing So a 16.5 belt, you should be able to tighten it without needing any excess of tightness Belts don’t have to cut your circulation off, they just need to fit your body well And placing anchorage correctly and such, and have an easily adjustable point is the way to do it – One more question – John, I know this question was asked last year it really wasn’t a clear answer on it but why does NASCAR still refuse to use right side nets? – Right side nets? It’s up to the drivers They can. They feel what they have done The rule is that the head support has to be even with the front of the helmet on the right side

And they feel that that is catching the drivers well enough Drivers can use them Carl edwards, my buddy, as long as he was running aluminum seats, he always ran a net But we’ve seen the nets drop off because the experience is that they can get around the seat But you know that those seats are much better forward than a lot of people use – Thank you – I have one question: What happens after a crash? When you have a crash, what do you do with your belts? What do you do with your seat? Well, you send the belts and any of your equipment back to the manufacturer to have them evaluated Helmets manufacturers will do that, the belt manufacturers as well, – the reputable ones at least And the seat manufacturers, yep will check the seat out and say: “No you can’t use this again” or “OK, you can, it’s allright” You can’t make that judgment yourself